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ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES 



OF 



THE COUNTIES 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF WALES 



CONTAINING 

A RECORD OF ALL RANKS OF THE GENTRY, THEIR LINEAGE, ALLIANCES, APPOINTMENTS, 
ARMORIAL ENSIGNS, AND RESIDENCES, WITH MANY 



gjtdent IJefcUjms attb memorials 0f <$J& antr (Spinet Jfamrlws ; 



ACCOMPANIED BY BRIEF NOTICES OF THE HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, PHYSICAL FEATURES, 

CHIEF ESTATES, GEOLOGY, AND INDUSTRY OF EACH COUNTY ; 

ROLLS OF HIGH SHERIFFS FROM THE BEGINNING; MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT; 

MAGISTRATES OF BOROUGHS, 

ETC., ETC. 



ALL COMPILED By DIRECT VISITATION OF THE COUNTIES, AND FROM RELIABLE AND 

ORIGINAL SOURCES. 



ffl&itfj numerous Illustrations on Moot* from $l)otograpFjs. 
BY THOMAS NICHOLAS, M.A., PH.D., F.G.S., &c. 

Author of " The Pedigree of the English People," &c. 

VOL. I. 



LONDON : 

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND CO., 
PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1872. 




994215 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY J. AND W. RIDER, 
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



-7 I 

M " 
v/. I 



PREFACE. 



THE present work may be considered in the light of a NEW VISITATION OF 
WALES, conducted, not under the auspices or authority of the College of Arms, but 
in obedience to a frequently expressed desire that a more complete and faithful 
account than existed should be provided of the great families of the Principality, 
combining as far as possible ancient with modern times. 

The plan of the work, as far as known, has no precedent. It has been sought 
to give, 

1. The County its chief physical features ; its ancient and mediaeval annals ; 
its past life, as reflected in its Old and Extinct Families, great men, and its roll of 
High Sheriffs, &c. 

2. The Families of the County as now existing their lineage, dignities, 
alliances, and public services ; their connection with the past, as shown by their 
pedigrees and escutcheons, &c. 

The effort has been made to present each county, as far as possible, from its 
earliest known history rejecting all legend and romance as in a sense a unity. 
Although all counties, as counties, are comparatively recent, the districts of which 
they are composed have for many hundred years been in the main under the 
governance of a few great historic families, and have in one sense or other had a 
common vitality and interest. At the same time, in treating of the local, it has 
been necessary to bear in mind its organic relation to the general and imperial. 
The fragmentary annals of the counties, therefore, while giving what is of imme- 
diate local interest, when put together constitute an outline History of Wales. 

In accumulating the information embodied in the following pages, a large 
outlay of time and personal labour has been required. The whole country has 
been actually visited. Descriptions and accounts have been given from personal 
inspection ; facts, dates, names, have been obtained from the documents or direct 
testimony of the Families recorded. 

The prosecution of the undertaking has been made pleasant by the kind readi- 
ness with which families have rendered essential aid. The editor's experience, 
and that of his coadjutors, in this visitation has been very different from that of 
Lewys Dwnn, Deputy Herald of the College of Arms, who traversed Wales with a 
similar object in the time of Elizabeth, and who, along with genealogical treasures 
which are now of great value in tracing the Family History of the Principality, has 
left on record the following characteristic and curious complaint : 



vi PREFACE. 

" Two obstructions stood in my way. . . . First, the hurry of gentlemen to leave home 
allowing me no proper time to do my work ; secondly, some of the gentry were so miserly 
that, unless paid, they would grant me neither food nor lodgment; and having at last 
taken down everything as they wished, I had to make my way to some more liberal 
gentleman's house, if to be found, and if not, to the nearest tavern as best I could, while 
my companion would sometimes be angry with me for carrying on my back the lineage of 
ungainly misers. For all this God gave me the hope that to such mean persons a liberal 
son or daughter would succeed. Behold ! true is the proverb, ' The miser shall not carry 
a sword; the liberal shall not fail of praise' (Ni lynn kledd ar gybydd : ni chyll hael ei 



We, on the contrary, have to return grateful thanks for the most polite and 
hospitable reception, and for prompt and laborious co-operation in researches 
into the past and present history of families, as far as the object of our under- 
taking required. For aid so essential, and so gracefully given, we have endeavoured 
to make the return of a faithful and judicious account, and shall seek in future 
editions to maintain accuracy and amplify information, as the directions and 
requests of those concerned may suggest. 

It is scarcely necessary to combat the unreasonable prejudice which some enter- 
tain against "Welsh pedigrees." It is an imported sentiment, and based on 
ignorance. Our English fellow-subjects are not prejudiced against their own 
pedigrees ; they often display anxious solicitude for an ancient descent, and the 
highest families are satisfied if they can trace to a Norman origin, although it is 
difficult to perceive what exceptional credit a " Norman " ancestry could secure, even 
if such ancestry could be ascertained. The truth is that the Conqueror himself 
was not only a bastard and tyrant, but more of a Celt than Norman, and that 
most of his adventurer companions were of Gallic or Celtic rather than of Norman 
origin. But apart from this ethnological view of the question, it is patent that the 
science of genealogy in England stands at a great disadvantage as compared with 
its condition in Wales. We speak not of heraldry, but strictly of the study and 
knowledge of lineage. 

The abundance of genealogical records found among the Welsh has exposed 
them to the charge of uncritical credulity and extravagant assumption. The 
practice of recording and of multiplying copies of pedigrees should, on the contrary, 
protect them from such a charge. The fact is that genealogy amongst the ancient 
Welsh, was a study intertwined with the whole of their social life, and an element in 
their law of property ; and from this circumstance the natural history of the Welsh- 
man's predilection for the practice is clearly and rationally traceable. By law a 
man held rank and claimed property "by kin and descent." He must show his 
lineage through nine generations to be a free Cymro and holder of land. " A person 
past the ninth descent formed a new Pen Cenedyl, or head of a family. Every 
family was represented by its elder, and these elders from every family were dele- 



PREFACE. vii 

gated to the national council." Genealogy was in this sense a constituent in the 
social and political life of the Cymry before the time of Howel the Good, and its 
position was confirmed by his revised code. 

It is clear that under such regulations as to rank and property, the greatest care 
would be exercised to preserve an accurate knowledge of pedigree. Hence the 
appointment of public officials called anvydd-feirdd, " heraldic bards," whose duty 
it was to register arms and pedigrees. In later times the great houses had their 
family bards and genealogists, who on occasions of state and ceremonial recited the 
descent of the lord of the house, attended at births, marriages, &c., of persons of 
rank, to record the facts. A " gentleman " among the Welsh was called gwr bon- 
heddig, " a man with ancestors," or with a pedigree, i. e., a man whose ancestry was 
duly recorded and of legal effect. On the death of a proprietor, the family bard 
pronounced his eulogium, detailing his honourable descent and worthy actions, and 
this document, duly registered, after a month from the day of the funeral was 
brought out and read before the assembled relations in the great hall of the 
mansion, who by their acquiescence in its accuracy gave it the requisite authority 
for preservation among the family archives. (See Meyrick's Introd., Herald. Visit, 
of Wales.) 

The mere mention of such long-established national customs is sufficient to 
explain and justify the prominence given to genealogy amongst the families of 
Wales. The order and authority of the custom also favours belief in the general 
accuracy of its results. 

The editor remembers the time when he had doubts himself respecting the value 
of our pedigrees, and is not even now insensible to the need of caution and scrutiny 
in their reception ; but experience has led to a large qualification of his scepticism. 
The careful inspection of voluminous ancient documents, originating from different 
quarters, but containing matters in common, and the collation of lineages which 
were but copies or recensions made at wide intervals from originals or other copies, 
have convinced him that in early times great care must have been exercised in the 
production and transmission of such records ; and that although not free from 
occasional errors, they possess a general accuracy quite sufficient to convey 
substantial truth. He certainly sees no reason for questioning the reliability of 
Welsh pedigrees in the main, which would not apply at least with equal cogency to 
the lineage, e.g., of Scotchmen who trace to the Hamiltons, Gordons, and Douglases, 
or of the English who manage to trace to the Roll of Battle Abbey. 

Some have an affectation of depreciating all pedigrees and all pride of ancestry 
and antiquity. Such weakness is pardonable in those whose ancestry brings them 
scanty credit, or whose degeneracy is a reproach to their more distinguished pre- 
decessors, but it is a weakness seldom betraying itself beyond these limits. To 
human nature it belongs to respect antiquity and value ancestry. An old family, 
like a seer, tree, or mansion, wins veneration by its mere age as well as by 
other and possibly higher qualities ; and the oft-repeated saying of Sir Thomas 



viii PREFACE. 

Overbury, that " the man who has only the excellence of his ancestry to boast 
of resembles that edible root, the potato, the best part being under ground," 
strictly true in its first and proper intention, is obliged to be garbled and distorted 
Avhen quoted in depreciation of pedigrees as such. Wales is a country of old 
annals, old customs, and old families, as well as old rocks and mountains, and the 
Welshman may ask his countrymen, with as much reason as Cicero had in asking 
his own, 

' ' Quern non moveat clarissimis monumentis testata consignataque Antiquitas ? " 

But whatever drawbacks and qualifications may be allowed on this point, it 
stands patent that the aristocracy of Wales have an ancestry which for antiquity and 
position need fear no comparison with others. A large proportion can trace back 
much beyond the age of the Norman Conquest, and there begin or finish their 
lineage, not with adventurer knights, but with the natural lords and princes of the 
land, whose gentility may be naturally supposed to be of immemorial age. This need 
not be argued, for none but the ignorant or hypercritical will dispute it. The artificial 
settlement of five Royal Tribes of Wales in the twelfth century, and of fifteen 
Noble Tribes of North Wales about the same time, may or may not be strictly 
reliable : the antiquity of the septs is not the question involved, but simply their 
relative dignity. Gruffydd ap Cynan, Rhys ap Tewdwr, and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, 
all princes of Wales and authors of this settlement, are quite as historical names as 
William the Bastard, Edward the Confessor, and Knut the Great ; and they were 
presumably in possession of sufficient knowledge and judgment to determine 
according to fact the relative merits of men of their time as heads of chief families, 
according to the known custom of their country. But whether so or not, or whether 
they made such settlement or not, the system of authoritative registration of 
pedigrees which prevailed in Wales, and which would be deemed sufficient 
evidence in the history of Greece, Rome, Germany, or England, is a guarantee of 
the basis of antiquity upon which our Welsh genealogies rest ; and upon this 
basis a very large proportion of the Welsh gentry found a lineage which, not 
without allowable pride, they hand down to those who come after them, 

"Nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis." 

The position of the gentry of Wales is one of some peculiarity of interest. In 
no country did great families in past ages hold to the general population a 
relation more nearly approaching the paternal and patriarchal. In feudal times 
the lord and the vassal in Wales, under the influence of the warmth of temperament 
and disposition to personal attachment and clanship by which the Celt is marked, 
were more like co-partners in the family estate than servant and master. The 
deference to rank which marks this people to the present day is a reflection of the 
time when their kings were demigods, and their warriors were followed to the 
death as prophet chiefs. Times and institutions alter ; social relationships, tenure 



PREFACE. ix 

of land may alter ; but the temperament and tendencies of a race are immortal, 
and its traditions nearly so. No middle- class population, no peasant population, is 
more free and independent in feeling, more moral, well-ordered, and hence strong, 
than that of Wales at the present time ; but neither personal liberty, a potent and 
enthusiastic spirit of religion, nor consciousness of power from numbers and 
growing intelligence, has cut off the Welshman from his ancient moorings of respect 
for the owner of the land, the heir of the great house, the traditions and prejudices 
of his forefathers. The landlord in Wales has only one thing to do to be what his 
ancestors were as leaders and fathers in the land, he has only to show himself the 
people's FRIEND. If he is a Welshman, and is a Welshman to the core ; or if an 
Englishman, is as much a Cymro as he can be, in feeling and sympathy and interest, 
and knows how to govern by guiding arid not by coercing, no squire or lord had 
ever easier or happier lot if a man's lot is to be estimated not by the length of his 
rent-roll, but from the higher considerations of social duty discharged, social 
influence for good, and enjoyment of the respect and attachment of his neighbours 
and dependents. Happily, there are no diverse faiths in Wales as walls of separation. 
The differences existing are ecclesiastical, not religious, on the surface, not in the 
substance ; and these very differences, by being recognised and not ignored, 
respected and not assailed, may be turned to a favourable account in cementing 
the friendship of classes. Vulgar priestly assumption, proud aristocratic intolerance, 
disintegrate society and church alike ; but a teaching and winning ministry, and 
a paternal and kindly gentry, have seldom failed in bringing into substantial unity 
the social body. 

The editor has gratefully to acknowledge aid from several friends of antiquarian 
literature, who by the loan of rare and valuable books, MSS., and documents, and by 
suggestions, and even in a few cases by not a little expenditure of time, have facilitated 
his labours. His thanks are due to the Right Hon. Lady Llanover ; Sir 
Richard B. W. Bulkeley, Bart. ; W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth ; Capt. Love 
Jones-Parry, M.P., F.S.A., of Madryn Castle ; Sir Llewelyn Turner, of Carnarvon; 
Joseph Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., of Brecon; William Rees, Esq., of Tonn ; G. T. Clark, 
Esq., of Dowlais ; J. Coke Fowler, Esq., of the Knoll ; Col. G. Grant Francis, F.S.A., 
of Swansea ; Edward Breese, Esq., of Portmadoc ; D. R. Jenkins, Esq., of the 
Priory, Cardigan ; E. R. Morris, Esq., of Welshpool ; Morris C.Jones, Esq., F.S.A., 
of Liverpool ; and the Rev. Chancellor Allen, of Castlemartin. 

London, March i, 1872. T. N. 



THE ARMS OF WALES. 



THE Arms of Wales emblazoned on the cover and Frontispiece are the same as those given in the Heraldic 
Visitations of Wales, by Lewys Dwnn. They were drawn, but without blazon, by Camden, and are preserved 
in the British Museum. The earliest coeval document in which they are mentioned, says Meyrick, is the Life 
of Foulques Fitz Warren, of the time of Henry III., in the British Museum, which also omits the blazon. In 
the College of Arms, 2 G. 4, is a representation of quarterings appertaining to Queen Elizabeth, sketched in 
her time, and here the Arms of Wales are given as "Quarterly, gules and or, four lions passant guardant 
counterchanged." In the Harleian Library, British Museum, is a MS., No. 6096, of the same date, wherein 
the arms appear in like manner. So also in No. 6085 of the Harleian, and L. 14 in the Heralds' College, 
as well as in an emblazoned MS. by Sir William Segur, dedicated to James I. in the library at Goodrich 
Court. Hence the arms of Wales have been thus emblazoned here, in a shield placed on a ground of the Tudor 
colours, as was customary in the days of Elizabeth, and the feathers with their motto, and the crown of the 
Principality, added on the authority of the seals of Edward IV., and Arthur, son of Henry VII., given in the 
2Oth vol. of the Arch&ologia, Enderbie, in his Cambria Triumpkans, assigns these arms to Rhodri the Great, 
Prince of all Wales, on the authority of Mills in his Catalogue of Honour, and continues them to his 
descendants. But the practice of ' ' quartering " arms was not known in the time of Rhodri the Great. It is 
to be noted that in the quartered arms of Llewelyn the Great, when Prince of all Wales, the lion was 
passant, as drawn by Camden. 



NOTICE. 

Although the greatest care has been i/sed to secure accuracy in the following pages, it is 
scarcely to be hoped that amid such a multiplicity of minute details some errors hare not crept 
in. Whenever mistakes, however trifling, are detected, if families will kindly communicate 
them to the EDITOR, care of the PUBLISHERS, they shall be carefully noted, and rectified 
in the next issue. 



XI 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



IT is right that testimony should be borne to the extreme excellence of the photographs of Mr. F. 
BEDFORD, of London (supplied through Messrs. Catherall and Prichard, of Chester), which have been largely 
used in this work, and also of those of Mr. J. OWEN, of Newtown. A few by Mr. ALLEN have also been 
placed at our service. The name of the photographer, wherever known, is given. 

The drawing and engraving have been done mainly by J. C. GRIFFITHS and W. J. WATSON, who have in 
a large proportion of cases succeeded in producing excellent effect. The remainder of the views are by 
J. SWAIN, J. W. WHIMPER, R. A. CHEFFINS, NICHOLLS, COLEMAN, BIRKET FOSTER, &c. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



A.D.C . Aide-de-camp. 

Adj. Adjutant. 

b. Born. 

B.A. Bachelor of Arts. 

Bart. Baronet. 

B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Laws. 

B.D. Bachelor of Divinity. 

C.B. Companion of the Bath. 

Chr. Ch. Christ Church (College). 

Co. County. 

Coll. College. 

Cr. Creation or Created (of a title). 

d. Died. 

dau. Daughter. 

D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Laws. 

D.L. Deputy Lieutenant. 

d. s. p. Died without issue. 

ed. Educated. 

F.G. S. Fellow of the Geological Society. 

F.I. A Fellow of the Institute of Architects. 

F.S.A. Fellow of the Antiquarian Society. 

F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical 

Society. 

F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society. 
F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 
G.C.B. Grand Cross of the Bath. 
grad. Graduated. 

H.E.I.C. Honourable East India Company. 
Heir pres. Heir presumptive. 



H.M.S. Her Majesty's Ship. 

Hon. Honourable. 

H.R.H. His or Her Royal Highness. 

J.P. Justice of the Peace. 

K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath. 

K.G. Knight of the Garter. 

K. H. Knight of Hanover. 

K. M. Knight of Malta. 

K. P. Knight of St. Patrick. 

K. T. Knight of the Thistle. ' 

LL.B. Bachelor of Laws. 

LL.D. Doctor of Laws. 

Lord Lieut. Lord Lieutenant. 

m. Married. 

M. A. Master of Arts. 

M.D. Doctor of Medicine. 

M.P. Member of Parliament. 

P.C. Privy Councillor. 

Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy. 

Q.C. Queen's Counsel. 

R.A. Royal Artillery. 

R.E. Royal Engineers. 

R.N. Royal Navy. 

Rt. Hon. Right Honourable. 

R.V.R. Royal Volunteer Rifles. 

s. Succeeded (to estates or title). 

S.F.G. Scots Fusilier Guards. 

unm. Unmarried. 

V. C. Victoria Cross. 



Xll 




HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN AND ROYAL FAMILY. 



VICTORIA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its dependencies, Empress of 
India, &c., &c., the first of the name of Victoria of these realms, is descended from Ernest Augustus, Elector 
of Hanover, of the illustrious house of Guelph, from the Kings of France and Dukes of Normandy, the Kings 
of Scotland, and the Kings of Wales. 

HER MAJESTY is the only child of His Royal Highness the late Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and 
Strathern in Great Britain, and Earl of Dublin in Ireland, K.G. (d. Jan. 23, 1820), fourth son of His 
Majesty George III., and of the Princess Victoria Mary Louisa (d. March 16, 1861), dau. of Francis Frederick, 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld, and sister of the late King Leopold I., of Belgium. Her Majesty was b. at 
Kensington Palace, May 24, 1819 ; s. to the throne on the demise of her uncle, King William the Fourth, June 20, 
1837 ; was crownedst Westminster Abbey, June 28, 1838 ; ;., Feb. 10, 1840, to her cousin, His Royal Highness 
Prince Francis ALBERT Augustus Charles Emanuel, Duke of Saxony, Prince of Coburg and Gotha, who was b. 
Aug. 26, 1819, and d, Dec. 14, 1861. By him Her Majesty has issue, 

1. VICTORIA ADELAIDE MARY LOUISA, Princess Royal, b. Nov. 21, 1840 ; m. Jan. 25, 1858, to His Royal 
Highness Frederick William Nicholas Charles, Crown Prince of Prussia, now Prince Imperial of Germany, and 
has issue three sons and four daughters. 

2. ALBERT EDWARD, Prince of Wales (see p. xiv). 

3. ALICE MAUD MARY, b. April 25, 1843 ; ;., July i, 1862, H.R.H. Prince Louis of Hesse, K.G., 
nephew of Louis III., Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, and has issue. 

4. ALFRED ERNEST ALBERT, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince of the United Kingdom, Earl of Kent, K.G., 
K.T., &c., b. at Windsor Castle, August 6, 1844 ; entered the Euryalus as midshipman August 31, 1858 ; 
became Lieutenant 1863 ; Captain 1866 ; was appointed to the command of the Galatea 1867. 

Residence: Clarence House, St. James's, S.W. 

5. HELENA AUGUSTA VICTORIA, b. May 25, 1846 ; m., July 5, 1866, to Prince Frederick Christian Charles 
Augustus of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg, K.G., a Major-General in the British Army, and 
lias issue. 

Residence : Frogmore House, Windsor. 

6. LOUISE CAROLINE ALBERTA, b March 18, 1848. 

7. ARTHUR WILLIAM PATRICK ALBERT, K.G.,K.P., Prince of the United Kingdom, and of Coburg and 
Gotha, b. May I, 1850 ; entered the Royal Artillery 1868. 

8. LEOPOLD GEORGE DUNCAN ALBERT, Prince of the United Kingdom, and of Coburg and Gotha, Duke 
of Saxony, K.G. , b. April 7, 1853. 

9. BEATRICE MARY VICTORIA FEODORE, b. April 14, 1857. 

Residences : Windsor Castle, Berks ; Osborne House, Isle of Wight ; Balmoral, Scotland ; Bucking- 
ham Palace, S.W. ; St. James's Palace, S.W. 

The Royal Arms : Quarterly : ist and 4th, gu., 3 lions passant guardant in pale or ENGLAND ; 2nd, 
or, a lion rampant, with a double tressure flory counter flory, gules SCOTLAND ; 3rd, azure, a harp or, 
stringed argent IRELAND : the whole encircled with the Garter. 

Crest : Upon the royal helmet the imperial crown proper, thereon a lion statant guardant or, imperially 
crowned proper. 

Supporters : Dexter, a lion rampant guardant or, crowned as the crest ; sinister, a unicorn argent, armed, 
crined, and unguled or, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses pattees and fleurs-de-lis, a chain 
affixed thereto, passing between the fore-legs, and reflexed over the back, of the last. 



Xlll 




WITH the other royal lines uniting in the person of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, that of the 
princes and kings of Wales in the line of RHODRI THE GREAT (who d. A.D. 876, during the Danish invasions), 
and that of the royal line of TUDOR, are as follows : 

QUEEN VICTORIA, daughter and only child of 

PRINCE EDWARD, Duke of Kent, fourth son of 

KING GEORGE III., son of Prince' Frederick, son of 

KING GEORGE II., son of 

KING GEORGE I., son of 

ERNEST AUGUSTUS, Elector of Hanover, by 

vSoPHiA, daughter of Frederick, Elector Palatine, and 

ELIZABETH, daughter of 

KING JAMES I., son of Lord Darnley and 

MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS, daughter of 

KING JAMES V. of Scotland, son of 

KING JAMES IV. of Scotland, by the 

PRINCESS MARGARET, daughter of 

KING HENRY VII. of England, first of the TUDOR line, by the 

PRINCESS ELIZABETH, daughter of 

KING EDWARD IV., eldest son of Richard, Duke of York, son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, by 

ANNE MORTIMER, daughter and heiress of 

ROGER MORTIMER, Earl of March, son of Edmund, Earl of March, by 

PHILIPPA, dau. and sole heir of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the third son of EDWARD III. Edmund, 

Earl of March, was grandson of 

ROGER MORTIMER, ist Earl of March of his family, who was great grandson of 
GWLADYS, wife of the Lord Marcher, Ralph Mortimer, and daughter of 
PRINCE LLEWELYN AP IORWERTH (the Great), of North Wales, son of 
IORWERTH (or EDWARD) DRWYNDWN, eldest son of 
OWAIN GWYNEDD, Prince of North Wales (d. 1169), son of 
GRUFFYDD AP CYNAN (d. 1137), 6th in descent from 
ANARAWD, Prince of North Wales (excluding Powys), eldest son of 
RHODRI THE GREAT, at first ruler of North Wales, then king of all Wales (d. A.D. 876). 



XIV 




THE PRINCE OF WALES. 

(HEIR APPARENT.) 



ALBERT EDWARD, Prince of Wales, Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Saxony, Duke of 
Cornwall, Earl of Chester, &c. ; K.G., G.C.B., K.T., K.P., eldest son and second child of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria and his late Royal Highness, Albert, Prince Consort, was born at Buckingham Palace, Nov. 9, 
1841 ; married, March 10, 1863, Her Royal Highness the Princess Alexandra Caroline Mary Charlotte Louisa 
Julia, eldest daughter of Christian IX., King of Denmark, and has issue, 

1. Albert Victor Christian Edward, b. Jan. 8, 1864. 

2. George Frederick Ernest Albert, b. June 3, 1865. 

3. Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar, b. Feb. 20, 1867. 

4. Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary, b. July 6, 1868. 

5. Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria, b. Nov. 26, 1869. 

Residences: Marlborough House, S.W. ; Sandringham, Norfolk. 

Arms : The royal arms, a label of three points arg. for a difference, and in the centre an escutcheon 
of the royal arms of Saxony. 

Crest: Out of a coronet of fleurs de lis and crosses pattees, three ostrich feathers arg., bearing the badge 
Ich Dien, " I serve." This was the crest of the King of Bohemia, assumed by the Black Prince on the 
field of Crecy A.D. 1346, and has continued ever since the crest of the Princes of Wales. It has no con- 
nection with the story of Edward I. and Carnarvon Castle. 

Supporters : Same as in royal arms, and a label of 3 points arg. for difference. 



ORDER OF PRECEDENCY. 



MEN. 

THE SOVEREIGN. 

THE PRINCE OF WALES. 

Younger sons of the Sovereign. 

Grandsons of the Sovereign. 

Brothers of the Sovereign. 

The Sovereign's uncles. 

The Sovereign's nephews. 

The Sovereign's cousins. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Archbishop of York. 



WOMEN. 

THE QUEEN. 

THE PRINCESS OF WALES. 

Other Princesses, daughters of the Sovereign. 

Wives of the Sovereign's sons other than the eldest. 

Granddaughters of the Sovereign. 

Wives of the Sovereign's grandsons. 

The Sovereign's sisters, and brothers' wives. 

The Sovereign's aunt, and uncles' wives. 

The Sovereign's nieces, and nephews' wives. 

Wives of Dukes of the blood royal. 

Duchesses. 



XV 



MEN. 

The Archbps. of Dublin and Armagh. 
The Lord High Treasurer the Premier. 
The Lord President of the Privy Council. 

The Lord Privy Seal. 

The Lord Great Chamberlain. 

Lord High Constable. 

The Earl Marshal. 

Lord High Admiral. 

Lord Steward of the Household. 

Lord Chamberlain of the Household. 

The Secretaries of State. 

Dukes, according to their patents. 

Marquesses, according to their patents. 

Duke's eldest sons. 

Earls, according to their patents. 

Eldest sons of Marquesses. 

Younger sons of Dukes. 
Viscounts, according to their patents. 

Eldest sons of Earls. 

Younger sons of Marquesses. 

Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester. 

Other Bishops of England, ace. to seniority of consecr. 

Bishops of Meath and Kildare. Other Irish Bishops. 

Barons, according to their patents. 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal. 

Treasurer of the Household. 
Comptroller of the Household. 

Master of the Horse. 

Vice-Chamberlain of the Household. 

Secretaries of State under the Degree of Baron. 

Eldest sons of Earls. 

Eldest sons of Viscounts. Eldest sons of Barons. 

Knights of the Most Noble Orders of the Garter, the 

Thistle, and St. Patrick. 

Privy Councillors. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. 

Master of the Rolls. 

Lord Chief Justice of Common Pleas. 

Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

The Lords Justices of the Courts of Appeal. 

Vice-Chancellors. 
Judges of the Court of Queen's Bench, and Judges of 

the Court of Common Pleas. 
Commissioners in Bankruptcy. The Judge Ordinary. 

Judge of the Court of Probate. 

Bannerets made by the Sovereign in person. 

Viscounts' younger sons. Barons' younger sons. 

Baronets. 

Bannerets not made by the Sovereign in person. 

Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath, of St. Michael 

and St. George, and of the Star of India. 

Knights Commanders of the Bath. 

Knights. Knights Companions of the Bath. 

Esquires. Gentlemen. 



WOMEN. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes of the blood Royal. 

Marchionesses. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes. 
Daughters of Dukes. 

Countesses. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Marquesses. 

Daughters of Marquesses. 
Wives of the younger sons of Dukes. 

Viscountesses. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Earls. 

Daughters of Earls. 
Wives of the younger sons of Marquesses. 

Baronesses. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts. 

Daughters of Viscounts. 

Wives of the younger sons of Earls. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Barons. 

Daughters of Barons. 

Wives of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of Knights Bannerets. 

Maids of Honour. 

Wives of the younger sons of Viscounts. 
Wives of the younger sons of Barons. 

Wives of Baronets. 

Wives of Knights of Grand Crosses of the Bath. 
Wives of Knights of St. Michael and St. George. 

Wives of Kts. Com. of the Bath. 
Wives of Kts. Commanders of St. Michael and 

St. George. 
Wives of Companions of St. Michael and St. George. 

Wives of Knights Bachelors. 

Wives of Companions of the Bath. 

Wives of Companions of St. Michael and 

St. George. 

Wives of the eldest sons of younger sons of Peers. 

Daughters of the younger sons of Peers. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Baronets. 

Daughters of Baronets. 
Wives of eldest sons of Bannerets. 

Daughters of Bannerets. 
Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Garter. 

Daughters of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Bath, of 

St. Michael and St. George, and 

of the Star of India. 

Daughters of Knights of the Bath, &c. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights. 

Daughters of Knights. 

Wives of the younger sons of younger sons of Peers. 

Wives of younger sons of Baronets. 

Wives of younger sons of Bannerets. 

Wives of younger sons of Knights of the Bath, of 

St. Michael and St. George. 
Wives of the younger sons of Knights. 

Wives of Esquires. 
Wives of Gentlemen. 



AN N AL S 



COUNTIES AND COUNTY FAMILIES OF WALES. 



ANGLESEY 

(MON). 

ANGLESEY, an island, was first created a county by the Statute of Rhuddlan, at the conquest 
by Edward I. Before that time it had either formed a separate lordship or princedom by 
itself, or, as was more generally the case, a portion of the princedom or kingdom of 
Gwynedd, or N. Wales, or such part of that region as the ruler for the time being was 
powerful enough to keep under one government. 

SECTION I. HISTORY OF THE NAME. 

The name Anglesey, although Saxon of so high antiquity as to be pre-English, is, of 
course, not coeval with the Saxon conquest of Britain ; for it was long before the German 
subjugation of the Cymric race in South and Central Britain rolled its wave of influence so 
far as Gwynedd and Mon. So far as is known, the one name by which this island was 
designated in pre-Roman times was Mon a name, the precise signification of which has 
never been satisfactorily determined, but a name which the native race has continued to 
use for at least twenty centuries. The island bore this designation in the Celtic speech in 
common with that other island now, by a slight modification, called the Isle of Man the 
latter being often distinguished by the addition of aw, water : Monaw, the Mon in the 
water, or standing out in the sea. It has been said by some that Mon, in the British, 
signifies separate, alone (related to the Greek /uoroc, alone, solitary (whence the word 
" monk "), and is thus a suitable epithet for an island. Man, it is true, is a classic root, but 
it can scarcely be pronounced Celtic ; and it might reasonably be argued against its 
applicability in this case even admitting that it may, at one time or other, have been a 
Cymric or Gaelic word that probably, at no very distant date, Mon was not an island at 
all, but was connected with the main land of Ar-von of the truth of which conjecture there 
are various geological indications ; and it might also be added that even now it is not 
separate, solitary, or alone, in the emphatic sense in which an island like Man, fifteen miles 
in mid-channel, is solitary. 

B 



2 ANGLESEY. 

Separated only by the narrow strait of the Menai, said, by tradition, not many ages ago 
to have been fordable, Mon was a near and intimate companion of Arfon. The words of 
old Lambard respecting the Strait of Menai are worthy of notice when he says, that in early 
times " it was to be waded over on foote between that and the mayne land, wherby that 
seamethe the more likely whiche Paulus Jovius writethe of it, saying that it was somtyme 
part of the continent, and was by rage of sea (like to Scicilie) rent therefroe, as, by a bridge 
that dothe yet somtyme appeare, doth seme manifest." At the same time it must be 
confessed that philology offers no better derivation for the name. Rowlands (Mono, Antiq.\ 
supposing the first settlers to have entered the island from the Carnarvonshire side, and 
finding Anglesey to be the furthermost land that way, imagines it natural that they should 
call \\. y fon Ynys, the hindermost island; or y fon Wlad, the lowermost country. This is 
Rowlands' fancy, and, like many of his ingenious derivations, too far-fetched to be reliable. 

The island was sometimes called " Yr Ynys dowell," the dark or gloomy island. This 
name was appropriate, as Rowlands thinks, because its surface was covered with shady 
groves of oak, frequented and venerated by the Druids, who, he says, had here their chief 
haunt and government. There are here three gratuitous assumptions : first, that the 
epithet originated in the gloom of forests or groves ; second, that the Druids worshipped in 
groves ; third, that Mon was their principal and central seat. The meteorology of Britain 
was in those distant times much what it is at present ; certainly the uncultivated state of the 
country would be as encouraging to mist and humidity as its present condition is, and the 
epithet dowell, dark, gloomy, might be owing to the bleak and comfortless appearance 
of the island, with its frequent sea mists and marshy exhalations, as much as to any other 
conceivable cause. That Anglesey was ever so generally and grandly darkened with the oak 
as to be named, from that circumstance, " the dark island," is most unlikely. It is quite 
conceivable that when the Romans first arrived they beheld a picture of sterility and 
cheerlessness far surpassing what industry and tillage have prepared for the modern 
beholder. The margin of the straits, with better shelter and deeper soil, the only part 
at present well wooded, was probably the only part where the Druid groves of oak flourished 
in ancient times. That Anglesey was by pre-eminence the seat and home of the Druids is 
not borne out by any historic testimony we possess. All we know is that they were there in 
great numbers when Suetonius crossed the straits, put the priests to the sword, and cut 
down the groves, " sasvis superstitionibus sacris ; " but that they had congregated there 
in greater numbers by flight from the mainland is as probable as not. The cromlechs and 
menhirs of Anglesey are numerous ; and if it be granted that these are monuments of 
the Druidic religion, their prevalence is the best argument known in favour of the popular 
belief to which we allude, a belief first promoted by Rowlands' Mono, Antiqua Restaurata, 
and generally acquiesced in ever since. 

The Romans, as was their custom, adopted the native designation, adding to it the 
feminine termination of their language, and called it Mona. Pliny the younger, who was 
living in the first century, when Suetonius ravaged Anglesey, gives to this island the name 
Mona, and to the Isle of Man the name Monapia (Hist. Nat., lib. ii.), a rather singular 
variation certainly. Tacitus, about the same time, repeatedly calls Anglesey Mona. The 
Greek geographer, Ptolemy, gives Mova, and varies the Isle of Man, in a manner peculiar 
to himself, into Moi>ao<ra. In a heading to a section in Nennius's "History," which is 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 3 

supposed to have been written about the eighth century, we first meet with the name 
Anglesey. But about the authenticity of this section there is considerable doubt. It 
is headed, " Concerning the wonderful things of the island Mona, which in English is called 
Engles-eie, that is, the island of the English." Nennius wrote in Latin ; but in the Saxon 
CKronide, written in the Anglo-Saxon tongue, and in a part of it written as late as the 
eleventh century, the name Engles-eie is not used, but Mon-ige, simply adding to the Cymric 
name the Saxon terminal part ige, which, like eie or ey, means an island. " Tha geheregodon 
hi Monige : " then ravaged they Monige (Sax. Chron., Ann. rooo). This Saxon word 
occurs frequently in names of islands and places which once were islands, as Ramsey, 
Chelsm, Bermonds^y. Florence of Worcester, also under the year 1000, says of Ethelred, 
that he " devastated a certain island called Mon-ege," meaning Anglesey. It is thus shown 
that the name "Anglesey," although it may have been casually used from the first subjugation 
of the island by Egbert, had not become the settled designation even among writers in the 
eleventh century and of the Saxon race. 

Lambard has these remarks : " Some, as Polydore, will have Mona or Monia to be the 
Isle of Man, whiche others cal Menania or Eubonia, reputinge Monia to be that which at 
this daye is called Anglesey, amonst whom is Lelande. Of whose opinion I am for two 
causes, thone for that it continueththe name of Mon to this day in the Brytishe or Welshe 
speche, as, by their common proverbe, expressinge the fruitfulnesse thereof may appeare, 
' Terr mon mam Kymbry,' i. e., Anglesey is the mother or nurse of Wales. Thother, for 
that Sylvester Gyraldus, in his booke called ' Itinerarium Walliae," sayethe that Caernarvon 
is soe called because it is a cytie standinge overagaynst Mon," &c. 



SECTION II. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF ANGLESEY. 

The Menai Straits, " Afon Menai," probably from Mon-aw, the Mon water, dividing the 
island from ^Carnarvonshire, have an average breadth of about half a mile, and run almost 
directly, with various creeks and sinuosities, from S.W. to N.E., giving this side of the island 
an extent of about eighteen miles from Aber-menai to Penmon Point. The picturesqueness 
of the scenery along these shores is made more wonderful and impressive by those 
stupendous creatigns of human talent and enterprise, the Menai Suspension Bridge, designed 
by Telford, and the Britannia Tubular Bridge, designed by Stephenson. 

From the mainland the island stretches out into the Irish Sea in a N.E. direction, 
measuring twenty miles from its base on the straits to the extreme headland of Carmel, 
looking out on the Skerries. Its average breadth is fifteen miles, and its total area about 
271 square miles, or 173,400 acres. Population, 1861, 54,609; 1871, 50,919. 

On the extreme W. side lies Holyhead, a little companion island of about seven miles 
in length, narrow, but of irregular breadth, of rocky surface and stormy aspect, presenting to 
the sea which here in boisterous weather rises to terrific rage and grandeur a bold 
perpendicular front of green magnesian slate 300 feet high. The South Stack Rock, an islet 
now carrying a great lighthouse, is 420 feet high, and nearly perpendicular. Holyhead was 
probably many ages ago not separated by the tide from Anglesey. It is now artificially 
connected with it by the embankment and causeway which were made to carry the great 



4 ANGLESEY. 

mail road from Chester to Holyhead, now partly superseded by the railway. On the N.E. 
Anglesey confronts the sea with a lofty rampart of cliffs rarely equalled for the boldness of 
their broken outline; but on the W., looking into Carnarvon Bay, the beach is low and 
sandy, and the interior correspondingly tame and dreary. 

On the sloping banks of the Menai all the way from Penmon in the N.E., by Lleiniog, 
Henllys, Baron Hill, Craig y Don, Plas Newydd, and Llanidan, to the shore opposite 
Carnarvon, we are presented with a scene of uninterrupted fairy-land beauty which, 
combined with the rich landscape across the straits, has been pronounced to be 
unsurpassed in any part of Britain. 

The streams of Anglesey are necessarily short and insignificant, and mainly meet the sea 




MENAI BRIDGE (from a Photo, by Bedford}. 

Span, 560 feet ; height of roadway above high water, 100 feet. Designed by Telford, and built by 

Government, 1818 1825. 

on the N. or S.W. side. The chief are the Braint, the Cefni, and the Alaw, the last running 
into Holyhead Bay. 

The general surface is undulating, with frequent abrupt out-croppings of igneous rock. 
To the W. and N.W. it is tame and barren over extensive tracts, with scarcely a tree 
visible ; but towards the E., where the chief heights are Bodafon and Paris (Parry's) 
Mountains, which, with the small spurs abutting them form the chief watersheds of 
the island, the landscape is often picturesque. The valley of the Braint runs parallel to 
the Menai at a short distance, and Malldraeth Marsh, whose depression is continued 
by the small valley which leads the Cefni on its way to Redwharf Bay, furnishes another 
parallel, all three together indicating a geological fact of some interest, corresponding as 
they do in general direction with the great mountain ridges of Carnarvonshire and 
Merioneth. 

The Chester and Holyhead Railway traverses the most forbidding parts of Anglesey, 
and gives the traveller a far from correct conception of the landscape as a whole. At the 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 5 

same time it must be confessed that the face of modern Anglesey offers a saddening 
contrast to the picture which tradition, aided by touches of poetic colouring, has handed 
down of Anglesey in the far distant olden time. " Island of Saints " it may have been, 
but can any one believe that it ever was covered with overhanging groves and widely spread 
forests of oak ? In many parts, for a dozen miles, the gorse and the bramble and the 
occasional quickset hedge, a modern intruder, are the tallest vegetable growth of the soil, 
and you must descend to the most sheltered dingles to find a tree that leads better 
than a starving life. And yet one cannot but shrewdly think that the landscape of 
Anglesey might be made much fairer and richer in aspect if the owners of land more 
generally had the liberality and taste which some of them have already displayed. No 
co-extensive tract, admitting in the main of cultivation, offers more tempting spots for 




HENLLYS : THE SKAT OK J. L. HAMPTON LEWIS, ESQ. 



plantations of larch and fir, without robbing the farmer of a yard of arable soil. On every 
hand, in some parts, you see rocky prominences and declivities waiting to be crowned with 
the varied green and graceful forms of the pine tree. There are many thousand acres 
in Anglesey which are an eyesore to the intelligent observer, and profitless to husbandman 
and landlord, which might be covered with the sweetest of verdure, and made to minister 
largely to the wealth of the country. Groves of larch and spruce would thrive where 
the elm, the ash, and the oak would shrink and lean before the south-westerly wind, and 
would in time afford shelter wherein the more sturdy and durable trees would grow. The 
fine pyramidal Norway fir, and the equally noble and graceful silver fir, are an ornament to 
any landscape, even to a nobleman's park, and might be used to convert the bare 
unproductive wastes of Anglesey into a somewhat pleasant land. 

The soil varies from the sandy and marshy flats of the western side to the stiff and 
occasionally rich loam which in many parts yields abundant crops of barley and oats, 
clover and grass. The produce of the island, with the improving agriculture of the present 
day fostered by the intelligent landowners, who prefer spending their income on their own 



6 ANGLESEY. 

patrimony to bestowing it upon Ascot and Epsom Downs, is considered good and abundant, 
both in corn and cattle. 

We have referred to the delightful landscape scenery about Beaumaris, and have given 
an illustration on the preceding page of the mansion of Henllys, situated in the midst of that 
scenery. We now introduce a still more interesting specimen of the noble residences which 
abound in these parts. 

The sumptuous mansion of Baron Hill stands in a park of large extent and exquisite 
beauty, commanding a wide and magnificent view of sea and mountain. It is in the near 
neighbourhood of the town of Beaumaris, whose Castle, elsewhere illustrated, forms a 
venerable appendage to the park. 




BARON HILL : THE SEAT OF SIR RICHARD B. W. BULKELEY, BART. 

The proprietor allows the grounds of Baron Hill to be open to the public, and thus 
indefinitely extends the pleasure which so delightful a landscape and carefully kept walks 
and parterres are fitted to administer. 



SECTION III.- GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

All the rocks of Anglesey are of the primitive series. There is not a square foot of the 
tertiary, or even of the secondary group in the whole county ; and the whole superficies as 
far as known is divided between the lower Silurian and the carboniferous formations. 
There exists a considerable similarity between the geology of Anglesey and that of the 
western promontory of Carnarvonshire called Lleyn, with the exception that the latter 
contains no carboniferous strata. The immediate shore of the Menai from the ferry 
opposite Carnarvon to the Plas Newydd Park is composed of carboniferous limestone, and 
the same formation is found from Lleiniog Creek to Penmon and round to Llanddona. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 7 

It also occupies the whole of the coast from Red wharf Bay to the Lligwy Creek, and turns 
from that point interiorly to Llangefni, including the whole of the country described by 
these lines and the Cefni river. Proceeding westward along Malldraeth Marsh to the sea, 
the coal measures occupy about a mile in width, and in parts, about Pentre Berw, 
Llanfihangel, the working of seams of coal has been carried on, without loss, if not with 
much profit. 

Between this tract and Llangeinwen, and the rising ground of Bryn Siencyn, passing 
by the upper part of the valley of the Braint, to the Menai near the Tubular Bridge, and 
along the strait to Beaumaris, the rocks are of the Cambrian series, the same which 
constitute a large portion of Merioneth, but here metamorphosed by heat into a gneissic 
texture, and in this metamorphosed form occupy more than a half of Anglesey. The 
valley of the Ffraw, stretching over a mile on either side the stream, and up beyond 
the head of the stream as far as Trescawen, Holyhead Island, and the north and west of 
Anglesey included in a line drawn from Tywyn in the west to Llanbabo, and thence to the 
sea near Porthynant, and the extreme northern part from Point Carmel, through 
Llanfairynghornwy, by Bodewryd, to Porth-Eilian, on the north-eastern coast, is all 
composed of these Cambrian metamorphic rocks. In many places they have been 
converted by the force of intense heat, pressure, and agitation, into strangely contorted 
forms, as may be seen in the surface rocks, and the stones in the fences, all about Amlwch 
and Llan-Eilian. 

The metamorphosed Cambrian rocks of Anglesey have furnished to geologists a study of 
no little interest, as displaying features novel and peculiar. Their remarkable contortions 
are seen to advantage in the South Stack Lighthouse promontory, Holyhead. " It is now 
ascertained," says Sir Roderick Murchison (Siluria), " that the schists of Anglesey, which, 
from their crystalline character, were once supposed to be more ancient than any other 
rocks in Wales, are simply an altered part of the same greywacke which constitutes the base 
of the Silurian series of deposits in the adjacent counties of Carnarvon and Merioneth. In 
other words, the old slate and greywacke of Anglesey have been altered at one spot into 
chlorite and mica schist, in another into quartz rock. They are associated with stripes or 
patches, capriciously distributed, as it were, of different palaeozoic rocks of Silurian, 
Devonian, and carboniferous age, thus forming a kind of kaleidoscope, which the most 
experienced geologist might have difficulty in unravelling." 

Protruding through the Cambrian, masses of igneous, usually called " granite " rocks, 
are in many places found in Anglesey. They are seen in the South Stack Rock, also near 
Llys-dulas, and forming rocks of large extent, lying in a S.W. and N.E. direction from 
Llanfaelog to Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd. Lyell (Elem. of Geol,, 607) gives an interesting 
instance of the effect of heat carried by an intrusive body in altering the character of 
contiguous rocks. It occurs near Plas Newydd. A basaltic dyke of 134 feet wide, once in 
a state of fusion, has burst through the carboniferous strata, and in cooling into a state of 
solidity, has changed the character of the original rocks to a great depth. Professor 
Henslow, whose words are quoted, says, " Strata of slate and argillaceous limestone, through 
which it cuts perpendicularly, are altered to a distance of 30, or even in some places to 35 
feet from the edge of the dyke. The slate as it approaches the top becomes gradually 
more compact, and is most indurated where nearest the junction, &c. But the most 



8 ANGLESEY. 

extraordinary phenomenon is the appearance in the slate of numerous crystals of analcime 
and garnet, which are distinctly confined to those portions of the rock affected by the dyke." 

From Llanerchymedd, stretching to the mouth of the Crigyll on the west, and to 
Carmel's Point northward, a good tract of the Llandilo rock is found, and a small band 
of the old red, dipping under the carboniferous limestone near Lligwy, and near Plas Newydd. 

Thus the island of Anglesey contains a grand association of the earliest materials of the 
crust of the earth. Older than the granite, because existing as a solid rock, before the 
granite in a molten state forced its way through it, and in its turn became also solid, the 
Cambrian group forms two-thirds of the rocks, and therefore of the soil of its surface, and 
probably here, as in Carnarvonshire, commands a mass of deposit not less than 3,000 feet 
in thickness. In the Silurian group, the Llandilo and Lingula flags cover a good field, and 
we have seen that the Devonian, or old red sandstone, asserts its place. Higher yet, but 
still in the primary strata, the island possesses a large extent of the carboniferous group. 
But of materials more recent than the coal measures it confesses to nothing. " Mon mam 
Cymru " it may well be called and may well be, if age beyond all reckoning can qualify it 
to be the mother and nurse of a nation which claims, it is generally supposed, not only a long 
but a prodigious antiquity ! 

The mineral resources of Anglesey, though not extensive, include a good variety, and in 
one or two instances are of great richness. The chief are the copper lodes of the Parys 
Mountain, near Amlwch (so called, it is said, after Robert Parry, or Parys, Chamberlain of 
N. Wales, temp. Henry IV.), whose working is supposed to have begun in Roman, and 
possibly much earlier times, but was only begun to be developed on the scale which has 
led to such lucrative results about the year 1768. As many as 60,000 tons of ore per 
annum in the more prosperous period of the workings were extracted from these mines, and 
several enormous fortunes were rapidly made. The ore is now obliged to be drawn from 
deeper excavations, and the extra cost of working, together with the cheapness of imported 
foreign ore, more than the exhaustion of the mine, must be considered as the causes of its 
present reduced state. 

The coal measures of Anglesey are only scantily productive, the veins being thin, and 
the mineral much mixed with shale. It has been held by some that a geological knot has 
been discovered in this mine which the sarans of the Geological Society would find hard to 
untie. Coal has here been found, it is said, in the " slate." Geology, as at present advised, 
pronounces against the possibility of such a thing. Either the matrix is not " slate," as that 
term is understood in relation to N. Wales, or the mineral is not " coal." The explanation 
probably is that the supposed slate is only the shale of the neighbouring limestone what 
is sometimes called carboniferous slate. 

The grits of the island yield tolerably good millstones, and the limestone in places is 
convertible into good dark and black marble. 



SECTION IV. HISTORY OF THE ISLAND. 

The inhabitants of Anglesey, a comparatively pure Celtic breed, were a part of the 
Gwyneddigion, Gwyndodwys, or men of Gwynedd, who, with the men of Povvys constituted 



HISTORY OF THE ISLAND. 9 

the inhabitants of N. Wales, as distinguished from Deheubarth. They were called by the 
Romans, Ordovices. The names Gwynedd and Gwyndodwys are cognate with the Latin 
Veneti of Brittany and Italy, with Venice, Gwent, &c. 

i. The Roman Period. 

In neither of Caesar's descents upon Britain did he come near Wales. Of the Romans, 
Suetonius was the first to reach Anglesey. He subdued it in A.D. 60, and Tacitus, who 
gives a graphic account of the terrible catastrophe which then befell the island, gives as a 
reason for Suetonius's severity that " Mona, a place inhabited by a warlike race, was a 
common shelter for all discontented Britons." The story of the slaughter of the Druids is 
too well known to need repetition. For a time the " warlike people " were quelled. But 
a few years after, Agricola, the next Roman general, found that a new conquest was 
necessary; and with the energy and thoroughness of his character, he effected the conquest 
with fearful devastation and bloodshed. Henceforward, for 300 years, Mona was 
nominally ruled by the Romans. 

Their hold on Britain had gradually become that of a paralyzed hand, for death was 
creeping into the Roman constitution, and the native princes and chieftains of Wales, 
whose line of descent had been carefully preserved by the professional genealogists, and 
recognised by their political masters, had not been slow to recover, wherever they could, in 
some cases in substance, in others both in substance and form, the government of their 
hereditary territories. It seems that Einion Urdd, son of Cynedda Wledig, who with his 
sons, according to Nennius (and Nennius is not necessarily legendary), had come from 
" Manau Guododin," the country of the Ottadini, or Northumberland, had obtained a 
settlement in Wales by driving out the Scots (Irish). He ruled over Anglesey and a good 
portion of N. Wales, " Guenedota," as Nennius calls it, " 146 years before Mailcun 
(Maelgwyn Gwynedd) reigned, and expelled the Scots with much slaughter from these 
countries, and they never returned again to inhabit them." 

His son, Caswallon Law Hir, who is said to have lived at Llys Caswallon, near 
Llaneilian, reigned over Anglesey. He obtained a famous victory over the Irish at 
Holyhead about the year 440. 

This was a troublous and mysterious time in Wales, as well as all over Britain, and it is 
a trying and oftentimes fruitless labour to attempt unravelling its events. We know that the 
shadow of the Saxon invasion was approaching our shores, and even already skimming some 
of our fairest plains ; but of its progress, and of the evils which fell upon the land from the 
north, we know in detail but too little. Our chroniclers are few, and an air of romance 
and poetic unreality so invests them that we are perpetually tempted to scepticism or 
indecision. We are next informed that Maelgwyn Gwynedd was ruler of this part. This is 
probably true ; at least, those who disbelieve the story have to produce a better. Some one 
must have had precedence in Anglesey and the north at this period. Nennius says it was 
Mailcun. The work attributed to Monk Gildas gives him the name Maglocun, and pours 
upon him a heavy vial of denunciation for divers heinous sins which seem to mark out not 
only a distinct historical person, but a person of no ordinary notoriety. In the Annales 
Cambria, one of our most reliable chronicles, his death is set down for A.D. 547. This 



io ANGELSEY. 

was a century after the arrival of Hengist and his freebooters in the Thames, but the Saxon 
power had not yet been felt in Wales, and the Cymry of Wales had not yet received the 
name Welsh. 

Maelgwyn's descendant, Cadwallon of Gwynedd, in the seventh century had to bear the 
brunt of the Saxon attack under Edwin of Northumbria. Intercourse of a friendly kind as 
well as hostile had by this time been established between the German invaders of Britain 
and the Welsh, for Cadwallon was married to a sister of Penda the Mercian king. In the 
Annal. Camb., under date 629, we find the significant entry, " Obsessio Cadguollaun regis in 

%* 

insula Glannauc," the besieging of King Cadwallon in the island of Glannauc, or Priestholm. 

2. The Saxon Period. 

Edwin of Northumbria not only besieged Cadwallon on Priestholm, but obtained the 
mastery over Anglesey and all N. Wales. Bede, in enumerating the deeds of Edwin, 
says that he reduced among other parts the " Mevanian islands of the Britons, lying 
between Britain and Ireland," meaning, of course, Man and Mon. (Hist. Eccles., ii. 5.) 
The former he describes as containing at that time 960 families, the latter above 300. 
(/#., 9.) This was the time when the Angles that portion of the Northmen who had made 
their home in Northumbria first formed a settlement in Mona ; and it is just possible 
although, from what we have already said, not probable that amongst themselves the 
island from this time forth was denominated Angles-ey, the Angles' island. 

More and frequent conflicts followed conflicts with one or other of the Saxon 
Heptarchy, with Irish and Danish marauders, or civil brawls, as that between Cynan 
Tindaethwy and his brother Hywel, who claimed Anglesey as his patrimony. But a 
decisive blow was given to the people of Anglesey by Egbert of Wessex, who, about the 
year 828, or perhaps a few years earlier, obtained the great victory of Llanfaes, near 
Beaumaris. Egbert's task, however, of uniting the Saxon states under one rule, was 
sufficient for his time and energies : his hold on Anglesey was feeble, and its government 
soon reverted to the Welsh Prince Merfyn Frych, and his consort Essyllt. 

N. Wales in those days was generally engaged in actual war, and Anglesey seems ever 
to have borne its share in the fray. How far the importation of Angles into Mon as settlers 
went on we are not told, but from the temper the natives always displayed we may well 
conjecture that its scale was limited, and that the foreigners found here but an unquiet 
home. The ethnology of Anglesey betrays little admixture of race. The physical charac- 
teristics of the people are Celtic. Roundish heads, with precipitous brows and yellow hair, 
occasionally mark them, but they occur perhaps with as little frequency as in any other part 
of Wales, and by no means so far prevail as to suggest a wide German admixture. Nor do 
the local names of the island, the personal designations of the people, or the remains of 
architectural monuments, as far as known in any period except the most recent times, 
indicate to any appreciable extent any other than a Celtic origin. 

3. The Danish Period. 

The Danish sea-rovers visited Anglesey almost as early as any part of Britain. Their 
aim at first was not settlement but plunder, and in this pursuit they were quite impartial 



HISTORY OF THE ISLAND. 11 

as to Cymry or Angles. In 853 we are told (Annal. Cambr.} that Mon was ravaged by 
" the black pagans." Soon Rhodri Mawr became King of N. Wales, including Anglesey, 
and we find him at once in conflict with the Danes in places in that island called Bangoleu 
and Menegyd, in the former of which " Cynan was slain." In 876, just a year before the 
fall of Rhodri and the division of his kingdom between his three sons, the battle of Sunday 
" Gueith Diu Sul " was fought, as is likely between the Cymry under Rhodri and the 
Danes. Neither locality nor result is mentioned. 

But Rhodri the Great, the pride and protector of the Cymry, who had succeeded in 
extending his power over north and south, and uniting under his sway the whole of Wales, 
was now near his end. The following year, in a battle with the same black pagans, that 
noble prince together with his son Gwriad were slain; and three years later, 880, the 
mountains of Snowdonia echo shouts of triumph, for Anarawd, eldest son of Rhodri, and 
now ruler of Anglesey, with his residence at Aberffraw, leads his victorious followers to 
" Gueit Conguoy, digal Rotri a Deo " the battle of Conwy, the avenging of Rhodri by 
God. But the black pagans are not yet foiled ; in 902, or 900 according to " Brut y 
Tywysogion," their prows are again thrust into the creeks of Anglesey, under the leadership 
of Igmund, and Anarawd has to fight them at Maes Rhos Meilon, supposed to be Penrhos, 
Holyhead. Thousands upon thousands fall by the sword, and yet the pagans swarm like 
bees around the fated island. 

Caradog tells us that in 969, Marc, the son of Harold, devastated Penmon "y 
diffeithiawd Marc vab Herald Benmon," and that in the year following, " when nine 
hundred and seventy years was the age of Christ," Godfrey, son of Harold, wasted Mon, and 
by great cunning subjugated the whole island. " Deg mlynedd a thrugein a naw cant oed 
oet Crist pan diffeithawd Gotfric vab Herald Von, aco fawr ystryw y darostyngawd yr holl 
ynys." 

Of the Saxons or Angles we now hear nothing. Trouble in N. Wales and Anglesey 
comes from the Danes, and from bickerings of the native princes among themselves. The 
Saxons have hot and earnest work at home, for they are far from having well consolidated 
their work of conquest, when they are boldly challenged to defend it if they can. The Danes 
mean to take from the Saxons what the Saxons had taken from the Britons ; and the prize is 
nothing less than the land and throne of England. The ripeness and rapidity of events 
drew the attention of the Danes from Anglesey and the Welsh coast, and in A.D. 1013, Sweyn, 
the Danish king, is placed on the English throne. From this period forward we hear less of 
the " black pagans " in Anglesey. The same Godfrey already mentioned, in 986, according 
to " Brut y Tywysogion," had a conflict in Anglesey. " Godfrey, the son of Harold, with 
the black host, devastated the island of Mon, and two thousand men were captured : the 
remainder Maredydd, son of Owain, took with him to Cardigan and Dyfed." 

From all that we can learn from the old chroniclers, the Danes, in all their forays into 
Anglesey, simply came for plunder and sustenance. The soil being on the whole productive 
and the inhabitants industrious, Mon was a field the occasional reaping of which was 
profitable and convenient to people who lived in ships and disdained tilling the earth. 

After this time the Danish incursions in Wales are confined almost wholly to the south. 
We shall meet them in force in Pembrokeshire. There, scores of names of places enshrine 
their language to the present day. 



ANGLESEY. 



4. The Norman Period. 

The pagans gone, the Welsh princes re-enter upon the pastime of internecine war. After 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn had fallen by the hand of Rhys ap Owain in 1073, and Trahaearn ap 
Caradog had usurped his dominion, his friend Gruffydd ap Cynan tore himself away from 
his exile in Ireland, crossed over, the leader of a mixed multitude of Welsh and Irish, and 
succeeded in taking possession of Anglesey and portions of the mainland. Venturing, 
however, too far into the fastnesses of Merioneth, he was boldly met by his rival, and driven 
back across the Menai, where he remained master. A few years later, after unceasing 
preparation, and with aid from S. Wales and Ireland, he fought victoriously the battle of 
Carno, where Trahaearn the usurper fell, and won thereby the sovereignty of all N. Wales 
in the capacity, of course, of a vassal to the Norman William, for by this time the Welsh 
princes had been compelled to acknowledge his general supremacy. This was about the 
time during a descent upon Anglesey by the Norman Hugh, Earl of Chester that Lleiniog 
Castle was built, as a footing and a menace against the island. 

William Rufus came to power while the brave and patriotic Gruffydd ap Cynan was yet 
regulus of Anglesey and the North. About 1098 the Earls of Chester and Shrewsbury, both 
of them named Hugh, with a great force invaded Anglesey (still called Mona in the Latin 
Annales], and compelled King Gruffydd to seek refuge in Ireland. The Normans easily 
overran and took possession of the island, and, after their custom, set about building castles. 
But while they are yet rejoicing in success, a strange piratic fleet appears in the offing. 
They find themselves suddenly attacked , not by the Welsh, who for the moment are cowed, 
but by the redoubtable Magnus, son of Olaf, king of Norway. Magnus had planned the 
conquest of England, or, as Ordericus Vitalis says, of Ireland, and had simply come to 
Anglesey to take the wheat and kine of the country to provision his ships, and perhaps to 
hold the island for a time as a base of operations. The two depredators meeting, fight for 
the wished-for plunder, as appears likely, on Beaumaris sands, Magnus from his ships shooting 
his arrows, the Normans from the shore shooting theirs in return ; and in the first onset a 
stalwart Norwegian, from the prow of his vessel one account says it was Magnus himself, 
another, one of his men, as Earl Hugh de Montgomerie of Shrewsbury was boldly 
advancing upon his charger into the breakers, with unerring arrow " shot him, alas ! at the 
devil's instigation," as Ordericus avers, " so that he fell at the same instant and breathed his 
last in the flowing tide." The " whizzing arrow" had entered his eye, the only part of his 
body not covered with steel. The event led to the retreat of the Norman- English army 
from Anglesey, and the Welsh " thanked " the pirate Magnus for his equivocal visit. 

Mon again has peace ; Gruffydd ap Cynan again returns from Ireland, and for a time 
reoccupies his seat of rule. By and by, with natural obliviousness of a vassal's duty, 
he fails to pay his tribute to " brenin Llundain," the Norman king, who is now Henry I. 
Besides, all over Wales, and more especially on the borders of the northern Lords Marchers, 
the Welsh princes maintain a provoking system of plunder and petty warfare, ravaging and 
burning, then retiring to their fastnesses, and again returning to ravage and burn, in a 
manner too audacious and injurious to be borne. Henry in 1114 raises a great army, and 
vows with terrific oaths the complete and final humiliation of the Welsh. But Gruffydd ap 



HISTORY OF THE ISLAND. 



Cynan was a formidable foe to come into actual conflict with, and this Henry inwardly felt. 
One or two of the less powerful princes, such as Meredydd ap Bleddyn and Owain ap 
Cadwgan, made peace with, and partly soothed the spirit of the enraged king. In the end 
the expedition collapsed, leaving Gruffydd unmolested at Aberffraw. After some years and 
imny recurring bickerings and conflicts with the Normans, Gruffydd ended his days, amid the 
lamentations of his country, and was succeeded by his intrepid son, Owain Gwynedd, 

" Owain swift and Owain strong." 

During Owain's long and stormy rule, Anglesey was several times the scene of exciting 
and sanguinary conflict. It was attacked by Cadwalader ap Gruffydd ap Cynan, but with 
serious loss to himself. Henry II., Plantagenet, sent a fleet to subdue it, which landed at 
Abermenai, opposite Carnarvon, but his men were nearly all cut off, and complete victory 
rewarded Owain's exertions. In reference to this achievement the poet Gwalchmai ap 
Meilyr sang his ode : 



" Three mighty legions o'er the sea-flood came, 
Three fleets intent on sudden prey, 
One from Erin's verdant coast, 
One with Lochlin's arm&d host, 
Long burthens of the billowy way : 
The third, from far, bore them of Norman name, 
To fruitless labour doomed, and barren fame. 



"Boldly he turns the furious Storm, 
Before him wild Confusion flies, 
While Havoc rears her hideous form, 
And prostrate Rank expiring lies ; 
Conflict upon conflict growing, 
Gore on gore in torrents flowing, 
Shrieks answering shrieks, and slaughter raving, 
And high o'er Moelfre's front a thousand banners 
waving." - 



On Owain Gwynedd's death, his son, Maelgwyn, received Anglesey as his lordship, but his 
brother Dafydd snatched it from his hand and added it to his own possessions in Gwynedd. 
Soon, however, the inhabitants cast off the yoke of Dafydd, and chose his brother Rhodri 
for their lord. He in turn was driven out by the sons of Cynan, themselves to be dis- 
possessed by Dafydd, who re-established his seat at Aberffraw. 

Iri 1248 we find Henry III. campaigning against N. Wales, aided by a multitude of Irish, 
who ravaged Anglesea from end to end, committing barbaric and inhuman excesses. 

The wars between the princes of Wales among themselves now attain to greater magni- 
tude, and Anglesey, though cast into comparative shade, maintains a kind of metropolitan 
character, owing to the chief princely residence being at Aberffraw. David, after wonderful 
struggles and reverses, is at last defeated by his half-brother Llewelyn ap lorwerth (the 
Great), whose grandson, Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, a man still greater in deeds and in fame, 
succumbs to the power of Plantagenet Edward I., and by his death yields both Anglesey 
and all Wales to be united to that great monarch's dominions. 

Anglesey, therefore, had a history almost its own as long as Wales maintained any kind 
of independence. 

5. The Royal Residence of Aberffraw. 

As to the time when Aberffraw first became the seat of government for Mon and 
Gwynedd generally, little can be said beyond the surmise that it was in the time of Rhodri 
Mawr (Roderick the Great), in the ninth century. When his kingdom, which at his death 
included 'the whole of Wales, was partitioned between his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell, and 



14 ANGLESEY. 

Mervyn, the first, as ruler of Gvvynedd, had his court at Aberffraw. The second, as ruler of 
Dyfed, had his seat at Carmarthen or Dinevor ; the third, ruler of Powys, dwelt at Mathraval. 
Of these three places the pomp and circumstance have long ago disappeared. Dinevor 
is an ivy-covered ruin; Mathraval is nothing but a common farmhouse, not even com- 
memorating its past magnificence by a ruin. Aberffraw, though still a village, has not 
one stone left upon another of the kingly residence, and even the spot where it stood is 
unknown. 

We must go far away from the usages and maxims of modern times to see the wisdom of 
selecting a locality like Aberffraw to be the seat of government for N. Wales. In the first 
place a more ungainly region than the country around it is hard to discover in Wales. 
Anglesey, often fair, occasionally picturesque and beautiful, but not seldom sterile and bleak, 
has no other tract to equal it in bleakness and sterility. Though near the sea it has no port. 
It can never have been a wooded tract to supply firewood, or rear wild animals for the 
chase. In point of distance from the mainland of Gwynedd, though comparatively near, it 
is still far by reason of the difficulty of communication. Can this very difficulty of access 
have been a recommendation to it as the site of the royal residence ? In general the Cymry 
trusted not in strong castles any more than in coats of mail for safety. Had they done so, 
the precipitous rocks and yawning chasms of Snowdonia would have been chosen as their 
inaccessible homes rather than the shelterless tract of Aberffraw. 

Still, a position such as this has its advantages ; a palace built of timber and wicker-work, 
situated in an open country devoid of beauty and fertility, would possess but little to excite 
the cupidity of the enemy, whose chief aim in nine cases out of ten was spoil. The palace 
of Aberffraw was in all probability a simple edifice to the last, notwithstanding the examples 
of grandeur in fortressed palaces introduced by the Normans ; for, as we have said, not a 
fragment or a token of it remains, although less than seven hundred years, the age of many 
of our churches, have elapsed since Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd held his court there. 

But the prospect of less molestation may not have chiefly swayed in the selection of the 
spot. Mon, for some reason or other, was held as sacred by the Cymry. It had been for a 
time if not the chief, at least a considerable seat of the Druidic religion and culture. It is 
at least true that when Suetonius with his legions arrived at the Menai, Mon was then 
the refuge of numerous priests of the Cymry, and the slaughter which ensued of men so 
much venerated for their wisdom and harmlessness, consecrated for ever the soil of that 
island to the thoughtful patriot. It seemed well that the palace of the prince should be on 
ground made holy by the blood of the priest. 

SECTION V. ANTIQUITIES OF ANGLESEY, 
i . Pre-historie. 

It seems of little use for scientific societies and private students of antiquity to plead and 
protest against the demolition of the mysterious pre-historic monuments which our country 
contains. Side by side with the advanced intelligence and refinement of the age, a 
want of reverence for the past, and a non-conservative utilitarianism, among a class where 
their absence might reasonably be expected, have allowed many owners and occupiers of 



ANTIQUITIES OF ANGLESEY. 15 

estates to wink at, if not to encourage the destruction of remains of a remote antiquity which 
a more cultured intelligence and taste would have cherished with a scrupulous care. 

Cromlechs. In that carefully compiled serial, the Cambrian Register, 1799, it is said 
that there were then in Anglesey thirty cromlechs, and their names and localities are given, 
but in 1870 we could find no such abundance. By cromlech was, doubtless, understood the 
erection popularly known by that designation, which consists of a large stone more or less 
flat laid upon several supporters. Dr. Lukis, and most modern Continental antiquarians, con- 
fine the name to a combination or series of cromlechs, of which there are instances in 
Anglesey, as at Plas Newydd and Tynewydd, Llanfoelog, while to the single cromlech they 
apply the term " dolmen," meaning table-stone. 

We shall, perhaps, be well-nigh correct if we say that at the present time, 1871, the 
following cromlechs and dolmens are discoverable, some in a very imperfect state, in 
Anglesey. In the grounds of Plas Newydd, the beautiful residence of Lady Willoughby de 
Broke, about 200 yards from the Menai Straits, near the Tubular Bridge, there are two 
standing near each other, which probably formed parts of one great monument ; and near at 
hand is a tumulus containing a cist-vaen, recently opened and described by Mr. W. O. 
Stanley, M.P. Of the larger cromlech we give an engraving. The capstone measures twelve 
feet in average length and ten feet in breadth, with a thickness of four feet. 

Trevor, Llansadwrn, has a double cromlech, and Llanfair-Mathafarn-Eithaf has a single 
one. On the Lligwy there exists a cromlech of extraordinary dimensions, viz., 17^ x 15 
feet. It was recently minutely explored by the Rev. Hugh Prichard and Rev. W. Wynne 
Williams, and described by the former in the Arch. Cambrensis, Jan., 1867. Near Blochty, 
Llanfihangel, on Bodafon Hill, is found a small cromlech, called " Y Maen Llwyd," about 
eleven feet long, but in a disturbed and disappearing condition, and having remains of others 
not far. More imposing than any of these is the great monument, believed to be a cromlech, 




CROMLECH AT PLAS NEWYDD. 12 feet x 10 feet ; 4 feet thick. 

but now with the capstone dislodged and prostrate, at Henblas, between Llangefni and 
Trefdraeth. If a real cromlech, it is by far the most stupendous in Wales, or probably in 
Great Britain, if the enormous dimensions of the masses of rock which are supposed to have 
been the supporters are considered, one measuring 50 feet in circumference and 13! in 
height, the other 55 feet in circumference and 10 feet in height, and computed to weigh from 



16 ANGLESEY. 

60 to 70 tons. The fallen capstone measures 18 by 15 J feet, and is 4 feet thick at the 
centre. All the stones are of the quartzose rock of this locality. The monument was 
examined and described by the Rev. Hugh Prichard (Arch. Cambrensis, 1866). 

The " Maeri-Chwyf," or Arthur's Quoit, near Llwydiarth, is a fine stone 17 feet long. A 
small one is seen at Clegyr Maw, and one of good dimensions, about 12 feet long, in the 
middle of a field, close by Presaddfed Mansion. 

On Holyhead Island were two cromlechs, one near Bodjor, which it seems has been not 
long since destroyed, the other at Tref Arthur, also now partly demolished. Looking towards 
Aberffraw, near the shore, at Tynewydd, Llanfaelog, a double cromlech can, or rather, 
could be seen : one has been used up, the other has been broken. . An " improving" tenant 
made hedges of the first ; and a worshipping tenant, apparently believing in the fitness of what 
he considered an " altar " to the occasion, made a bonfire on the second to celebrate the 
coming of age of his landlord, and thus split the ponderous mass (5 feet thick and 13^ feet 
long) in two. The stone is of the metamorphic rock of the country. 

At Mynydd y Cnwc, nigh at hand, is a single cromlech. On the river Crigyll, in the same 
neighbourhood, there are three cromlechs of small size. On the farm of Bryn Celli Du, 
Llan Ddaniel, is a very fine cromlech in a comparatively well-preserved state ; part of the 
tumulus being still unremoved from the capstone, and the long passage which led to the 
chief place of sepulture, under the great stone, with its main features undisturbed. To the 
credit of the proprietor, the site is planted and protected by an enclosure. At Llangaffo, 
near Dinam, in the middle of a field, is also a small cromlech. 

Having thus gone the round of the island in search of cromlechs, we have now arrived in 
a district which, in pre-historic as well as in historic times, was clearly one of peculiar im- 
portance. The monuments of both periods are here numerous, and show that similar causes 
operated in both periods similarly, although it is quite sub judice whether the builders of 
the cromlechs and the builders of the camps and churches belonged to one and the same 
race or group of mankind. 

We have, however, never been able to see that any advantage is gained to ethnology, any 
difficulty removed, or light imparted, by attributing the megalithic creations of these and 
other parts to a pre-Celtic race. It is possible that a pre-Celtic race built them : it is as 
possible that the Cymry built them. They may have stood where they now stand for 
ten thousand years, but there is nothing absurd in the more moderate supposition that their 
builders lived within the thousand years preceding the Christian era ; for we know that in 
some parts of the world, e.g., Madagascar, the erection of similar monuments is carried down 
to our own day. 

Be the period far or near, the gently rising land on the side of Mon which looks towards 
Carnarvon and the Snowdon district seems through many distant ages to have been the 
theatre of great events. Did it become such mainly from its position ? It is certainly the 
nearest point to the Snowdon mountains, the great stronghold of the Welsh in all ages. 
The routes from the south, like Sarn Helen, probably led long before our era to Caer 
Seiont, the last resting station in a pilgrimage or a march to " Tir Mon Mam Cymru ; " 
and on its, nearest, best sheltered side, looking down upon the blue waters of the ebbing and 
flowing Menai, it is likely enough the chief solemnities of the island were performed. The 
straits and the river Braint were separated by a gently rising ground suitable for settlement 



PRE-HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES. 17 

and observation; and the Menai, close at hand, offered the nearest ferry, or perhaps a 
ford, for crossing. 

Be the determining reason what it may, it is certain that between Plas Newydd and Maesy- 
porth, and between the Menai shore at Llanidan and Dinam, there is found a mysterious 
group of spots sanctified by ancient faiths, warlike deeds, and interment of mighty dead, 
such as is rarely equalled in a like space in Europe, save on the misty and most mysterious 
shores of the Morbihan in Brittany. Too long ago occurring, and too unrecorded were the 
deeds here done, to be known to us. What was Caerleb before it became a Roman 
station ? Who were the chieftains, priests, or demigods, whose altars were guarded by the 
great stones, never yet disturbed (except in their precious contents), at Bryn Celli Du and 
Plas Newydd ? Were the burials at Caer Fynwent and Bryn y Bedd, those of the gory 
and swiftly gathered remains of battle, or the tenderly laid down and cherished dust of the 
fathers, brothers, sons, and daughters of generation after generation of a race which has 
entirely passed away, leaving none but these dumb and yet eloquent records behind them ? 
We know not. We must wait until careful examination and comparison in different parts of 
the world have furnished us with better data than we now possess to form a fair induction ; 
and perhaps the best induction which can then be found will only terminate in doubt. As 
yet the science of pre-historic inquiry is in its infancy ; our most venerable monuments 
are the least understood, and our greatest triumphs have been achieved in the exploding of 
ill-founded and ill-digested opinions. 

The idea that cromlechs were sacrificial altars, and that the blood shed upon them was 
that of human victims, is one of those ill-founded opinions. Dr. Lukis, in the Channel 
Islands and in Brittany, has explored with scientific care and knowledge the contents of 
many unopened cromlechs and dolmens, and has come to the conclusion, from the remains 
they contained, that they were nothing less than the laboriously constructed sarcophagi 
where a reverent race deposited their dead the prototypes, in fact, of the great altar-tombs 
of our churches. In Anglesey itself the same conclusion from similar research has been 
forced upon Mr. Prichard and Mr. Wynne Williams, as shown in their valuable memoirs in 
the Arch. Cambr., 1867, &c. For the old opinion, which cast so dismal a reflection on the 
Druidic cultus, there was absolutely no evidence beyond the circumstance that in some 
of these great stones there were found depressions, which, in masses of unhewn rock 
exposed for thousands of years to the elements, might naturally be expected, but which 
the imagination, tempted by the enticing voice of a pre-eonceived theory, converted into 
basins for the blood of the victim. Rowland theorized, and easily formed grand con- 
clusions, but modern inquirers are content to proceed on the laborious principle of the 
finding out and comparison of facts. 

Burial-places probably also places of religious rites these cromlechs were. The 
spot where they stand, therefore, Is sacred to the thoughtful. The solemn procession 
is not seen, the impressive gloom of the silent forest is not felt, the deep tones of the 
venerable Druid priest are not heard ; but the same sea moans in the distance, and the 
same heavens look down overhead, and the very stones of the same cromlech are still 
there, the one upon the other. Gone is everything human, bard, Druid, and prince, with 
the "song, the sacrifice, and the sword; the dance, the war-shout, and the clash of battle ; 
and there remain alone a riddle which we cannot solve, and a lesson of wisdom as to 

= 



i8 ANGLESEY. 

the passing nature of human things and the littleness of our own brief day, we cannot refuse 
to learn. 

Maenhirs, or Erect Stones. Anglesey contains a good number of these stones, called in 
Brittany menhirs, and in that country greatly exceeding in size those of Wales some of 
them measuring as much as forty or fifty feet in height, as those at Plouarzel near Brest ; 
while those at Lokmariaker, now prostrate, msasure above sixty feet long, with breadth and 




MENHIRS IN BRITTANY. 

thickness proportionate. The menhirs of Anglesey seldom exceed twelve or fourteen feet 
in height, and possibly, therefore, correspond to the stones in Brittany called pettlven, pillar 
stone, which number many hundreds in the great field of Carnac alone. In Anglesey there 
is apparent no plan or method in the distribution of the menhirs, nor is there visible, except 
doubtfully in two or three instances, any relation between them and the cromlechs; whereas 
in Brittany they often stand in rows parallel to, and equidistant from each other, like the 
pillars of an Oriental temple, with wider distances, and are so often in close proximity to 
the cromlechs as to argue some purposed and systematic correlation. The arrangement in 
rows is shown in the accompanying illustration from a photograph by Reeve, and it is seen that 
the farmer has utilized the menhirs to form fences between his narrow fields. Two. colossal 
fallen menhirs at Lokmariaker, Brittany, measuring respectively 27 ft. and 30 ft. long, with 
an average breadth of n ft., were so situated in the vicinity of a great cromlech as to 
suggest the idea that they might have served, when erect, as two obelisks (unhewn, yet 
pointed at the top) at the entrance to the sacred precincts, like the colossus at the entrance 
of the temple at Thebes. 

The maenhir in Wales has no doubt the same raison d'etre as it has in Brittany and 
other regions of the world. What that reason was we are even more helpless to discover than 
in the case of the cromlechs. It was not to be a landmark or a division of property : much 
less was it to supply a post for cattle to rub against, as some unpoetic persons would fain 
believe ; although there are cattle-posts of good size and maenhirs which are diminutive, 
making the determination of their character sometimes perplexing. It must be borne in 
mind that the maenhirs now standing are probably only solitary remains of a combination of 



PRE-HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES. . 19 

erections which in further or nearer proximity held relation to each other cromlechs, 
circles, barrows, other maenhirs, &c., which subsequent ages of superstition and later ages of 
improving tillage have removed. In the preceding engraving we see the solemn congregation 
still standing together, but the silent signs they make to us we have no key to interpret. 
We may ask, were these wonderful masses of rock brought thus together in order to serve 
as places of solemn council on national affairs ? or were they memorials of men slain on the 
spot in battle ? or were they monuments of a national pantheon or cemetery, erected by 
degrees, as the great men of the tribes were brought in from various distances to the sacred 
place of burial ? or were they symbols, monitors, or guides, in subordination to some system 
of worship in a contiguous or neighbouring temple ? Probably some of these questions 
touch upon the fringe of the reason of their existence. 

Less mercy is, we fear, shown to these maenhirs in an agricultural country than to the 
cromlechs. The latter offer by their bulk a tolerably successful resistance to the rustic 
iconoclast ; but the maenhir, unless it proves useful as a rubbing-post or gate-post (as we 
have heard of church fonts turned into hog-troughs or, as at Lligwy, changed from a 
gate-post into the step of a stile, and as the sarcophagus of Prince Llewelyn's consort, 
daughter of King John, was for ages used as a watering-trough for horses), or is stout enough 
to challenge ordinary powers of destruction, stands but a poor chance of lengthened life. It 
offends, perchance, the superstitious religionist ; it steals three square yards of land from 
the thrifty farmer ; it offers to the sharp-eyed road-surveyor " metal " for road-making, or to 
the quarryman stones for building ; and its fortune is to be blasted or beaten to fragments, after 
bravely rendering the kind of service it was bidden to render to mankind for thousands of 
years. Thanks to advancing intelligence and the interposition of our antiquarian societies, 
this ungentle barbarism is gradually diminishing, and the gentry of Anglesey, some of whom 
we have named, are not behind others in bringing about this result. 

The maenhirs of Anglesey abound mostly on the north-eastern side, few being found to 
the west or south. The first we meet in proceeding from Beaumaris towards Pentraeth and 
Holyhead is at College, near Trevor ; this, however, is by some considered as part of a 
cromlech ; and we soon encounter another at Plas Llanddyfnan. At Llanfihangel Tre'r 
Beirdd, a fine one, known as " Maen-Addwyn," the Stone of Virtue, is seen. In the same 
neighbourhood, on Bodafon Hill, are the remains of cromlechs, already noticed, and a carnedd 
is found near the Llanerchymedd road. A stone in the grounds of Trescawen, sometimes 
called a maenhir, turned out on inspection to be a monument of some kind, bearing a Latin 
inscription quite illegible. The owner of the place informed the writer that for many years 
it had been a gate-post on the estate, fixed with its inscribed face turned towards the cart 
wheels, whereby the inscription was effectually worn away. 

At Bodewryd, and at Llechcynfarwy, near Presaddfed here again in the neighbourhood 
of a noble cromlech are maenhirs ; and near Bryndu, the seat of General Hughes, and in 
the parish of Llanfechell, is the celebrated " Maen Arthur," and several remains of cromlechs 
and tumuli. A maenhir stands, or not long ago stood, near Nantyfron, west of Cemmaes, 
and two at a few hundred yards distance from each other on a rising ground on the farm of 
Pen yr Orsedd, the throne or seat-eminence a very significant name on the road 
towards Llanfaethlu. Near the inn at Llanfaethlu we come on a sturdy maenhir standing 
close to the road on the left, whence an extensive prospect of country is enjoyed. On the 



20 . ANGLESEY. 

river Alaw, not far, and in the near locality of the " Tomb of Bronwen," is, or was, " Maen 
y Gors." 

Caers and Tumuli. Of caers we may mention those of " Bwrdd Arthur," to the west of 
Beaumaris ; the two circular camps in Llanfair-ynghornwy parish (Castell Crwn) ; Caer 
Helen, Llanfihangel; and the caerau of Llechcynfarwy ; and among the more ancient tumuli 
(sepulchral most probably), that of Llys Newydd by the great cromlech, recently opened 
by Mr. W. O. Stanley, M.P., and found to contain a cist; that of Llanddyfnan, and 
Llanfair Mathafarn-Eithaf ; that near Aberffraw, at " Gorsedd y person;" that near 
Tre-Castell (with a cromlech not far) and that on the Alaw river, with a caer and a 
maenhir near. There were also caers on the Lligwy, but they have long ago been levelled 
by the plough. 

Cyttiau Gwyddelod. In different parts of North Wales are found certain primitive 
underground habitations, circular in form, and so disfigured as to be scarcely observable 
above the surface, which are now usually called " Cyttiau Gwyddelod," huts of the Irish. 
That they are properly pre-historic may be questioned, but that they were habitations of 
human beings in a low and degraded condition is certain. Those in Anglesey, and more 
especially those on Holyhead island, have been explored by the Hon. W. O. Stanley, whose 
valuable memoirs upon them have appeared in the journal of the Archaeological Institute : 
and the conclusion at which he has arrived is that to pronounce upon the age of their first 
builders and inmates would be hazardous, but that there is evidence sufficient furnished by 
their contents to prove that they were used as places of habitation by a people not 
unacquainted with the manipulation of copper ore during the Roman occupation of this 
island. 

The " grave of Bronwen, on the banks of the Alaw," must be considered among pre-historic 
spots, in the sense that all the caers and tumuli are so. Of its construction there is no 
history, except what is clearly mixed with fable; but of the reality of the carnedd s.r\di the urn, 
and the character of the place as a place of sepulture, there can be no reasonable doubt ; 
while scepticism is quite possible as to whether the ashes of Bronwen, the fair daughter of 
Llyr, and aunt of Caractacus, were the ashes enclosed in the discovered urn. 

The Mabinogion story of the burial of Bronwen is very brief, but also very beautiful. 
" Bedd petrual o wnaed i Fronwen ferch Llyr ar Ian Alaw, ac yno y claddwyd hi." A four- 
cornered grave was made for Bronwen on the banks of the Alaw, and there she was buried. 
This is the whole of the story. 

Brief as it is, however, it seems to furnish three or four facts which might be guides to 
discovery. There was a grave, and it was four-cornered, and situated on the banks of the 
Alaw. The river was known time out of mind. A carnedd of stones covered with grass was 
also there, but had never been explored. In 1813 a farmer, wanting stones, put the carnedd 
under contribution, when in the centre a cist made of coarse flags was discovered, and in the 
cist an urn, placed with its face downwards, full of ashes and half-calcined bones. The spot 
was visited by Fenton, the historian of Pembrokeshire, who saw the urn and its contents, 
and communicated the facts to Sir Richard C. Hoare, the 'antiquarian, who got them 
published in the Cambro- Briton. It seems that this interesting spot had from time immemorial 
been called by the country people Ynys Bronwen, the Islet of Bronwen. 

To enumerate the ancient places of sepulture, the tumuli and the cists, &c., which have 



HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES. 21 

been discovered in Anglesey, would be out of place and too tedious in these pages. The 
information must be looked for in the Archaol. Cambrensis and other antiquarian and 
scientific journals. 

2. Historic Antiquities. 

The limits at command permit the enumeration here of only a few of the more 
prominent historic antiquities of Anglesey. Divided between civil and ecclesiastical, these 
antiquities would well fill a volume by themselves. 

The chief monument of historic antiquity, after the venerable churches of the island, 
some of which are of greater age, is the magnificent ruin of Beaumaris Castle. It is on 
the estate of Sir Richard Bulkeley, Bart , of Baron Hill, forming as it were a symbol of the 




BEAUMARIS CASTLE (from a Photograph by Bedford). 

antiquity of his family, as it does a portion of the scenery of his park. It stands on a 
spot the fairest and sweetest in the country, and the story of its creation tells of times the 
most calamitous for the passing hour, but the most beneficent in the progress of ages for the 
nation of the Cymry, 

The plan of this sumptuous and mighty erection, at once palace and fortress, reveals the 
wonderful conceptions and the equally wonderful resources of Edward I. As it stood when 
finished, although not equal to Caerphilly in extent, or to Carnarvon in grace and elegance, 
it was a stupendous and truly magnificent creation. 

Edward I., the castle-builder, who made castle-building not a pastime, but a serious, 
although tastefully conducted means to an end, had to contend with no common enemy, 
when, after erecting such mighty strongholds as Carnarvon and Conway Castles, he had 
to build such a place as Beaumaris Castle with a view to the overawing and coercion 
of the little island of Anglesey. 



22 ANGLESEY. 

In 1295 he selected the site for this fortress on what was then a flat marsh ; planning 
it so that the fosse could be filled all round by every tide, and provision for the garrison be 
landed direct from the boats. The engraving gives some idea of the magnitude of the place, 
although it takes in but a small portion of one of four sides of the structure ; what remains 
of this is but a sadly dilapidated ruin. The castle proper, part of which is here portrayed, 
was surrounded by an enclosing wall or ballium, entered by a great gateway and drawbridge, 
and strengthened at intervals by ten circular bastion towers. All this outstanding work was 
a protection to the castle : the castle, when this was taken, was a protection to its inmates 
and garrison. 

The castle itself rose from the centre of the field enclosed by the forementioned curtain 
in quadrangular form, crowned on all four corners, and at the centre of each side, by 
a powerful and ornamental round tower. These strong castle walls, some 8 or 10 feet 
in thickness, enclosed the spaces and covered passages for defence, and the great 
apartments, chapel, &c., of the castle; and within the whole, forming an open centre 
for light, ventilation, and exercise, was an area or quadrangle 190 feet square. One side, the 
north-west, contained the banqueting hall, 70 feet by 24, lighted by five beautifully traceried 
large Gothic windows. On the eastern side was the chapel our Plantagenets were 
" pious " men, and looked to the east, of Early English, of course, and with many a 
graceful feature of groined roof, moulded mullion, and leafy boss. On the altar was the 
golden crucifix and the quiet light ; in and out glided the priest (now about to become 
a tonsured celibate), and the great Edward was now and then, whenever the Council and 
the Battle-field permitted, among the humble worshippers. 

Just the other side, in fell contrast with traceried and groined chapel, tapestried hall, and 
scented boudoir, there are numerous dark and cavernous recesses and depths whose 
purpose it is not hard to conjecture, and whose actual use for long and dismal years 
it is well that oblivion should cover. Many men of the best blood of Mona, children of her 
princes and nobles, stout mailed defenders of her privileges and immemorial rights, saw the 
last of the light of heaven when they entered these places ; their brave words of patriotism 
and defiance were here silenced, and their names are to us unknown. 

It is, however, some comfort to recollect, that the deadly struggle between Edward I. and 
the Welsh did not long continue after the erection of Beaumaris Castle. Its building took 
place when Llewelyn, the last Prince of Wales, had already been dead thirteen years, and 
the formal union of Wales to England had been declared an equal time. The spirit of the 
Cymry long rebelled, and their frequent insurrections gave sore trouble for a series of years; 
but the embers one after the other died out, and Edward's great castles by degrees became 
mere memorials of a conflict whose severity and stubbornness were almost unparalleled while 
it lasted, but which exhausted powers at last brought to an end. 

The bickerings between the garrison and the inhabitants were so frequent and annoying 
when Henry VII. mounted the throne that he for a time suppressed the garrison. Among 
the more prominent facts of the castle's mid-age history is the appointment as its constable 
in 1440 of Wylliam Bulkeley, Esq., the first of the Bulkeley family of Baron Hill. (See 
Bulkeley, Baron Hill.) The constableship remained in this family, almost without inter- 
mission, until the final dissolution of the garrison. The Welsh having grown more quiet, 
the castle was of little use for a long series of years, when at last the civil wars led 



HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES. 23 

to the termination of its regular occupation. During the struggle between Charles I. 
and the Parliament it was strongly garrisoned, and held out stoutly for the King, under 
command of Colonel Bulkeley, son of Viscount Bulkeley, the governor. The Parliamentary 
forces, however, under General Mytton, in 1648, so closely invested it that the 'garrison was 
compelled to capitulate, obtaining honourable terms. After this time the castle gradually 
fell into decay, and was ultimately dismantled and abandoned. It continued the property 
of the Crown until some few years ago, when it was- purchased by the present Sir Richard 
Bulkeley, who has tastefully laid out the grounds, and made them available for the recreation 
of the inhabitants of Beaumaris. 

Lleiniog Castle, on the way from Beaumaris to Penmon, is the next ruined fortress 
of any size in Anglesey, and is of much earlier date than Beaumaris Castle. It is probably 
.the Castle of " Aberlleiniog " which was built by the Norman, Hugh, Earl of Chester, 
" Hugh the Fat," as the Welsh in derision called him, during his conflicts with Gryffydd 
ap Cynan. The date of its erection is given as 1080, so that it had become a hoary 
structure before the foundations of Beaumaris Castle had been dug; and yet the part 
of it standing looks to-day strong and firm. Before that time it certainly cannot have been 
built, for although the Welsh did build strongholds, it is quite certain that castle-building, in 
a style so artistic and finished as even this fragment displays, was not known either 
amongst the Welsh or the English before the Conquest. 

Some have dated Lleiniog Castle to the conquest of Anglesey by Egbert of Wessex, but 
there is no evidence for such an opinion, and the evidence of the ruin itself is distinct 
against it. 

Aberlleiniog, which it guards, is a little creek which leads up a pretty dingle into the 
interior. The castle would equally prevent the introduction of hostile forces by this inlet, 
and guard the road from Beaumaris to Penmon and Priestholm the Priest-island, an 
important line of communication. 

The stronghold of Ednyfed Fychan, Llewelyn's distinguished general and councillor, 
was at Tregarnedd, near Llangefni. Alas for the shortness of human memory ! This man, 
so brave, so strong, so wise, whose blood also runs in so many of the bluest veins in 
Anglesey, and who only terminated his active career less than 700 years ago, at this day 
has scarcely a man in the neighbourhood of his castle of Tregarnedd who knows his name. 
People of the genuine race of the old Cymry live there, sheltered by the very stones of the 
stronghold where that brave captain spent many an anxious and weary night, while he and 
his great master Llewelyn ap lorwerth were battling for the liberty and life of Wales, who are 
totally unaware of the sanctity of the spot. The writer in 1870 was assured on the very 
floor of Ednyfed Fychan that no such castle as was sought after had ever existed there no 
such man as Ednyfed Fychan, prudent councillor and heroic chieftain, had ever called that 
place his own. And truly the good people's disowning words seemed borne out by the 
common and impoverished aspect of the spot. There was no history in it. A walk to the rear 
of the row of cottages, however, and a survey of the cottage gardens, brought some clear 
fragments of monumental history to light, and made you hear the solemn voice of the genius 
loci. The very cottage walls at the back are the stoutly built, undisturbed walls of an 
ancient edifice, pierced with window-openings finely arched with hewn stone. All round the 
garden ground the ditch of a fortress is plainly discernible, and the up-and-down surface 



24 ANGLESEY. 

tells of disturbance and change. But potato and onion beds cover the courtyard where the 
war charger used to paw, and the voices of children playing replace the harsh tones of the 
mailed men-at-arms. 

Of the princely residence of Aberffraw, as already shown, there are no remnants visible. 



3 . Ecclesiastical A ntiquities. 

The religious character of the Monwyson did not cease with the extinction of Druidism. 
The period of Roman domination, which began with the massacre of priests and the demolition 
of groves and temples, saw and encouraged the introduction of a purer faith. Christianity 
by degrees won its way among the Roman legions, generals, and emperors ; and by some 
agency or other, now hopelessly unknown, the nation of the Cymry, throughout what was 
soon designated by the conquerors Britannia Secunda, received the faith in its simple purity, 
uncontarninated by the errors which even already began to disfigure it in the Western or 
Romish Church. We know but little, however, of the first fortunes of Christianity in 
Anglesey. In time the British Church yielded to the fascination and the force of the Saxon 
Romish Church, and the maxims and practices of Rome were introduced into Anglesey. 
The religious character of the inhabitants is plainly seen from the abundance of religious 
houses the island contained in the Middle Ages, traces of many of which still continue. 

The inhabitants of the island in the Middle Ages probably did not exceed three or four 
thousand souls, and yet we find the surface of the land in the latter end of this period dotted 
with numerous monastic establishments, chapelries, and oratories, some of them places of 
note and large extent. In the Comot of Tindaethwy, on the Menai, we find the great 
settlement of Cor Seiriol at Penmon, a Benedictine priory, with a supplementary cell or 
place of stricter retirement on Ynys Seiriol, Priestholm. The fair district of Llanfaes, in the 
close neighbourhood of the more recent Beaumaris, had a house of Grey Friars, founded, it 
is said, in 1237, by Llewelyn ap lorwerth (the Great), and built over the grave of his wife, 
the Princess Joan. Nearly on the same spot stands the present mansion, called " The Friars." 

On the south-western corner of the island, on the promontory, or rather, island of 
Llanddwyn, as far from human habitations as monks could creep, was the shrine of 
Dwynwen, the famed daughter of Urth, much resorted to, it is said, by the N. Welsh 
youth of both sexes who were oppressed by the anxieties and vexations of love. To her 
the amorous Davydd ap Gwilym sang the words, 

' ' Dwynwen ! fair as the tears of morning ! 
Thy golden image in its choir, 
Illumined with waxen torches, 
The pains of pettish mortals 
Well knows the art to heal : 
With sad and wounded heart shall none return from Llanddwyn." 

Holyhead probably obtained the epithet " holy" thro 'gh the monastery established there 
by Cybi, a contemporary of St. David (sixth century). There was also a monastic house 
of some sort at Llanfair-ynghornwy, and cells and chapels, some as supplementary to the 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 25 

monasteries, some as family oratories, supporting permanent service, spread in considerable 
numbers all over the island. Whether all these existed contemporaneously may be a matter 
of doubt : when they ceased, and whither their property, if they had any, went, it is now 
impossible to say. But the last sweep, which cleared the whole into oblivion, came with 
Henry VIII. and the Reformation. 

It is worthy of notice that the chief monasteries were set down near spots already 
rendered venerable by the Druidic worship. Although Christianity necessarily proved fatal to 
what still remained of the form and visible operations of Druidism, the religious instinct and 
feeling in both were substantially identical, and the teachers of the divine creed, partaking 
in some measure in the sentiment, and respecting the prejudices and loving attachments of 
the popular mind with regard to the waning faith, despised not the places and names which 
were held in such high veneration by the inhabitants. The parish churches founded in early 
times in Anglesey are numerous, and some of the structures are of great age. Among these 
may be mentioned Llaneilian, near Amlwch, a venerable pile, containing features of especial 
interest ; Llanfaelog (now rebuilt) ; Llangwyfen ; Llanynghenedl, on Holyhead ; Llanbadrig 
Cemmaes ; Tregaian ; Pentraeth ; Llangadwaladr, near Bodorgan Station ; Aberffraw ; Tref- 
draeth ; Penmynydd (rebuilt), containing the famous tomb of Owen Tudor. 



SECTION VI. OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 

The houses, once manorial, or the centres of wide lordships, the abodes of households of 
gentle descent, which have either disappeared altogether from the face of Anglesey, or have 
succumbed to fortune and been converted into farmhouses or their out-buildings, are 
unusually numerous. Bodeon, Tregarnedd, Penheskin, Penmynydd Mon, Porthamel, Hen- 
bias, Llanddyfnan, are among the many examples that at once suggest themselves. The 
families also which once were prominent, led in the field, presided on the bench, held the 
land in fee, and kept their troops of retainers, are gone. The very names of many have 
perished, and we grope after them by curious guesses, if perchance in the local names which 
still cling to the soil we can discover their shape and signification. Others remain on yellow 
parchments, and we fall upon them with more than the interest of those who disentomb 
precious relics of marble and gold, or foundations and carved work of ancient temples. But 
if some sink and disappear, others come and take their places. The wealth and population 
of the island are still on the increase, and many of the oldest families seem as young and 
vigorous as ever. 

Mindful of the scope of this work, we of course refrain from indulging in memorials of 
legendary times, or in any in later ages but those relating to households of prominence and 
influence in the island. There will be some repetition of the same names in the record of 
sheriffs hereafter to be given, but this is unavoidable. It must be remembered that in the 
period referred to under this section the scale and standard of station and gentility differed 
greatly from what the present age affects. The mansion was often humble, the patrimony 
small, extravagance and daintiness were alike excluded; and yet the man, through ancient 
descent or through noble deeds and character, occupied his position of weight and consider- 



26 



ANGLESEY. 



ation as one of the gentry of the land. Our times are more showy, ambitious, and expensive ; 
but it may be questioned whether the more splendid mansions and appointments of to-day 
cultivate more true courtesy and hospitality, or command a whit more respect than did the 
plain paternal home of the old country gentleman whose hospitality amounted almost to a 
perpetual open table, and whose relation to his neighbours and tenantry was that of a 
protector and friend. 

The following are a few of the families once prominent in Anglesey, whose descent was 
ancient, and which in most instances have no place in the present roll of the county. They 
were almost all on their estates when Lewys Dwnn collected his " Heraldic Visitations " 
about the year 1588, and some came down to a much later period. Unless otherwise 
mentioned, none of them survived in their old homes at the time of the visitation made 
of Anglesey in 1870 in compiling the present work. Most of the places were noted as early 
as A.D. 1352 in the Extenta Com. Anglesey of Edward III. 



ABERFFRAW. 

Hugh ap Robert, Bachelor of Arts, of this place, 
traced his lineage to Cilmin Droetu, founder of one 
of the noble tribes of North Wales. Robert, his 
father, was son of Madog ap Rhys of Llandwrog, 
and had married Elin, daughter of William ap Howel, 
&c., of Llandwrog, whose mother, Catharine, was a 
descendant of Sir Howel y Fwyall. Meyrick supposes 
that Hugh ap Robert was the parson who was de- 
prived of the rectory of Newborough and other pre- 
ferme,nts on Mary's accession, for being married. 

PENHESGIN. 

Rhisiart ap Rolant Wynn, of Penhesgin, in the 
Comot of Tindaethwy, claimed descent from lerwerth 
ap Jarddur, in the twelfth generation. He married 
Elen, daughter of William Coetmor of Coetmor, by 
Sian, daughter of William ap William of Cochwillan. 

Rolant, his father, married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Richard ap Meurig of Badorgan. We find from 
Meyrick, note to Dwnn, that the Penhesgin estate 
continued in the Wynn family for several generations 
after this, and passed at last with Elizabeth, an 
heiress, to her husband, Francis Edwards, of Plas 
yn y Coed, Flintshire. With their daughter, an 
heiress, it passed in 1722 to the Wynnes of Llwyn, 
Denb., a branch of the house of Gwydir, by whom 
eventually it was sold. 

LLANGADWALADR. 

Rolant Gruffydd, Esq., J.P., eldest son of Lewis ap 
Gruffydd ap Llewelyn ap Einion Sais. Einion Sais 
of Bodorgan, ancestor of the Meyricks, had married 
Eva Meredydd ap Cadwgan ap Llowarch ap Bran, 
founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of N. Wales. 
Rolant Gruffydd married Catrin, daughter of Thomas 
Mostyn ap Rhisiart ap Howel ap Ivan Vychan. 
Their daughter and heiress, Florence, married Robert 
Gruffydd ap Sion of Carnarvon, and had issue. 

HEN EGLWYS, Comot of Malldraeth. 
David Lloyd ap William traced to Einion of Llan- 



wnda, county Carnarvon. He married Margaret, 
daughter and co-heiress of William ap Llewelyn ap 
Howel ap Ivan ap Howel, and had, with other issue, 
a son, William. 

LLANFAETHLU. 

John Wynn Owain, of Llanfaethlu, was son of 
Sion ap Owain ap Meurig, as in the pedigree of 
Bodowen and Bodorgan. The Owens of Llan- 
faethlu were the stock whence sprang the Owens, late 
of Orielton, in Pembrokeshire. 

BEAUMARIS. 

Gabriel Roberts, of Beaumaris, son of Lewis ap 
Robert, was descended from Jarddur, sometimes called 
a founder of one of the noble tribes, and his wife 
Angharad, heiress of Meredydd ap Maelgwyn ap Cad- 
wallon, Lord of Ceri. Gabriel Roberts m. Ann, 
dau. of John Harden (Hawarden) of Cheshire, and 
(2nd) Dorothy, dau. of Robert Torbrick, of Ruthin. 

CHWAEN DDU, Llantrisant. 

From Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife Angharad, dau. 
of Owain ap Edwin, whose son was Owain Gwynedd, 
descended Hugh Hughes of Chwaen Ddu. He in. 
Jonet, dau. of William ap Rhys Wyn of Clegyr, by 
whom he had, with other issue, a son, Richard, whose 
dau. and heir, Jane, m. William Wyn, son of Thomas 
Wyn of Coytley, in Eivionydd, Carnarvon. Meyrick, 
note to Dwnn, says, " This pedigree is continued long 
after the days of L. Dwnn, for William Wyn, the 
husband of Jane Hughes, was living on the 4th Feb., 
1717." 

TREF ANGHARAD, Bodedern. 

Gruffydd ap Davydd, of Tref Angharad, traced his 
pedigree to Madog ap Jarddur through eleven genera- 
tions. He ///., 1st, Marsli, dau. of Rhys ap Huw of 
Llanfechell ; 2nd, Elin, dau. of Lewis ap Sion Owen of 
Llanddygwel, and had issue of both. 

SYBWLLDIR, Parish of Bodedern. 
Davydd ap Rhys of this place traced his descent 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 



through thirteen generations to Owain Gwynedd. He 
m. Jane, dau. of Sion ap Owen of Bodowen (see Bodor- 
gan), and had issue. He was m. also to Elizabeth, 
dau. of Huw ap Rhisiart, but whether as his second 
wife is uncertain. 

CLEGYROG, Parish of Llanbadrig. 
William ap Rhys Wyn, traced to Howel ap Jerwerth 
Ddu. His grandfather, Sir (or Rev.) Davydd ap Rhys, 
m. Morfydd, dau. of Tudyr Llwyd, descending from 
Madog ap Jarddur. William ap Rhys Wyn m. Ann, 
dau. of Thomas ap Rhys of Bodavon, and (2nd) Sioned, 
dau. of William ap Rhys. The lands of Clegyrog 
passed by marriage of dau. and heir of William ap 
Rhys Wyn to the Wynnes of Pengwern, Llanwnda. 

PENMYNYDD. 

Ancestry of Owen Tudor and the Tudor Royal 
House. Davydd Fychan, ap Davydd Lloyd, ap 
Cynwrig, ap Goronwy, ap Cynwrig (Kendric or 
Kyner), ap Jorwerth, ap Hwva, ap Cynddelw, founder 
of one of the fifteen noble tribes of N. Wales. Davydd 
Fychan m. Angharad, dau. of Gruffydd ap Davydd ap 
Tudor. By a second marriage he had a dau. , Marged. 
Meredydd ap Tudor ap Grouw m. a co-heiress of 
Davydd Fychan, and had issue Owen Tudor, Esq., of 
Penmynydd, Mon., who is known to have m. Catherine, 
widow of King Hemy V., by whom he had two sons, 
Edmund and Jasper. The former became Earl of 
Richmond and Pembroke, and his son was Henry VII. 
of England, the first of the royal house of Tudor. 
PENMYNYDD. 

Davydd Owen Tudur, Esq. , of Penmynydd, claimed 
descent through Ednyfed Fychan from Marchydd ap 
Cynan, founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of 
N. Wales. His father, Richard ap Owen ap Tudur 
Fychan of Penmynydd, was sheriff of Anglesey in 
1565 and 1573. Davydd Owen Tudur was m. and had 
issue, but his wife's name and family are not given. 
His arms were those of Marchudd, of Ednyfed Fychan, 
of Madog ap Grouw Fychan, of Jarddur, Cadwaladr 
and Gruffydd ap Cynan, quarterly. He signed his 
name " Dd. Owen Theoder " to his pedigree, drawn 
by Dwnn. The estate of Penmynydd became by de- 
scent the property of Jane, dau. of Rowland Bulkeley, 
Esq., of Porthamel, who had in. Mary, dau. of Richard 
Owen of Penmynydd. She m. R. Meyrick, Esq., of 
Bodorgan, and sold Penmynydd in 1722 to Richard, 
Viscount Bulkeley. Meyrick. 

PLAS NEWYDD. 

Morus Gruffydd, Justice of the Peace, and Quo- 
rum, son and heir of Robert Gruffydd, Esq., traced 
up through Ednyfed Fychan to Marchudd ap Cynan of 
Bryn Ffanigl, founder of one of the noble tribes of N. 
Wales. He m. Jane, dau. of John Wyn ap Hugh of 
Bodvel, Esq., and had among other issue Robert 
Gruffydd, Esq., living 1594. Morus Gruffydd of Pias 
Newydd was M.P. for Beaumaris in the second 
Parliament of Edward VI., 1553. 

MYVYRIAN, Llanidan. 

The descent of Rhydderch ap Richard of this place 
was in the twelfth degree from Jarddur ap Cynddelw, 



or more correctly Jarddur ap Trahaianr ap Cynddelw. 
One of his ancestors, Ivan ap Ednyfed, m. Gwen- 
llian, dau. of levan ap Llewelyn, and heiress to the 
Myvyrian property. Meyrick takes occasion to say 
that the matrimonial connections between the families 
of Bodowyr and Myvyrian were so close and compli- 
cated that Sir Edward Trevor of Brynkinallt wrote the 
following epitaph on Eva, his grandmother : 

" Here lies by name the world's mother ; 

By nature my aunt, sister to my mother ; 

By law my grandmother, mother to my mother ; 

My great -grandmother, mother to my grandmother. 

All this may be without breach of consanguinity." 

LLWYDIARTH, Comot of Twrcelyn. 
Davydd Lloyd, son and heir of Rhys Wynn of 
Llwydiarth, claimed lineage through Cynwrig ap ler- 
werth, &c. , from Cynedda Wledig. One of his ances- 
tors, Davydd ap Ivan, killed in an affray at Beaumaris, 
m. Angharad, dau. of William ap Gruffydd of Penrhyn. 
Davydd Lloyd ap Rhys Wynn himself m. Elizabeth, 
dau. of Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Porthamel, an ancestor 
of the present W. B. Hughes, Esq., M.P., of Plas 
Coch. The arms of Davydd Lloyd were, quarterly, 
those of Carwed of Twrcelyn, those of Tegvrin, and 
those of Davydd ap Gwilym ap Gruffydd ap Robin. 
He lived 1594. 

PORTHAMEL ISSA. 

Hugh Hughes, in the line of Llowarch ap Bran, 
founder of one of the noble tribes of N. Wales, lived 
here in 1594. (See Hughes, Plas Coch.) 

TY MAWR, Amlwch. 

Gruffydd ap David of Tymawr, living there 1588, 
was descended from Ednyfed ap Cadrod Hardd. He 
m. Sioned, dau. of Robert ap Howel ap Gruffydd ap 
Goronwy. His arms were the coat of Cadrod Hardd, 
and per pale those of Goronwy of Bangor. 

BODSILIN, Malldraeth. 

Robert, son and heir of Owen ap Robert, was 
descended from Hwfa ap Cynddelw, founder of one 
of the noble tribes of N. Wales. Robert's great- 
great-grandfather, Meurig, was son of Mali (Mary), 
heiress of Bodsilin. A window in Llangadwaladr 
Church contains memorials of him and his father, 
Llewelin, with Meurig's armorial bearings, gu., a chev- 
ron, bet. three lions rampant, or. Underneath is this 
linguistic curiosity, " Orate pro animal Meyrick ap 
Llewelyn ap Hulkin, and Marggaretse uxoris, and 
Odoeni Meyrick and Ellene, ferch Robert! Meredith' 
de Glynlleon, Armigeri, uxoris suse, qui hanc fenes- 
tram fieri facierunt." Robert of Bodsilin signed his 
name in 1588 "Robert Owen." His arms were, the 
coat of Hwfa ap Cynddelu, gules, a chevron, bet. three 
lions rampant, or ; (2) those of Cochwillan ; (3) those 
of Jarddur. 

LLAN-FAES ABBEY, " Mynachlog Llan Vaes," now 
"Friars," Beaumaris. 

John White was third son of Robert Vychan of 
Talhenbont, ap Griffith, ap Howel, ap Madog. His 



28 



ANGLESEY. 



surname seems hitherto to have been Wyn, but being 
in the service of the Earl of Pembroke A.D. 1565, who 
had another person in his household of the name of 
John Wyn, "for distinction's sake, he (the Earl) desired 
this John Wyn ap Robert Vychan to call himself by 
the sirname of White, which his posterity have con- 
tinued." Par. in Dzvtin's Account. Many names in 
Wales, apparently English, are similarly mere transla- 
tions of the Welsh name. John White, or Wyn, 
/. Margaret, dau. of Jevan ap John ap Meredydd, 
and had a son, Richard White, who was Sheriff of 
Anglesey in the years 1568, 1582, 1594. "He pur- 
chased the Abbey of Llanfaes A.D. 1563." Meyrick. 
The Whites intermarried with the Bulkeleys of Beau- 
maris, Owens of Ystumcedig, WynnsofGlynllivon, &c. 

HENLLYS, Beaumaris. 
See Hampton- Lewis, Henllys. 

HlRDREVAIG. 

Elisau ap Morus Wyn of Hirdrevaig was descended 
from Gruffydd ap Cynan, founder of one of the royal 
tribes of Wales. His brother was Sir Richard Wyn 
of Brynkir, Carnarvon, captain of 100 men in Ireland, 
Provost Marshal of Flushing under Sir Philip Sidney. 
The Hirdrefaig estate, says Meyrick, passed bymarriage 
into the family of Lloyd of Llangwnadle, Carnarvon, 
and has since passed into that of Edwards of Nanhoron, 
Carnarvon. 

BODEWRYD, Comot of Llivon. 

Hugh Lewis, Esq., of Bodewryd, 1588, was de- 
scended froih Hwva ap Cynddelw, founder of one of 
the noble tribes of N. Wales. He m. as his second 
wife Jane, dau. of Richard White, of "The Friars," 
Anglesey, and relict of Griffith Lloyd of Carne, and 
had a second dau., Magdalen, who m. John Wood of 
Llangwyfen, and had a dau. , Jane, who had a second 
husband, John Gruffydd, Esq., of Carreglwyd, who d. 
1695 or 1696, leaving issue. Hugh Lewis of Bode- 
wryd bore on his escutcheon, quarterly, the arms of 
Hwva ap Cynddelw and of Tegwared. 

CHYVAF.NUCHAF, OR CHWAEN WEN, Llantrisant. 

William Lewis, son and heir of John Lewis, Esq., 
traced his ancestry through the same line, after meet- 
ing in the eighth generation in Howel ap Jerwerth, 
with Lewis of Bodewryd, up to Hwva ap Cynddelw. 
He bore the arms of Hwva ap Cynddelw, gules, a 
chevron between three lions rampant, or, quarterly, 
with the coat of Llywarch Holbwrch (Holborough). 

PRESADDFED, Bodedern. 

William Lewis, Justice of the Peace, of Presaddfed, 
was a near relation of William Lewis of Chwaen Wen 
just named, being, in fact, his father's brother, and 
therefore of the same lineage. He m. Margaret, dau. 
of Sir John Puleston, Kt, of the line of Pulestons of 
Emral, Flint, and had three sons of whom Hugh m. 
Margaret, dau. of William ap John ap Rhys, an heiress 
and six daus. One m. William Hampton of Henllys; 



another, Margaret, m. Richard Bulkely ap Rowland ; 
a third, Anne, m. David Owen Tudyr, Esq., of I'en- 
mynydd. See Hampton-Lewis, Henllys. William 
Lewis bore the arms of Hwva ap Cynddelw quarterly 
with those of Lloyd of Bodsilin and Llywarch ap Bran 
(Ar., a chevron bet. three Cornish choughs, proper, 
each bearing in its bill a "Queen of Ermin"). 
Cambr. Reg., i., 147. 

TREfORWERTH, Bodedern. 

John, son and heir of Morus ap Moras of Tref 
lorwerth, was descended from Hwva ap Cynddelw. 
He m. (ist) Janet, dau. of William Woods, Esq. ; 
(and) Margaret, dau. of Gruffydd ap Huw, and had 
issue of both. His son, Owen, m. Elen, daughter of 
Hugh ap Gr. ap David ap Ithel, and their daughter 
Margaret m. Hugh Gwyn ap Rhys, living 1588. Of 
another wife he had a son, Owen Hughes, Bach, of 
Laws, who, with other issue, had a son, Hugh 
Hughes. John of Treiorwerth, 1588, went by the 
name of John ap Morys Griffith. He bore the arms 
of Hwva ap Cynddelw, and of Rhys ap Evan. 

TREVEILIR, Comot of Malldraeth. 

John, son and heir of John, of Treveilir, traced 
his genealogy up to Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, founder of 
one of the five royal tribes of Wales. Gruffydd ap 
Llewelyn, his ancestor in the ninth degree, m. the dau. 
of Gwion Vychan ap Gwion, from Meilir of Tre Veilir. 
John of Treveilir m. Jane, dau. of Rowland ap 
Richard ap Rowl. ap Owen ap Meurig, and had a 
son, John Owen, who m. Elen, dau. of Sir William 
Thomas of Carnarvon, whose great-grandson, David, 
was an infant in 1688. The name, which afterwards 
became the surname Owen, began as the Christian 
name of Owen ap John ap Rhys, grandfather of 
John Owen Treveilir, of 1588. The arms of John 
Owen were rather complex as described by LHvnn : 
I. The coat of ^euan ap Llewelyn ap David Goch, 
i. e., argent, a chevron, azure, between three falcons, 
heads and right feet azure. 2. Ar., three saddles, sa. 
3. The coat of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (or, a lion rampant, 
gules, crowned, or). This John Owen was a collector 
of historic records, and was one of those who gave 
Lewys Dwnn access to ' ' old records and books from 
religious houses." Her. Visit., i., 8. 

TREF DAVYDD, Malldraeth. 

Rowland Owen, of Tref Davydd, 1588, son and 
heir of Richard ap Rowland, had a lineage traced to 
Hwva ap Cynddelw (related to Bodeon, Badafon, 
Bodowen). He m. Margaret, dau. of Owen ap Robert 
Owen, and had issue. He lived at Tref Davydd in 
1588, and wore on his shield the arms of Hwva ap 
Cynddelw. 

It is worthy of notice that although Anglesey 
claimed four out of the fifteen founders of noble 
tribes, the old families above recorded more frequently 
referred to Hwva ap Cynddelw as their ancestor than 
to any others, and the proportion who bore his arms 
is very large. 



ORIGIN OF THE TUDORS. 29 



ANGLESEY ORIGIN OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF TUDOR. 

In the time of Edward III., or about A.D. 1350, there lived at Penmynydd Mon a quiet 
country gentleman, not, however, unaccustomed to the use of arms, of the line of Ednyfed 
Fychan, and, as already shown, of Hwfa ap Cynddelw, founder of one of the noble tribes (see 
" Penmynydd "). This gentleman was Tudor ap Gronw, who attracted the notice of 
Edward III., became his favourite, and was made by him a knight. He was grandfather 
of Owen Tudor, himself grandfather of King Henry VII., and he, again, grandfather 
of the great Elizabeth. 

No succession of sovereigns has wielded a mightier influence on the destinies of Great 
Britain than has that of the House of Tudor. Henry VII. and Henry VIII., Mary and 
Elizabeth, and not forgetting the mild and youthful Edward VI., despite grave defects and 
vices, must always be looked back to as rulers of mark. Every one of them showed real 
mettle, some of them qualities of imperial grandeur. Force of will was perhaps the domi- 
nant element in the two Henrys and Elizabeth ; and if Henry VIII. had rid himself of his 
base animalism, and Elizabeth had tempered her autocratic dignity and stubbornness with 
more feminine gentleness and respect for the opinions of her subjects, no such king and no 
such queen had been seen in England between Alfred the Great and Victoria. 

It is scarcely an hour's walk from the Menai Suspension Bridge to the spot whence the 
Tudors sprang. The country through which you pass is so common, bare, and lonely, that 
however buoyant you feel from the pure and balmy atmosphere, a sense of sadness and 
depression steals over the mind as you think that you are searching amid such scenes for the 
birthplace of a royal race, and that to all appearance you are the only searcher who has trod 
those narrow and uneven lanes on such an errand for many a day, for no pilgrims travel 
this way ; no curiosity is felt respecting the cradle of the race of Tudor ; not even a 
photograph of Penmynydd can be found. And yet veritably you are on sacred ground. 
Earnest, strong men, mailed and visored, rode along those lanes, were lords of those acres, 
looked out on those grey boulders on the moorland, and on those crags and heathy knolls, 
and went off to fight by the side of the Black Prince in France ; and you are close to the . 
dwelling where lived that Tudor ap Gronw who was made a knight by the Black Prince's 
royal father. 

You have on the right a little church perched on a rising ground, where the family of 
Tudor worshipped and are buried, and which contains to the memory of Owen one of the 
noblest tombs in the land ; and going down a steep short hill, see to the right a quiet farm- 
house, whose whole expression forbids the thought that from that homestead there ever sprang 
anything great or historic. A few trees, far from stately, shelter the dwelling. The entrance 
is by a lane deep and narrow, which speaks of the wearing feet and rains of generations, but 
of little besides. You see no grey or ivied ruin of wall or tower, no gabled roof or 
mullioned window, pillar or pediment. All that is visible is a downright commonplace 
Anglesey farmhouse, which seems to be satisfied with its humble lot, and to know of nothing 
higher. 

Here, it is likely, was Owen Tudor born, though some have doubted it. It was his 
patrimony. But Owen was brought up to the law, and loved travel and courtliness better 
than the bar ; was one of the handsomest men in England, and withal " garnished with 
many godly gifts," and won the affections of Catharine, the widowed queen of Henry V., 
who married him. (See Pedigree, infra.} 

Owen did not escape reproach from marrying a queen, nor did Henry, Earl of Richmond, 
find his way to the throne smoother, or his seat upon it softer, for being the son of a Welsh 
country gentleman. Richard III., whom the strong hand of the Welshman at last overcame 
on Bosworth Field, despised, pursued, and maligned him. From " oure Castell of Notyng- 
ham, in the 2nd yere of our reign," he issues a proclamation in which he complains that 



ORIGIN OF THE TUDORS. 



" the rebeles and traitours" had chosen "to be their capitayne oon Henry Tidder, son of 
Edmand Tidder, son of Owen Tidder, whiche of his ambitious and insatiable covetise 
incroacheth and usurpeth upon hym the name and title of royal estate of this roiaulme of 
Englande, whereunto he hath no manner of interest, right, title, or colour, as every man wel 
knoweth, for he is descended of bastarde blod both of the fader side and moder side ; for 
the said Owen, the grandfader, was a bastard borne, and his moder was doughter unto John 
Due of Somerset, sone unto John Erie of Somerset, sone unto dame Kateryne Swynford, 
and of her in double advoutrow goten." 

Henry, however, gained the throne, and, with true Tudor spirit, to repel the imputation 
cast on his descent, issued a commission " to make inquisition " concerning the pedigree of 
Owain Tudor, his grandfather. Dr. Powel, referring to the subject in his " Historic of 
Cambria," published in 1584, says, "I cannot passe, but must- something answere the 
reproachfull and slanderous assertions of Johannes Bernardus, Pontus, Henterus, and others, 
who go about to abase the noble parentage of the said Owen, this King's grandfather, 
following more their owne affectionate humors, than anie good proofe or authoritie, for 
if they would read that noble worke of Matthew Paris, they shall finde in pag. 843 of the 
printed booke, that Ednyuet Fachan, one of his ancestors, was the chiefest of Counsell to 
Llewelyn ap lorwerth, otherwise called Leolinus Magnus, and to David ap Llewelyn, Princes 
of Wales. . . . They may also finde in the records of the Towre in Ann. 29 Edw. I. in 
the generall homage done to Edward Carnarvon, first Prince of Wales of the English blood, 
that Tudor ap Grono, another of the ancestors of the said Owain, did his homage among the 
nobles of Wales, as appeareth in the said records. Further, the said Owain's grandmother, 
the wife of Tudor ap Grono, was Margaret, the daughter of Thomas, the sonne of Eleanor, 
which was the daughter of the Countie of Barr by Eleanor his wife, daughter to Edward the 
first, King of England." 

The Commission, Powel adds, "comming to Wales, travelled in that matter and used 
the helps of Sir John Leyaf, Guttyn Owen Bardh, Gruffyth ap Llewelyn ap Evan Vachan, 
and others in the search of the Brytish or Welsh bookes of petigrees, out of which they drew 
his perfect genealogie from the ancient Kings of Brytaine and Princes of Wales, and so 
returned their Commission, which returne is extant at this daie to be scene." 

The descent of the royal House of Tudor from Owen forward is as follows : 

OWEN TUDOR = QUEEN CATHERINE, widow of Henry V. 



Edmund. 

Cr. Earl of Richmond 1452, 
d. 1456. 



Margaret, dau. 

of John Beaufort, Duke of 

Somerset. 



Jasper, cr. Earl of 
Pembroke. 



Henry, 
Earl of Richmond, b. Jan. 21, 1456. By 
vict. of Bosworth Field, gained mainly by 
aid of his countrymen of Wales, became 
Henry VII., King of England ; d. 1509. 


= The Princess Elizabeth, 
dau. of Edward IV., and representative of House of 
York. Henry being maternally a descendant of the 
House of Lancaster, these two contending parties in 
the ' Wars of the Roses " were by this marriage united. 


Arthur, P. Margaret, Henry VIII., 
of Wales, m. James d. 1547 ; reigned 38 
m. Cathe- IV. of yrs., who had issue 
rine of Scotland, as follows, by three 
Spain, gr. mother different marriages, 
d. 1502. of Mary Q. with 
of Scots. 


III! 

Elizabeth, Mary, m. Edmund, Edward, Catherine, 
d. unmar. Louis XII., d. young, d. young. d. young. 
King of 
France. 



I. Catherine of Arragon. 

Mary = Philip of Spain. 
Cr. 1553, d. 1558. 



2. Lady Jane Seymour. 

Edward VI. 
Cr. 1547, d. 1553, unm. 



3. Anne Boleyne. 

! 

Elizabeth. 
Cr. 1558, d. 1603. Reigned 47 yrs. 



ANGLESEY SHERIFFS. 



SECTION VIL HIGH SHERIFFS OF ANGLESEY, 15411871. 

A record of the Sheriffs of a county may be viewed as a history in brief of the chief 
Families during the period embraced. In Saxon and all after times this office indexed 
the men of highest esteem with the inhabitants ; and the disappearance and emergence of 
names tell of the changes which time and fortune wrought in the chief circles of the district. 

The office of Sheriff is of ancient standing. The name is Saxon, scyr-gerefa, from 
reafan, to levy, seize, with which the German graf is cognate. The office existed under 
the Saxons, and was serviceable to the king in levying his taxes and preserving the peace ; 
but the gerefa was in most instances chosen by the freemen of the district or scyr. Substan- 
tially, the same arrangement was confirmed by the Normans. At present sheriffs are 
appointed by the Crown. This list begins temp. Henry VIII. 



HENRY VIII. A.D. 

Rhys ap Llewelyn ap Hwlkyn, Esq., of Body- 
chen, during life. 
[Under the Saxons appointment during life was 

common. ] 
Rowland Gryfiydd, of Plas Newydd . . 1541 

[Knighted about 1534. ] 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Knt. .... 1542 
[The prominence of this family in the shrievalty 
and parliamentary representation of Anglesey for 
300 years is very remarkable.] 

John ap Rhys ap Llewelyn (Bodychen) . . 1543 
William Bulkeley, Esq. , of Porthamel . . 1544 
[Son of Roland Bulkeley, Esq., of Beaumaris, and 

founder of the Porthamel branch.] 

Rhydderch ap David, Myfyrian . . . 1545 
Richard Hampton, Esq., of Henllys . . 1546 
[Ancestor of the present proprietor of Henllys.] 

EDWARD VI. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Knt., of Baron Hill . 1547 

Rowland Gruffydd, Esq., of Plas Newydd . 1548 

William Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . . 1549 
David ap Rhys ap D. ap Gwilym, Esq., of 

Llwydiarth 1550 

Hugh Peake, Esq., of Carnarvon . . . 1551 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Knt., of Baron Hill . 1552 
Rowland Gruffydd, ' dies, Rhys Thomas [of 

Aber?] 1553 

MARY, 

Thomas Mostyn, Esq., of Mostyn (Flint) . 1554 
John ap Rhys ap Llewelyn, Esq., of Bodychen 1555 
Thomas ap William, Esq., of Faenol (Cam.) . 1556 
Robert Bulkeley, Esq. , of Gronant . . . 1557 
[Third son of Rowland Bulkeley, of Beaumaris, 
and brother of William, ancestor of the Bulkeleys 
of Porthamel, now extinct.] 
William Lewis, Esq. , of Presaddfed . . 1558 

ELIZABETH. 

Lewis ap Owen ap Meurig, Esq., of Frondeg . 1556 

Sir Nicholas Bagnal, Knt. , of Ireland . . 1 560 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Knt., of Baron Hill . 1561 

Maurice Gruffydd, Esq., of Plas Newydd . 1562 

Owen ap Hugh, Esq., of Bodeon . . . 1563 
[Ancestor of Owen of Bodeon, now Bodowen, and 

of Orielton, Pemb.] 

Rice Thomas, Esq., of Aber (Cam.) . . 1564 

Richard Owen, Esq., of Pen-Mynydd . . 1565 



A.D. 

John Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . . . 1566 
David ap Rhys ap David ap Gwilym, Esq., of 

Llwydiarth ...... 1567 

Richard White, Esq., of Monachlog (now 

Friars) 1568 

[The family name was originally Wyn, and was 

literally translated.] 

Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1569 
Sir Richard Bulkeley, Knt., of Baron Hill . 1570 
[He was first Mayor of Beaumaris, and M.P. for 

Anglesey, 1571, 16031611. He erected the man- 
sion of Baron Hill 1618.] 

Lewis Owen ap Meurick, Esq., of Frondeg . 1571 
William Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . . 1572 
Richard Owen, Esq., of Pen Mynydd . . 1573 
John Wynne ap Jenkin ap John, Esq., of 

Hirdrefaig ...... 1574 

Thomas Mostyn, Esq., of Mostyn (Flint) . 1575 
Edward Conway, Esq., of Bodtryddan (Flint). 1576 
Owen Wood, Esq., of Rhosmor . . .1577 
Dr. Ellis Price, of Plas lolyn . . . . 1578 

William Thomas, Esq., of Aber (Carn.) . . 1579 
Owen ap Hugh, Esq., of Bodeon . . . 1580 
Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch . . . 1581 
[An ancestor of the present W. B. Hughes, Esq., 

M.P., and General Hughes, of Bryn-ddu. He 

built Plas Coch 1569, formerly called Porthamel.] 
John Griffith, Esq. (of Trefarthin) . . . 1582 
Richard White, Esq., of Monachlog (now 

Friars) 1583 

Thomas Glyn, Esq. , of Glynllifon ... . 1584 
Maurice Kyffin, Esq. , of Mainen . . . 1585 
Dr. Ellis Price, of Plas lolyn . . .1586 

John Griffith, Esq., of Trefarthin . . . 1587 
Thomas Mostyn, Esq., of Mostyn (Flint) . 1588 
Richard White, Esq., of Monachlog (now 

Friars) 1589 

Roger Mostyn, Esq., of Mostyn . . . 1590 
Owen Holland, Esq., of Berw . . . 1591 
[An ancestor, through his grand-niece, Mary Try- 

garn, of Miss Conway-Griffith, of Carreglwyd. 

The Hollands were formerly of Kinmel, Denb., 

and came to Berw 1500.] 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch . . . 1592 
John Griffith, Esq., of Trefarthin . . . 1593 
Richard White, Esq., of Monachlog (now 

Friars) ....... 1594 

Pierce Lloyd, Esq., ofGwaredog . . . 1595 
Arthur Bulkeley, Esq., ofCoyden . . -. 1596 



ANGLESEY SHERIFFS. 



A.D. 

William Glynn, Esq., of Glynllifon (Cam.) . 1597 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq. , of Porthamel . . 1 598 

Owen Holland, Esq., of Berw . . . 1599 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch . . . 1600 

Thomas Glynn, Esq., of Glynllifon (Cam.) . i&oi 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1602 

JAMES I. 

Pierce Lloyd, Sen., Esq., ofLligwy . . 1603 

William Lewis, Esq., ofChwaen . . . 1604 

William Griffith, Esq., of Trefarthin . . 1605 

John Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . . . 1606 

Richard Glynn, Esq., of Glynllifon (Carn. ) . 1607 

Sir Hugh Owen, Knt, of Bodeon . . . 1608 
[Or Bodowen. Sir Hugh in. the heiress of Oriel- 
ton, Pemb., removed to that place to live, and was 
the ancestor 'of the Owens, of Orielton, now dis- 
persed. ] 

Thomas Holland, Esq., of Berw . . . 1609 

William Owen, Esq., of Bodeon . . . 1610 
John Bodfel, Esq., ofBodfel .... 1611 

Pierce Lloyd, Jun., Esq., of Lligwy . . 1612 

John Wynne Edward, Esq., of Boclewryd . 1613 

Owen Wood, Esq., of Llangwyfan . . . 1614 

Richard Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . . 1615 

Hugh Lewis ap Howel, Esq., of Llanylched . 1616 

Richard Williams, Esq., of Llysdulas . . 1617 

John Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . . . 1618 

Sir William Glyn, Knt., of Glynllifon . . 1619 

Henry Lloyd, Esq., of Bod winey . . . 1620 

Hugh Wynne, Esq., of Mossoglan . . .1621 

Sir Thomas Holland, Knt., of Berw . . 1622 

Richard Owen, Esq., of Penmynydd . . 1623 

John Bodychen, Jun., Esq., of Bodychen . 1624 

William Thomas, Esq., ofCwyrt . . . 1625 

CHARLES I. 

William Griffith, Esq., of Trevarthin . . 1626 

Hugh Morgan, Esq. , of Beaumaris . . 1627 

Edward Wynne, Esq., of Bodewryd . . 1628 

Richard Wynne, Esq., of Rhydcroes . . 1629 

Thomas Glynn, Esq., of Glynllifon . . 1630 

William Robinson, Esq., ofMonachty . . 1631 

Thomas Chedle, Esq., of Lleiniog . . . 1632 

William Owen, Esq., of Frond eg . . . 1633 

Hugh Owen, Esq., of Bodowen . . . 1634 

Edward Wynne, Esq., of Bodewryd . . 1635 

Robert Wynne, Esq. , of Tre'r Gof . . . 1636 

William Bulkeley, Esq. , of Coyden . . 1637 

Pierce Lloyd, Esq., ofLligwy . . . 1638 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1639 

Owen Wood, Esq., of Rhosmor . . . 1640 

Richard Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . . 1641 

Thomas Bulkeley, Esq., of Cleifiog . . 1642 

Thomas Chedle, Esq., of Lleiniog . . . 1643 

William Bold, Esq., of Tre'r Ddol. . . 1644 

Robert Jones, Esq., of Ddreiniog . . . 1645 

Robert Jones, Esq., of Ddreiniog (again) . 1646 

Richard Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . . 1647 

CHARLES II. 

Richard Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan (again) . 1648 

William Bold, Esq., of Tre'r Ddol. . . 1649 



Owen Wood, Esq., of Rhosmor . . . 1650 
Pierce Lloyd, Esq., ofLligwy . . .1651 

Henry Owen, Esq., of Mossoglan . . . 1652 

Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1653 

Hugh Owen, Esq., of Bodeon (now Bodowen) 1654 

William Bold, Esq., of Tre'r Ddol . . . 1655 

Richard Wood, Esq., of Rhosmor . . . 1656 

Richard Owen, Esq. , of Penmynydd . . 1657 

Robert, Lord Viscount Bulkeley . . . 1658 
[Second Viscount. Title first conferred by Charles 

I. on Thomas Bulkeley, of Baron Hill, 1643.] 

Henry Lloyd, Esq., ofBodwiney . . . 1659 

Henry Lloyd, Esq., ofBodwiney (again) . 1660 
Thomas Wood, Esq., of Rhosmor . . .1661 

William Bulkeley, Esq., of Coyden . . 1662 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Llandegfan . . . 1663 

Richard Wynne, Esq., of Penheskin . . 1664 

John Owen, Esq., of Maethlu . . . 1664 
Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., ob. Howel Lewis, 

Esq 1666 

John Owen, Esq., of Penrhos . . 1667 

John Glynn, Esq., of Glynllifon (Carn.) . . 1668 

Rowland White, Esq., of Monachlog (Friars) . 1669 

Coningsby Williams, Esq., of Penmynydd . 1670 

Edward Price, Esq., of Bodowyr . . . 1671 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1672 

Owen Williams, Esq. , of Groesfechan . . 1673 

Hugh Williams, Esq., ofChwaen . . . 1674 

William Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . . 1675 

Thomas Wynne, Esq., of Rhydcroes . . 1676 

Thomas Michael, Esq., of Maeay Dryw . 1677 

Hugh Wynne, Esq., of Cromlech . . . 1678 
[Now probably the Farmhouse, Cromlech, near the 

great megalithic monument at Henblas, Mall- 

draeth.] 

David Lloyd, Esq., ofLlwydiarth . . . 1679 

Thomas Wynne, Esq., ofGlascoed. . . 1680 

Rowland Wynne, Esq., of Porthamel . . 1681 
f A new resident at Porthamel ; the Bulkeleys of 

that place disappear, and Porthamel itself is 

preparing to decay. It no more finds place in 

this list. 1 

Robert Parry, Esq., of Amlwch . . . 1682 

Owen Hughes, Esq., of Beaumaris. . . 1683 

Owen Bold, Esq., of Tre'r Ddol . . _ . 1684 

JAMES II. 

Roger Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch. . .1685 

Maurice Lewis, Esq., of Trysglwyn . . 1686 

William Bulkeley, Esq., of Coyden . . 1687 
[Ancestor to the Bulkeleys of Brynddu, now repre- 
sented by W. B. Hughes, Esq., M.P., of Plas 
Coch. 1 

Sir Hugh Owen, Knt. and Bart., of Bodowen . 1688 

Henry Sparrow, Esq. , of Beaumaris . . 1689 
[From one of the Sparrows of Allt-yr-Ynys, 
N. Wales, is descended maternally Lady Llan- 
over. See Llanover, Mon. ] 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

John Griffith, Esq. , of Garreglwyd . . . 1690 

Samuel Hanson, Esq., ofBodfel . . . 1691 
[The Bodfels of Bodfel disappear, and the place 

is not again found in this list.] 

David Williams, Esq., of Glanalaw . . 1692 

Owen Williams, Esq., of Carrog . . . 1693 



ANGLESEY SHERIFFS. 



William Jones, Esq., of Pentraeth . 

John Thomas, Esq., of Aber (Carn. ) 

Henry White, Esq. , of Friars 

[The old name, Monachlog, first appears here in an 
English garb. Some 130 years before the family 
name became White, through translation from 
Wyn. See "Old and Ext. Fam., Llanfaes 
Abbey."} 

WILLIAM III. ONLY. 
Hugh Wynne, Esq., of Tre-Iorwerth 
William Griffith, Esq. , of Garreglwyd 
Pierce Lloyd, Esq. , of Llanidan 
Francis Edwards, Esq. , of Penheskin 

[Now a farmhouse.] 
John Williams, Esq., of Chwaen Issaf . 

ANNE. 

John Wynne, Esq., of Chwaen Wen 
Robert Owen, Esq., of Penrhos 
William Owen, Esq. , of Cremlyn . 
Hugh Wynne, Esq., of Cromlech . 
Owen Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . 
Owen Roberts, Esq. , of Beaumaris 
John Sparrow, Esq., of Beaumaris 
John Griffith, Esq. , of Llanddyfnan 
William Lewis, Esq. , of Trysglwyn 
John Morris, Esq., of Cell Lleiniog 
William Roberts, Esq. , of Caerau . 

[Lady Emma Bulkeley, paternal grandmother of 
Sir Richard B. W. Bulkeley, now of Baron Hill, 
was dau. of William Roberts of Caerau.] 
Thomas Roberts, Esq., ofBodiar . 

GEORGE I. 

William Lewis, Esq., of Llysdulas . 

William Bulkeley, Esq., of Brynddu 

Maurice Williams, Esq. , of Hafodgarregog 

Edward Bayly, Esq., of Plas Newydd 

[A new name. He was afterwards made a Knt. of 
Ireland, 1730, and was father of Sir Nicholas 
Bayley, whose son Henry was gth Baron Paget, 
father of the first Marquess of Anglesey.] 

William Bodvel, Esq., of Madryn (Carn.) 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch 

Rice Thomas, Esq. , of Coedelen 
[Carn., now called Coedhelen.] 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Llanidan . 

Richard Hampton, Esq., of Henllys 

William Owen, Esq. , of Penrhos . 

John Griffith, Esq., of Garreglwyd . 

John Owen, Esq., of Presaddfed 
[A new name at Presaddfed.] 

Thomas Rowland, Esq. , of Caerau 

GEORGE II. 

Henry Morgan, Esq., of Henblas . 
John Morris, Esq., of Cell Lleiniog 
John Williams, Esq., of Tre-iarddur 
Henry Williams, Esq., of Tros y Marian 
Henry Powell, Esq. , of Llangefni . 
Robert Hampton, Esq., of Henllys 
William Evans, Esq. , of Treveilir . 
Robert Bulkeley, Esq. , of Gronant. 
Richard Lloyd, Esq. , of Rhosbeirio 
Richard Roberts, Esq., of Bodsuran 
Edmund Meyrick, Esq., of Trefriw (Carn.) 



A.D. 
1694 

1695 
1696 



1697 
1698 
1699 
I70O 

1701 

1702 

1703 
1704 

1705 
1706 
1707 
1708 
1709 
I7IO 
I7II 
1712 



1713 

1714 

1715 
I7l6 
1717 



I7l8 
1719 
1720 

1721 

1722 
1723 
1724 

1725 

1726 

1727 
1728 
1729 
1730 
1731 
1732 
1733 
1734 
1735 
1737 
1736 



A.L,. 

William Roberts, Esq., of Badiar . . . 1738 
Robert Williams, Esq., of Penmynydd . . 1739 
Robert Owen, Esq., of Pencraig . . . 1740 

Rice Williams, Esq., of Cwyrt . . .1741 

Hugh Jones, Esq. , of Cymunod . . .1 742 

Hugh Williams, Esq., of Bryngwyn . . 1743 

Richard Hughes, Esq., ofTre'rDryw . . 1744 

John Nangle, Esq., of Llwydiarth . . . 1745 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Tros y Marian . 1746 

William Thomas, Esq., ofGlascoed . . 1747 

William Lewis, Esq., of Llanddyfnan . . 1748 
Owen Wynn, Esq. , of Penheskin . . 1 749 

Charles Allanson, Esq., ofDdreiniog . , 1750 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Hirdrefaig . . .1751 
[A new name of person ; it is nearly 200 years 

since Hirdrefaig had a sheriff.] 

Charles Evans, Esq., of Treveilir . . . 1752 

Bodychen Sparrow, Esq., of Bod ychen . . 1753 

Richard Hughes, Esq., of Bodwyn . . 1754 

[New name of place.] 

Hugh Davies, Esq., of Brynhyrddin . . 1755 

Charles Allanson, Esq., of Ddreiniog . . 1756 

John P-.owland, Esq. , of Porthllongdy . . 1757 

[New names.] 

Edward Owen, Esq., of Penrhos . . . 1758 

Robert Owen, Esq., of Pencraig . . . 1759 

GEORGE III. 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Tregaian . . . 1760 

Francis Lloyd, Esq., of Monachty . . .1761 

Hugh Barlow, Esq., of Penrhos . . . 1762 
Felix Feast, Esq., of Bodlew . . ... 1763 

John Lewis, Esq., of Llanfihangel . . . 1764 
Herbert Jones, Esq. , of Llynon .. . 1 765 

[First time Llynon appears.] 

Hugh Williams, Esq., of Ty-Fry . . . 1766 

[First appearance of Ty-Fry.] 

Hugh Williams, Esq., of Cromlech . . 1767 

William Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch . .1768 

William Smith, Esq. , of Ddreiniog . . 1 769 

John Hampton Jones, Esq. , of Henllys . . 1770 

Paul Panton, Esq. , of Plasgwyn . . . 1771 

John Jones. Esq., of Penrhosbradwen . . I77 2 

Henry Sparrow, Esq., of Red Hill. . . 1773 

Owen Putland Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . 1774 

William Lloyd, Esq., of Llwydiarth . . 1775 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Bodrwydd . . . 1776 

Rice Thomas, Esq. , of Cemmaes . . . 1777 

Owen Jones, Esq., of Penrhosbradwen . . 1778 

William Peacock, Esq., of Llanedwen . . 1779 

Holland Griffith, Esq., of Garreglwyd . .1780 

John Bodychan Sparrow, Esq., of Red Hill . 1781 

William Vickens, Esq., of Llanfawr . . 1782 

Morgan Jones, Esq., of Skerries . . . 1783 

Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq., of Ddreiniog . 1784 

Richard Lloyd, Esq. , of Rhosbeirio . . 1 785 

William Pritchard, Esq., of Trescawen . . 1786 

John Griffith Lewis, Esq., of Llanddyfnan . 1787 

Henry Pritchard, Esq., of- Trescawen . . 1788 

John Williams, Esq., of Nantanog . . 1789 

Thomas Williams, Esq., of Llanidan . . 1790 

Herbert Jones, Esq., of Llynon . . .1791 
Hugh Price, Esq., of Wern .... 1792 



D 



34 



ANGLESEY. 



A.D. 

Evan Lloyd,- Esq., of Maesyporth . . . 1793 

Hugh Jones, Esq., ofCarrog .... 1794 

Sir John Bulkeley, Kt., of Presaddfed . . 1795 

John Morris Conway, Esq., of Gelliniog. . 1796 

Richard Jones, Esq. , of Trosymorian . . 1797 

William Evans, Esq., ofGlanalaw. . . 1798 

Hugh Wynne, Esq. , of Beaumaris . . . 1 799 

William Harvey, Esq., of Bodvel . . . 1800 

John Price, Esq., of Wern .... 1801 

Gwilym Lloyd Wardle, Esq., of Cefncoch . 1802 

William Bulkeley Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch 1803 

Charles Evans, Esq., ofTreveilir . . . 1804 

John Williams, Esq., of Treban . . . 1805 

Sir Hugh Owen, Bart., Bodowen . . . 1806 

Paul Panton, Esq., of Plasgwyn . . . 1807 

John Jones, Esq., of Penrhosbrad wen . . 1808 

Sir John Thomas Stanley, Bart., of Bodewryd 1809 

Hugh Evans, Esq., of Henblas . . . 1810 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Trearddur . . 1811 

H. Bulkeley Owen, Esq., ofCoedana . . 1812 

John Hampton, Esq., of Henllys . . . 1813 

George Francis Barlow, Esq. , of Tynylhvyn . 1814 

Robert Hughes, Esq., of Plas yn Llangoed . 1815 

John Price, Esq., of Llanfaelog . . . 1816 

Rice Thomas, Esq., of Cemmaes . . . 1817 

John Price, Esq., of Plas Cadnant . . . 1818 

William Pritchard Lloyd, Esq., of Llwydiarth 1819 

GEORGE IV. 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Tregaian . . . 1820 
James Webster, Esq., of Deri . . .1821 

William Wynne Sparrow, Esq., of Tynewydd 1822 

Jones Panton, Esq., of Plasgwyn . . . 1823 

John Owen, Esq., of Trehwyfa . . . 1824 

Thomas Meyrick, Esq. , of Cefncoch . . 1825 

Hugh Davies Griffith, Esq., of Caerhun . . 1826 

Owen J. A. F. Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . 1827 

Jones Panton, Esq., of Llanddyfnan . . 1828 

Henry Pritchard, Esq., of Madyndusw . . 1829 

WILLIAM IV. 

Thomas Williams, Esq., of Glanrafon . . 1830 

Owen Owens, Esq., of Llanfigael . . . 1831 



Sir John Williams, Bart., of Tyfry . . . 1832 

Charles Henry Evans, Esq., of Henblas . . 1833 

James King, Esq., of Presaddfed . . . 1834 

William Hughes, Esq., of Plas Llandyfrydog . 1835 

Richard Lloyd Edwards, Esq., of Monachdy . 1836 

VICTORIA. 

Hugh Beaver, Esq., of Glyngarth . . .1837 

William Barton Panton, Esq., of Garreglwyd . 1838 

James Greenfield, Esq. , of Rhyddgaer . . 1839 

Sir Love Parry Jones Parry, Kt., of Madryn . 1840 

Richard Trygarn Griffith, Esq., of Garreglwyd 1841 

John Sanderson, Esq., of Aberbraint . . .1842 

Owen Roberts, Esq., of Bwlan . . . 1843 

Edmund Meyrick, Esq. , of Cefncoch . . 1844 

Robert Hughes, Esq., of Plas Llangoed . . 1845 

J. L. Hampton Lewis, Esq., of Henllys. . 1846 

Lord Newborough, of Glynllifon . . . 1847 

Omitted 1848 

Sir Henry Dent Goring, Bart., of Trysglwyn . 1849 

Stephen Roose, Esq. . . . . . 1850 

Thomas Owen, Esq., of Penmynydd . . 1851 

Evan Lloyd, Esq., of Maesyporth . . . 1852 

R. Williams Prichard, Esq., ofDinam . . 1853 

Robert Briscoe Owen, Esq., of Haulfre . . 1854 

Hugh Robert Hughes, Esq., of Kinmel . . 1855 

John Jacobs, Esq., of Llanfawr . . . 1856 

John Thomas Roberts, Esq., of Ucheldre . 1857 

Richard Davies, Esq., ofBwlchyfen ' . . 1858 

Henry Owen Williams, Esq., of Trecastle . 1859 

George Richard Griffith, Esq., r of Pencraig . 1860 

William Bulkeley Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch 1861 

Robert Davies, Esq. , of Bodlondeb . . 1862 

R. Jones Parry, Esq., of Tregaian . . . 1863 

William Massey, Esq., of Cornelyn . . 1864 

George Higgins, Esq., of Red Hill . . 1865 

Honble. Warrenden Fitzmaurice . . . 1866 

William Griffith, Esq., of Bodowen . . 1867 

Henry Lambert, Esq., ofTanygraig . . 1868 

Thomas Lewis Hampton, Esq., of Henllys . 1869 

Sir R. B. W. Bulkeley, Bart., of Baron Hill . 1870 

John Jones, Esq., of Treana; he dying, ; _ 
John Wynne Paynter, Esq., of Maesyllwyn \ 



SECTION VIII. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR ANGLESEY IN EARLY AND 

RECENT TIMES. 

i. County Members : Edward VI. Victoria. 

It is well to remember who were the Knights of the Shire when first Wales " was im- 
privileged and summoned," as Brown Willis expresses it, to send the foremost of her 
patricians to represent her at Westminster. The privilege and summons first came from 
Henry VIII. in the twenty -seventh year of his reign, A.D. 1536, but for some years after this, 
during the remainder of Henry's reign, no Knight of the Shire appeared from Anglesey, 
although in his thirty-third year, 1542, a representative, Richard ap Rhydderch, of Myfyrion, 
went up for the Borough of Newborough, Beaumaris not being yet qualified. The first 
county member for the island was summoned in the first year of Edward VI., A.D. 1547. 
The last on our roll is of the same ancient family. 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR ANGLESEY. 



35 



EDWARD VI. A.D. 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq., of Beaumaris . 1547 

Lewis Owen ap Meurig, Esq., of Frondeg 1552 

MARY. 

William Lewis, Esq., of Presaddfed . 1553 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Kt, of Beaumaris . 1553 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Kt., of Beaumaris . 1554 

William Lewis, Esq. , of Presaddfed . . 1555 

Rowland Meredydd, Esq., of Bodowyr . 1555 

ELIZABETH. 

Rowland Meredydd, Esq., of Bodowyr . 1558 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq., of Beaumaris . 1562 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Kt., of Beaumaris . 1571 

Lewis Owen ap Meurig, Esq., of Frondeg 1572 

Owen Holland, Esq., of Berw . . 1585 

Sir Henry Bagnal, Kt., of Plas Newydd 1586 

Thomas Bulkeley, Esq., of Llangefni . 1589 

William Glyn, Gentleman . . . 1522 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Plas Coch . . 1597 

Thomas Holland, Esq., of Berw . . 1601 

JAMES I. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley, Kt. 1603 

The same ...... 1614 

Richard Williams, Esq., of Llys Dulas . 1620 

John Mosbyn, Esq., of Tregarnedd . . 1623 



CHARLES I. 



Sir Sackville Trevor, Kt. 
Sir Richard Bulkeley, Kt. 
Richard Bulkeley, Esq. . 
John Bodwel, Esq. . 
The same 



. 1625 

2nd Parl., 1625 
. 1628 
. 1640 
. 1641 



CROMWELL AND THE COMMONWEALTH. 

This was "the Little Parliament." No 
return from Anglesey. Brown Willis, in 
his Notitia, gives the following names, 
without localities, as attending this parlia- 
ment from Wales : Bushy, Mansell, James 
Philips, John Williams, Hugh Courteney, 
Richard Price, John Brown . . . 1653 
George Twisleton, Esq. .... 1654 

The same ...... 1656 

The same, and Griffith Bodvill, Esq. . 1658 9 
[Prob. for Beaumaris.] 



CHARLES II. A.D. 

Right Hon. Rob., 2nd Viscount Bulkeley 1660 

Nicholas Bagnal, Esq. , of Plas Newydd . 1661 

Henry Bulkeley, Esq. .... 1679 

[Master of Household to King Charles II.] 

The same . . ... . . 1681 

JAMES II. 
Right Hon. Viscount Bulkeley . . 1685 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 
Hon. Thomas Bulkeley . . . .1688 
Rt. Hon. Richard, 3rd Viscount Bulkeley 1689 

WILLIAM III. 
Right Hon. Richard, 3rd Visct. Bulkeley 1694 9 

ANNE. 

Right Hon. Richard, 3rd Visct. Bulkeley 1702 4 
Rt. Hon. Richard, 4th Visct. Bulkeley . 1705 14 

GEORGE I. 

Owen Meyrick, Esq. , of Bodorgan . . 1714 
Rt. Hon. Richard, 4th Visct. Bulkeley . 1722 4 

GEORGE II. 

Hugh Williams, Esq., of Chester . . 1727 

Sir Nicholas Bayley, Bart. , Plas Newydd . 1 734 

John Owen, Esq. , of Presaddfed . . 1741 

Sir N. Bayley, Bart., of Plas Newydd . 1748 

The same ...... 1754 

GEORGE III. 

Owen Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan . . 1760 
Rt. Hon. Thomas James, 7th Viscount 

Bulkeley, of Baron Hill . 
Nicholas Bayley, Esq. , of Plas Newydd 
Hon. William Paget, R.N., d. 1795 
Hon. Arthur Paget, G.C.B., d. 1840 
Hon. Berkeley Paget 

GEORGE IV. 



The Earl of Uxbridge, of Plas Newydd . 

WILLIAM IV. 

The Earl of Uxbridge, of Plas Newydd . 

Sir R. B. W. Bulkeley, Bart., of Baron 

Hill . . . .' . 

VICTORIA. 

Hon. W. Owen Stanley, of Penrhos 
Sir R. B. W. Bulkeley, Bart., of Baron 
Hill 



177484 
1784 90 
179094 
17941807 

1807 20 
l820 30 

183032 

183237 

183747 
184768 



2. First Borough Members .-Henry VIII. Queen Anne. 

HENRY VIII. 

The first return of a borough Member for Anglesey was in the 33rd year of Henry VIII., 
1542 ; and the members for the above period are here supplied as illustrating, like the 
preceding records, the County Families of the time. The first three were for Newborough, 
which had not yet lost all its old importance. After that time Beaumaris became the sole 
borough, until recent arrangements gave it other contributories. From Brown Willis's 
Notitia we learn that Beaumaris, by incorporation, Ann. iv., Eliz., had a Mayor, Recorder, 
two bailiffs, and twenty-one burgesses, in whom alone was vested the election and return of 
the- borough Member. 



ANGLESEY. 



HENRY VIII. 
Richard ap Rhydderch, of Myfyrion 

EDWARD VI. 

John ap Robert Lloyd ... 
The same 
Maurice Griffith, Plas Newydd, Esq. 

MARY. 
Rowland Bulkeley, of Porthamel, Esq. 

PHILIP AND MARY. 
Hugh Goodman, Merchant . . 
William ap Rhys ap Howel . . 

ELIZABETH. 

William Frees, or Ap Rhys . . 
The same 

William Bulkeley, Gentleman . . 
Rowland Kendrick, Gentleman . 
Thomas Bulkeley, Gentleman . 
The same 

William Jones, of Castell-March 
William Maurice, of Clenenaey 

JAMES I. 

William Jones, of Castell-March 
The same 

Sampson Evans, Gentleman . 
Charles Jones, Castell-March . 

CHARLES I. 

Charles Jones, Castell-March . 
The same 
John Griffith, Sen., Cefn-Amlwch 



A.D. 
1542 



1547 

1549 
1552 



1553 



. . 1554 
. . 1555 

. .1558 
1562 

. .1570 
. . 1571 
. . 1584 
1585, 1588, 1592 
. -1597 
. . 1 60 1 



1603 
1614 
1620 
1623 



. 1625 
1627, 1640 
.1641 



CROMWELL AND THE COMMONWEALTH. 

A. IX 

The "Little Parliament." No return for 

Beaumaris ..... 1653 

No return for Beaumaris. The County 

represented by Col. Twisleton . . 1654 

No return for Beaumaris. For the Co. 

Twisleton 1656 

Griffith Bodville (Bodwel), Esq. . . 16589 

CHARLES II. 

Gryffydd, of Bodwrda. . . . 1660 

William Robinson, of Monachty . . - 1661 

[" Sir Heneage Finch quitting it."] 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq. .... 1679 

The same 1681 

JAMES II. 

Henry Bulkeley, Esq 1685 

[Mast, of Household to the King ; d. in France.] 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

Sir W. Williams, Bart., Llanforda . 1689 

Hon. Thomas Bulkeley . . . . 1690 

WILLIAM III. 

Sir W. Williams, Kt. and Bart., Llan- 
forda 1695 

Owen Hughes, Beaumaris, Gent. . . 1698 

Coningsby Williams, of Marian, Gent. . 1 700 

Hon. Robert Bulkeley .... 1701 

ANNE. 

Hon. Robert Bulkeley .... 1702 

Hon. Henry Bertie 1705 

The same 1710 13 



Present Member, 1871, Hon. William Owen Stanley, of Penrhos. 



JUSTICES OF THE PEACE FOR ANGLESEY, 1871. 



Sir Richard Bulkeley Williams Bulkeley, Baronet, 

Baron Hill, Beaumaris. 
The Honble. Wm. Owen Stanley, M.P., Penrhos, 

Holyhead. 
John Williams, Esq., Treffos, Anglesey. 

Wm. Bulkeley Hughes, Esq., M.P., Plas Coch, 

Anglesey. 
John Lewis Hampton Lewis, Esq. , Henllys, Beaumaris. 

O. J. A. Fuller Meyrick, Esq., Bodorgan, Anglesey. 

Thomas Peers Williams, Esq., Craigydon, Anglesey. 

Rev. Canon Williams, Menaifron, Anglesey. 

Rev. Chancellor Williams, Llanfairynghornwy, 
Anglesey. 

Rev. Hugh D. Owen, D.D., Trefdraeth, Anglesey. 

Josiah Spode, Esq., Friars, Beaumaris. 

Rev. William James Poole, Aberffraw, Anglesey. 

Henry Webster, Esq., Tyn-y-pwll, Anglesey. 

Rev. Edwd. Herbert, Llandyfrydog, Anglesey. 

Ven. Arch. John Wynne Jones, Treiorwerth, Holy- 
head. 

Henry Pritchard, Esq., Trescawen, Anglesey. 

Major-General Robert G. Hughes, Brynddu, Llan- 
fechell, Anglesey. 

Robert Brisco Owen, Esq., Haulfre, Beaumaris. 



John Priestley, Esq., Hirdrefaig, Llangefni, Anglesey. 

Lord Clarence E. Paget, Plas Llanfair, Anglesey. 

John Thomas Roberts, Esq., Ucheldre, Holyhead". 

The Right Hon. Lord Boston, Llanidan, Anglesey. 

Richard Williams Prichard, Esq., Parkfield, Birken- 
head. 

Charles Rigby, Esq., Harbour Works, Holyhead. 

Edward Octavius Pearse, Esq., Bryncelyn, Llangoecl, 
Anglesey. 

Robert Jones Hughes, Esq., Plas Llangoed, Angle- 
sey. 

Richard Davis, Esq., M.P., Treborth, Menai Bridge. 

William Henry Copeland, Esq., Plas Cadnant, 
Anglesey. 

Henry Jenner Holder Hogg, Esq., Llanfawr, Holy- 
head. 

George Higgins, Esq., Red Hill, Beaumaris. 

Rev. John Richards, Amlwch. 

John Wynne Paynter, Esq., Maesllwyn, Amlwch. 

R. L. M. Williams Bulkeley, Esq., Bryn, Beaumaris. 

Edmund Hope Verney, Esq., Rhianva, Anglesey. 

Thomas Lewis Hampton, Esq., Henllys, Beaumaris. 

William Massey, Esq., Cornelyn, Llangoed, Anglesey. 

William Walthew, Esq., M.D., Holyhead. 



ANGLESEY. 37 

NOTE I. 
The Arms of Holland of Berw. 

A question having arisen in the time of Charles I. concerning the arms used by Sir 
Thomas Holland, and now used by his representative, Miss Con way-Griffith, of Carreglwyd, 
an inquiry was made, and authentication of the arms given in terms following (see Meyrick 
on Dwnn, i., 31): 

"To all and singular unto whome these presents shall come, John Borough, Knight, Garter Princippall 
King of Armes, sendeth greeting : Upon complaint made unto me that Sir Thomas Holland of Berrow, in the 
county of Anglesey, Kt., did unduley beare for his Armes, Azure, a lyon rampant gardant between five flowers 
de lice argent, which Armes (as was conceived) properlie belonged to the familie of Holland, sometime Duke 
of Exeter : The said Sir Thomas Holland, having notice given him of the said complaint, repayred unto me, 
and produced divers and sundry ancient evidences, pedegrees, bookes of Armes, Letters Pattents, and other 
authentique testimonies of credible persons : whereby it manifestly appeared that the said Sir Thomas Holland 
is lineally descended from Hoshkin alias Roger Holland, who by computacon of time lived in or neere the raigne 
of Edward the Third ; he the said Sir Thomas being the sonne of Owen, sonne of Edward, sonne of Owen, 
sonne of John, sonne of Howell, sonne of the above Hochkin Holland : and that John Holland, sonne of 
Howell Holland aforesaid, was howsehold servant to King Henry the Sixt ; and Owen Holland, great- 
grandfather to the said Sir Thomas, was Sheriffe of the County of Anglesey for tearme of his life, as by Letters 
Pattents under the scales of King Henry the Seaventh and King Henry ye 'Eighth, and certaine deeds of 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolke, and other muniments, appeareth : and further that by sundry matches and 
marriages the said Sir Thomas is allied to many families of undoubted gentry, in and near the said county, who 
acknowledge the said Sir Thomas for their allie and kinsman : besides ye testimonie of divers gentlemen of the 
name of Holland issued from the aforesaid Hochkin, alias Roger,* their common ancestor : And as touching 
the Armes above mentioned, it is manifest by sundry pedegrees and Bookes of Armes remayning in the 
custody of George Owen, Esquire, t Yorke Herauld, that the Auncestors of the said Sir Thomas Holland did 
beare the same as they are above blazoned. In consideration of all which premises, and for that the said Sir 
Thomas Holland is not only dignified with knighthood, but likewise a Justice of Peace and one of the Deputie 
Lieutenants in the county where he liveth, I have thought fitt, at his request, to signifie and declare by these 
presentes that the said Sir Thomas Holland and his heires of that family respectively may use and bear the 
foresaid Armes each with his proper differense, according to the law and usage of Armes. In witness whereof 
I have hereunto affixed the scale of mine office and subscribed my name. Dated the five and twentith day of 
Novemb., in the eleventh yeare of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lord, Charles, by the Grace of God King of 
Great Britaine, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. And in the yeare of our Lord God 1635. 

"JOHN BOROUGH, GARTER, 

' ' Principatt King of Armes. " 

NOTE II. 
Giraldus Cambr. on Anglesey and Snowdon. 

" As the mountains of Eryri could supply pasturage for all the herds in Wales, if collected together, so 
could the Isle of Mona provide a requisite quantity of corn for all the inhabitants, on which account there is an 
old British proverb, 'Mon mam Cymbry,' that is, 'Mona, the mother of Wales.'" "Cambr. Descr." 

In another part of the same work he varies his account of the Snowdon pasturage thus : " Eryri, in North 
Wales, which are called Snowdon, or Mountains of Snow, are said to be of so great an extent, that if all the 
herds in Wales were collected together, they would supply them with pasture for a considerable time." 

NOTE III. 
The Battle-field of Tregaian, 

The writer, while visiting Tregaian in 1870, found that a tradition floated among the people of the 
neighbourhood of a battle having been fought and the dead buried in an adjacent field, and that a part of 
the field is known as Bryn y Cyrff, "the hill of corpses," and another as Y Fynwent, "the burial-ground." 
On inquiry, it was discovered that the peasantry viewed this spot with a degree of awe, and universally held 
that a great multitude had here fallen in a conflict in which the " Irish " were concerned. At night, years ago, 
strange " appearances" used to be seen here. By permission of the late Mrs. Lloyd, excavations were made in 
several places, and at the depth of about thirty or forty inches, through earth which had evidently been 
disturbed, a thin stratum of blackish mould, of an appearance and odour similar to what is often seen thrown 
up in churchyards, was reached, of the character of which there could be little doubt. It was everywhere about 
i^ or 2 inches thick, and immediately beneath was the natural rab of the district, which had never been 
disturbed. No bones or implements of any kind were found. The parish church, known to be of a very early 
date, is at a little distance, and it cannot be supposed that this spot ever served as the burial-place of the 
parish. The place admits of further research, and might yield interesting discoveries. So far, the facts 
ascertained are valuable as proving the tenacity and general fidelity of popular tradition. 

* In the Holland pedigree in Dwnn (ii., 210, 364) " Hoesgin " is said to be the son of " Roger." 
+ The Antiquary, Lord of Cemmacs, Pemb. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



BOSTON, Elorance George Henry Irby, 5th 
Baron, of Llanidan, Anglesey; and 
Hedsor Lodge, Maidenhead. 

Created 1761 ; Baronet 1704. In the 
Peerage of the United Kingdom. Is a 
J. P. and D. L. for Anglesey; b. 1837; 
m. 1852 the Hon. Augusta Caroline, se- 
cond dau. of Lord De Saumarez, and has 
issue George Florance, b. 1860, another 
son, and 2 daus. Is the eldest son of the 
late Baron George Ives Irby, Lord Boston, 
of Boston, Lincolnshire, J. P. and D. L. 
for Anglesey and Bucks, by his wife Fanny 
Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late W. H. 
Northey, Esq., of Oving House, Bucks; 
s. to titles and estate on the death of the 
late Lord Boston, 1870. The estates in 
Wales were obtained by purchase. 

Heir: His eldest son. 

Residences : Llanidan, Anglesey ; Hedsor, 
Maidenhead. 

Arms: Argent, fretty, sa. ; on a canton, 
gules, a chaplet, or. 

Crest : A Saracen's head. 

Supporters: Antelopes, gu., gorged with a 
collar, or. 

Motto: Honor fidelitatis prsemium, " The 
reward of fidelity, honour." 

LINEAGE. 

This is an English House, having obtained 
estates in Wales through purchase. Llani- 
dan and Porthamel had been the property 
for many ages of a junior branch of the 
ancient family of Bulkeley, represented in 
the senior branch by Sir Richard Bulkeley, 
Bart., of Baron Hill. The family of Irby 
is probably of Danish origin, but from a 
very early period has been settled in 
Lincolnshire, where it possessed large es- 
tates. In the time of Elizabeth an Irby of 
Boston represented that borough in Parlia- 
ment, and since that period members of 
this family have frequently appeared in the 
House of Commons. 

The first Lord Boston, cr. 1761, being 
already a baronet, was succeeded by his 
son Frederick as 2nd baron, whose son 
George, 3rd baron, b. 1777, m. 1801 
' Rachel Ives, eldest dau. and co.-h. of 
William Drake, Esq., of Amersham, and 
had issue George Ives (who became 



4th Baron Boston; b. 1802; ;//. 1830; 
and had issue as above, and 2 daus.) ; and 
3 other sons and 6 daus. 

BULKELEY, Sir Eichard Bulkeley Williams, 
Bart., of Baron Hill, Anglesey. 

The baronetcy created 1661. 

Sir Richard is xoth Baron Bulkeley, of 
Baron Hill. Is J. P. for cos. Anglesey and 
Carnarvon, D. L. for co. Anglesey; was 
Lord Lieutenant for co. Carnarvon, 1850 
1866; Sheriff of Anglesey, 1870; M.P. 
for Beaumaris, 1830 33; M.P. for co. 
Anglesey, 1833 37; forco. Flint, 18417; 
for co. Anglesey, 1847 68. 

Is the son of the late Sir Robert Williams, 
Bart, (see Pedigree hereafter), b. in London, 
23rd Sept., 1801 ; assumed the surname 
Bulkeley in addition to Williams, by royal 
licence, on succeeding to the estates of 
the late Viscount Bulkeley ; m., ist, May 
27, 1828, Charlotte Mary, dau. of first 
Lord Dinorben, who d. s. p.; 2nd, August 
20, 1832, Maria Frances, dau. of Sir 
Thomas Stanley Massey Stanley, Bart., of 
Hooton, co. Chester, and has, with other 
issue, RICHARD LEWIS MOSTYN WILLIAMS 
BULKELEY, late capt. in the army ; b. May 
20, 1833. (See Lineage, infra.) 

Motto : Nee temere nee timide. 

Residence: Baron Hill, Beaumaris. 

Arms: Quarterly, ist and 4th, sa., a chevron 
between three bulls' heads, caboshed, arg. , a canton 
ermine, for BULKELEY ; 2nd and 3rd, gu., a chev- 
ron erm. between three Saracens' heads, couped 
at shoulders, proper, for WILLIAMS. 

Crests : Out of a ducal coronet, or, a bull's 
head, arg., horned, or, charged with a chevron, 
sa., for BULKELEY ; a stag's head caboshed, arg., 
for WILLIAMS. 

LINEAGE. 

The following pedigree of this distin- 
guished family has been drawn from deeds 
and other documents in the archives of 
Baron Hill, expressly for the present work. 
It differs in many important points from 
pedigrees of the Bulkeley family already 
published, but may be relied upon as cor- 
rect and authorized. 

The ancient family of Bulkeley were 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



39 



not of Welsh origin. They traced their 
descent from Robert de Bulkylegh, Lord 
of the Manor of Bulkylegh, Eaton, &c., in 
the co. of Chester, in the time of King 
John. The first who came to Anglesey 
was Wylliam Bulkeley, Esq , appointed 
Constable of Beaumaris Castle in 1440. 
He m. Ellen, the daughter of Gwilym ap 
Gruffydd, Esq., of Penrhyn, in the co. of 
Carnarvon, by whom he had issue 5 sons 
and 5 daughters : 

1. Wylliam Bulkeley, jun., married, but d. s. p. 

2. Edmond Bulkeley, m. and had issue. Was 
living 1486. 

3. Hugh Bulkeley, Deputy Constable of Con- 
way Castle. Do. 

4. Richard Bulkeley, Archdeacon of Anglesey. 
Died in 1526. And 5, 

Roland or Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., of 
Beaumaris and Cheadle, Constable of Beau- 
maris Castle in 1492. His will is dated 
22nd June, 1537. He appoints his son, Sir 
Richard Bulkeley, Kt., Executor. His 
wife was Alice, dau. and hrs. of Sir W. 
Beconsal, Kt., of Beconsal, co. of Lan- 
caster, by whom he left, with other issue, 

1. Sir R. Bulkeley, Kt., his successor. 

2. Roland Bulkeley. 

3. Robert Bulkeley, Esq., ancestor of the Gronant 
branch, Anglesey. 

4. William Bulkeley, Esq., ancestor of the 
Porthamel branch, now extinct. 

R. Bulkeley was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Sir R. Bulkeley, Kt., of Beaumaris and 
Cheadle, who was knighted about 1534. 
In 28 Henry VIII. Edw. Seymour, Visct. 
Beauchamp, with Sir R. Bulkeley, Kt., had 
a grant of the office of Chancellor and 
Chamberlain of N. Wales for life; M.P. for 
co. of Carnarvon, 1542 47; also Sheriff 
for life by letters patent in 1527, which he 
held until 1536. In 38 Henry VIII. he 
had a grant of the patronage of Llandegfan, 
with the chapel of St. Mary's, Beaumaris, 
annexed ; Sheriff of Anglesey, 1542. By 
Katherine, his wife, daughter of Sir W. 
Gruffydd, of Penrhyn, Kt, he had, with 
other issue, 

1. Sir R. Bulkeley, his heir. 

2. Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., of Cremlyn, whose 
will is dated 2nd April, 1592. Died same year. 

3. Thomas Bulkeley, Esq., of Plasgronw and 
Beaumaris ; was living in 1607 ; left issue. 

Sir Richard died about 1548, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

Sir R. Bulkeley, 2nd Kt. of Beaumaris and 
Cheadle, Chamberlain of North Wales, 
knighted at Berwick by the Earl of Warwick 
in 1547; M.P. for Anglesey 1554-5 and 
T 562-3; also Sheriff in 1547, 1552, and 
1561 ; and for Carnarvonshire 1550 and 
1558. By his first wife, Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Savage, of Rock 



Savage, Cheshire, Kt., he had 7 sons and 
5 daughters. 

He married, secondly, Anne, eldest dau. 
of Thomas Needham, Esq., of Shenton, by 
whom he had 8 sons and 2 daughters : 

1. Tristram Bulkeley, Esq. (5th son), of Llangris- 
tiolus, Anglesey, 5th in descent from whom was 
Rev. Samuel Bulkeley, D.D., of Hatfield, Herts. 

2. Lancelot Bulkeley (8th son), D.D., Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, 1619-50 ; born in Beaumaris in 
1568 ; made a Privy Councillor by James I. ; an- 
cestor to the Bulkeleys, baronets of Ireland, now 
extinct in the male line. 

3. Arthur Bulkeley, Esq. (4th son), of Coedan 
(or Coyden), Anglesey, ancestor to the Bulkeleys of 
Brynddu, now represented by W. Bulkeley Hughes, 
Esq., of Plascoch, M.P. for the Carnarvonshire 
boroughs. 

Sir R. Bulkeley died about 1572, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, 

Sir R. Bulkeley, 3rd Kt., called the elder, 
b. in 1533 ; appointed Constable of Beau- 
maris Castle in 1561 ; knighted at White- 
hall in 1576; M.P. for Anglesey 1571, 
1603 n, and 1614; also Sheriff in 1570 ; 
was the fifst Mayor of Beaumaris under the 
new Charter of Queen Elizabeth, 1562. 
He erected the mansion of Baron Hill in 
1618. Sir Richard was a great favourite 
with Queen Elizabeth. He d. June, 1621, 
and is buried in Beaumaris. By his first 
wife, Katherine, dau. of Sir William Daven- 
port, of Brome Hall, co'. of Chester, Kt., 
he had an only son, Richard Bulkeley, 
Esq., whose line is now extinct. 

Sir Richard's widow married, secondly, Sir Richard 
Whyte, of Fryars, Kt. 

Sir Richard married, secondly, about 1578, Mary, 
eldest daughter of William, Lord Burgh, or Borough, 
of Gainsborough, by whom he was father, with 
other issue, of 2 sons : 

1. Sir R. Bulkeley, 4th Knight, called the 
younger, who s. to the estates of Sir Richard, 3rd 
Knight, and m., about 1605, Anne, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Wilford, Kt., of Idington, Kent, and 
had, with other issue, 

Richard Bulkeley, Esq. , of Beaumaris. He d. in 
Carnarvon, 5th March, 1639-40, without issue, and 
was succeeded by his uncle, whom he appointed 
sole executor. 

2. Thomas Bulkeley. 

Thomas Bulkeley, Esq., 2nd son, of Llan- 
fairfechan, co. of Carnarvon ; b. roth 
August, 1585 ; s. to the Baron Hill estates 
on the death of his nephew, March, 1639-40. 
He favoured the royal cause in the reign 
of Charles I., and was by him created, by 
Patent dated at Oxford igth Jan., 1643-4, 
Lord Visct. Bulkeley of Cashel, in Ireland. 
He compounded for his estate with Parlia- 
ment, temp. Cromwell; m., about 1624, 
Blanche, dau. of Robert Coytmore, Esq., 
of Coytmore, co. of Carnarvon, by whom 
he had 5 sons and 4 daughters : 

I. Richard Bulkeley, Colonel of the King's Army, 
against Col. Mytton, until 1646. He ;//., about 



4 o 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



1641, Catherine, daughter of Sir Roger Mostyn, Kt., 
of Mostyn, but had no issue. Col. Bulkeley was 
killed in a duel with Thomas Cheadle, on Lavan 
Sands, February 19, 1649-50, for which crime the 
latter was executed at Conway. 

2. Robert, his successor. 

3. Thomas Bulkeley, Esq., of Dinas, co. of 
Carnarvon; M.P. for that co. 1679 81, 1685 87, 
and 1698 1707; also Sheriff in 1689; M.P. for 
Anglesey 168995 '> an ^ capt. of the militia. He 
m. Jane, second daughter of Griffith Jones, Esq., 
and widow of Thomas Williams, Esq., of Dinas. 

4. Henry Bulkeley, Esq., of St. James's, London, 
Master of the Household to King Charles II. and 
James II.; M.P. for Anglesey 1679 81, and 
Beaumaris 1685- 88. He went with James II. to 
France, where he died, leaving issue. From him, 
maternally, descend the Dues Fitzjames in France. 

Visct. Bulkeley d. in 1659, and was succeeded 
by his eldest surviving son, 

Robert, 2nd Visct. Bulkeley ; M.P. in the 
Convention Parliament which restored 
Charles II., 1660, and 1685 88; appointed 
Constable of Beaumaris Sept. 21, 1650; 
m. in 1655 Sarah, dau. of Daniel Harvey, 
Esq., of Combe, co. of Sussex, by whom 
he had, with other issue, 2 sorts : 

1. Richard, his heir. 

2. Robert Bulkeley, LL.D., M.P. for Beau- 
maris 1701 until his death, which occurred in 
London 23rd December, 1702. Viscount Bulkeley 
died 1 8th October, 1688, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, 

Richard, 3rd Viscount Bulkeley, M.P. for 
Anglesey 1695 1704. In 1688 appointed 
Constable of Beaumaris Castle, and Vice- 
Admiral of North Wales in 1701 ; m. (ist) 
in 1 68 1 Mary, dau. of Sir Philip Egerton, 
Knt., of Egerton and Oulton, in the co. 
of Chester, by whom he had an only 
son, Richard, of whom presently. 

He m. secondly, in 1687, Elizabeth, dau. of 
Henry White of Henllan, co. of Pembroke, and 
widow of Thomas Lort, Esq., of the Lorts of Stack - 
poole, but had no issue. (She m. afterwards 
Brigadier Fferers. ) Viscount Bulkeley d. August 9, 
1704, and was s. by his only son and heir, 

Richard, 4th Viscount Bulkeley, Chamber- 
lain of N. Wales, Constable of Beaumaris 
and Carnarvon Castles, M.P. for Anglesey 
1705 15 and 1722 24. His lordship 
m. in 1702 Lady Bridget Bertie (who died 
June, 1753), eldest dau. of James, ist Earl 
of Abingdon, and had, with other issue, 
two sons, Richard and James. 

Richard, who succeeded his father 4th 
June, 1 7 24, as 5th Viscount Bulkeley, was b. 
1708; was Chamberlain of N. Wales and 
Constable of Beaumaris Castle; M.P. for 
Beaumaris 1734 38; m. i2th January, 
I 73 I > Jane (who married secondly Edw. 
Williams, Esq., gr. son of Sir W. Williams 
of Llanforda, Bart ), dau. and heiress of 
Lewis Owen, Esq., of Peniarth, co. of 
Merioneth, by whom he had no issue. 



Viscount Bulkeley d. I5th March, 1738, 
and was s. in the title and estates by his 
only brother, 

James, 6th Viscount Bulkeley, b. 1717 ; 
Chamberlain of N. Wales, Constable of 
Beaumaris Castle. M.P. for Beaumaris 
1741 until his death, 1752. 

Viscount Bulkeley m., 5th August, 1749, Emma, 
only surviving child and heiress (by Ellen, dau. and 
heiress of William Roberts, Esq., of Caerau and 
Castellior, Anglesey) of Thomas Rowlands, Esq., 
of Plas Nant, Bettws Garmon, Carnarvonshire, by 
whom he had an only son, 

Thomas James, 7th Viscount Bulkeley, 
b. posthumously i2th December, 1752; 
M.P. for Anglesey 1774 84, when he 
was created a peer of Great Britain by 
the title of Lord Bulkeley of Beaumaris. 
He was Lord Lieutenant of the co. of 
Carnarvon 1781 until his death in 1822, 
Chamberlain of North Wales, Constable of 
Beaumaris Castle, Col. Commandant of 
the Loyal Anglesey Volunteers ; subse- 
quently Col. Comdt. of the Anglesey Local 
Militia, &c., &c. 

His lordship m., 26th April, 1777, Elizabeth 
Harriet, only dau. and heiress of Sir George 
Warren, Knt., of Poynton, Cheshire, when he 
assumed the name of Warren before that of Bulkeley. 
He d. 3rd June, 1822, without issue, when all his 
honours became extinct. He bequeathed the Baron 
Hill estates to R. W. Bulkeley, Esq. (his mother's 
son from a second husband), of whom presently. 
Lady Bulkeley, his widow, died 1827. Emma, 
Viscountess Bulkeley, widow of James, 6th Viscount, 
m. secondly in 1760 Sir Hugh Williams, 8th 
Baronet of Penrhyn, by whom she had issue, 

i. Sir Robert Williams, gth Baronet, b. 
2.oth July, 1764; s. to his mother's estate 
on her death, August, 1770, and to 
his father's ipth August, 1794. In 1795 
he was made a Commissioner of the Peace 
of Carnarvonshire, and represented that 
co. in Parliament 1790 1826, and Beau- 
maris 1826 31, for which borough he was 
Recorder, and Mayor 1800 i, 1804 5, 
1807 8, 1811 12,1815 J 6. Sir Robert 
m., nth June, 1799, Anne, dau. of the 
Rev. Edward Hughes, of Kinmel, Denbigh- 
shire, and sister to the first Lord Dinorben, 
by whom he had 3 sons and 7 daughters : 

1. Richard B. Williams, his heir. 

2. Robert Griffith Williams, captain in the army, 
Comptroller of the Household of the Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland ; m. Mary Anne, dau. of Piers Geale, 
Esq., of Dublin ; d. I3th April, 1865, leaving issue. 

3. Arthur Wellesley Williams," major in the 
army; b. i8i7;w., nth December, 1854, Rose, dau. 
of Rev. W. Stoddart, vicar of Arksey, and has issue. 

Sir Robert d. in Italy ist December, 1830, and 
was s. by his eldest son, the present 

Sir Richard B. Williams Bulkeley, loth 
Baronet; b. in London 23rd Sept., 1801 ; 
assumed by royal licence in 1827 the name 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



of Bulkeley after that of Williams, in com- 
pliance with the will of the late and last 
Viscount Bulkeley, whose estates he now 
inherits; has issue. 

1 . RICHARD LEWIS MOSTYN WILLIAMS BULKE- 
LEY, late captain in the army ; b. 2oth May, 1833; 
m. (ist), iSthMay, 1857, Mary Emily, dau. of Henry 
Bingham Baring, Esq., by whom he has issue a son, 
Richard ; m. (2ndly), I3th August, 1866, Marga- 
ret Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Colonel Thomas Peers 
Williams, of Craig-y-don, Anglesey, and Temple 
House, Berks, by whom he has issue a dau., Frances 
Bridget. 

2. Robert Stanley Williams Bulkeley, captain in 
the army ; b. 1 7th April, 1834; was in India during 
the mutiny; d. unm. February I, 1861. 

3. Thomas James Williams Bulkeley, captain in 
the army ; b. 1 3th March, 1840. 

4. Charles Williams Bulkeley, Esq., of Plasiolyn, 
nearConway; b. 2 1st August, 1841 ; m., May, 1871, 
Mary Henrietta, dau. of Major-General Stephens, 
of London. 

Note.- In order to have a full account of the Baron 
Hill family, reference should be made to Sir Richard 
Bulkeley's paternal descent in Williams, Cochwillan, 
under "Old and Extinct Families of Carnarvonshire." 

BULKELEY, Capt. E. L. Mostyn ., of Bryn, 

Beaumaris. 
(See Bulkeley, Baron Hill.) 

CONWAY - GRIFFITH, Miss Maria Emma 

Elizabeth, of Carreglwyd, Anglesey. 
Miss Conway Griffith is dau. and only 
child of the late Richard Trygarn Griffith, 
Esq., of Carreglwyd, a J. P. and D. L. for 
the county of Anglesey, by his wife (who 
survives him), Emma Mary, dau. of Capt., 
Digby Carpenter, and Emma, dau. of Sir 
John Stanley, Bart., of Alderley, Cheshire, 
by his wife Margaret, dau. of John Owen, 
Esq., of Penrh6s, Anglesey. Miss Conway- 
Griffith succeeded to the estates of Carre- 
glwyd and Plas Berw on the decease of her 
father, 1866. She is lady of the manors of 
Caernethor and Newborough, Anglesey. 
As will be seen from the succeeding 
pedigree, Miss Conway-Griffith, besides 
being descended through her mother from 
the Stanleys, is representative in her own 
person of the ancient families of Griffith, 
of Penrhyn, Carnarvonshire ; Conways of 
Soughton, Flintshire; and Hollands of 
Plas Berw, Anglesey, and, in earlier times, 
of Kinmel, Denbighshire originally from 
the Dukes of Exeter, who were descended 
from the Counts of Anjou. 

Residences : Carreglwyd, and Plas Berw, Angle- 
sey. 

Arms: Gu. a chevron, ermine, between 3 
Saxons' heads, couped, gory, proper, for GRIFFITH 
(from Ednyfed Fychan) ; az. a lion rampant, 
guardant, or, powdered with fleurs de lis, proper, 
for HOLLAND. 

Crest: A stag's head, attired, caboshed, for 
GRIFFITH ; a demi-lion rampant, holding in paws 



a shield, ar., charged with three fleurs de lis, for 
HOLLAND. 

Motto : Cry ei Ffydd, GRIFFITH ; Deus sola 
fortitudo mea est, HOLLAND. 

On the estates of Carreglwyd and Berw 
there exist many objects of antiquity. 
One is " Tyddyn Hicke," near Plas Berw, 
the exact purpose of the erection of which 
is an open question. It is possible that it 
served as a prison in the times when 
sheriffs held office for life, and were bound 
to provide lodgings for prisoners, there 
being then no gaols : it is very ancient. 
Plas Berw the earliest portions of which 
have been destroyed, was probably erected 
in the i5th and i6th centuries. It formed 
a three-sided court : the only remaining 
wing was erected 1615. There are still 
remains of the other wings to be seen. 
The deer park was the most ancient in 
Anglesey, being known to have existed 
over 300 years, when it was destroyed 
some thirty years ago. 

Carreglwyd, Llanfaethlu, was built by 
Chancellor W. Griffith in 1634-5, to 
replace an ancient house of his family, 
called Pant. Carreglwyd was bought by 
his ancestor, Sir (or Rev.) William 
Gryffydd, "person Llanfaethlu," whose 
wife was Elizabeth, dau. of Gruffydd ap 
Robert, of Carne, Anglesey. He d. 1587. 

LINEAGE. 

From Marchwdd ap Cynan, founder of one of 
the 15 noble tribes of N. Wales, through 
Carwed, Japheth, Enethan, Edred, lorwerth, 
Gwgan, was descended lorwerth ap Gwgan, who 
m. Gwenllian, said to have descended from Urien 
Reged, one of the Knts. of Arthur's Round Table. 

Cynric, their son, m. Angharad, said to be of 
the line of Caradoc Freichfras, one of Arthur's 
chief Knts. Their son was the distinguished 

EDNYFED FYCHAN, who m. as his 2nd wife 
Tanglwst, dau. of Llywarch ap Bran, founder of 
one of the 15 noble tribes of N. Wales. (See 
Hughes, Plas Coch.} 

Their son, Sir Tudor, m. Adilicia, gr. gr. dau. 
of Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of N. Wales. 

To them was b. a son, Heilyn, who m. Annes, 
or Agnes, dau. of Bleddyn ap Owen Brogyntyn, 
Lord of Edeyrnion and Dinmael, in Merioneth. 

They had a son, Gruffydd, who m. Gwenhwyfar, 
who was descended from Edwin, lord of Tegeingl, 
founder of one of the 1 5 noble tribes of N. Wales. 

Their son, Gwilim, m. Eva, dau. of Gruffydd 
ap Tudor ap Madoc, and had issue 

Gruffydd, who m. Generis (otherwise Ewerydd), 
fourth in descent from Ednyfed Fychan (here two 
lines from Ednyfed Fychan meet). 

Gwilym, their son, of Penrhyn, High Sheriff of 
Anglesey 1395, m. Jane, dau. of William Stanley, 
son of Sir William Stanley, of Hooton. Their 
dau. Ellen m. William Bulkeley, Constable of 
Beaumaris Castle temp. Henry VI., ancestor of 
the late Vise. Bulkeley. (See Bulkeley, Baron Hill.} 

Their son, William Vaughan, m. Alice, dau. of 
Sir Richard Dalton, and had a son, Sir William 
Griffith, Knt, of Penrhyn, whose son Edmund 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



Griffith, of Caernarvon, m. Janet, dau. of Meredyth 
ap Efan, who was descended from Owain Gwynedd, 
and Rhys ap Tudyr Mawr, Pr. of S. Wales. 

Their son, Sir William Griffith, Knt., of 
Penrhyn, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Gruffydd Lloyd, 
Esq., of Carnau, Anglesey. 

Their son, Robert Griffith (d. 1628), m. Anne, 
(d. 1636), dau. of Owen, and had 3 sons, John, 
M. A., Rector of Llanbeulan ; George, who became 
Bp. of St. Asaph; and Dr. William Griffith 
(d. 1648), of Carreglwyd, Chancellor of Bangor 
and St. Asaph, Master of the Rolls (in Wales), 
and Master in Chancery, A. D. 1631. He m. Marry 
(d. 1645), dau. of Dr. Owen, Bp. of St. Asaph. 

Their son was Robert, who m. Jane Wood, of 
Llechylchyd. 

Their son, William (d. 1718), m. Emme, dau. 
of John Owen, Esq., of Penrhos, Anglesey. 

Their eldest dau., Margaret, m. her cousin, 
Richard Griffith, of Carnarvon (of the Penrhyn 
family). 

They had a son, John Griffith, of Carreglwyd (d. 
1776), who m. Mary Trygarn, of Plas Berw, 
Anglesey, and Trygarn, Carnarvonshire (d. 1799), 
who was grand-niece to Owen Holland, of Berw. 
The Hollands of Berw were of Angevin origin, and 
came to England with the Duke of Anjou. (See 
Notes, and Holland pedigree, below. ) 

Their son was Holland Griffith, of Carreglwyd 
and Berw (b. 1756, d. 1839), who m. 1783 Eliza 
Potter (d. 1828), dau. of Dr. John Potter, Rector 
of Badgworth, Somerset, whose mother was 
Catharine Conway, of Soughton, Flintshire. Here 
is the link of connection between the Carreglwyd 
family and the Conways. 

Of their 3 sons the only survivor was Richard 
Trygarn Griffith, of Carreglwyd, who m. Emma 
Mary, dau. of Capt. Digby Carpenter by his wife 
Emma, dau. of Sir John Stanley, of Alclerley, 
Cheshire, and sister to the 1st Baron Stanley, of 
Alderley, by his wife Margaret, dau. of John 
Owen, Esq., of Penrhos. (See Stanley, Penrhos.) 

The present representative of this family is 
MARIA EMMA ELIZABETH CONWAY-GRIFFITH, 
the only child of Richard Trygarn Griffith, Esq., 
and Emma Mary Carpenter, as above. 

Note I. 

The origin of the three Saxons' heads in the Arms 
of Miss Conway-Griffith is traceable to her ancestor, 
Ednyfed Fychan, Councillor and General of Llewelyn 
ap lorwerth (the Great). In Llewelyn's wars with 
King John, Ednyfed attacked and routed the King's 
forces, under Ranulph, Earl of Chester, and cut off 
the heads of three of his chief commanders an 
exploit thenceforward commemorated in the coats of 
his descendants. 

Note II. 

The Griffiths of Penrhyn intermarried widely with 
chief families through Wales. Sir William Griffith m. 
a dau. of Sir Thomas Stradling, of St. Donat's 
Castle, Glam. One of their daus., Grace, m. W. 
Stanley, Esq., of Hooton ; Catherine m. Sir Richard 
Bulkeley, of Baron Hill ; Anne m. a Lewis of Pre- 
saddfed, Anglesey ; Dorothy m. W. Williams, Esq., 
of Cochwillan ; Elizabeth m. John Phillips, Esq., 
of Picton Castle, Pemb., ancestor of Sir Richard 
Philipps ; Jane m. Thomas Mostyn, Esq., of Mostyn, 
who was the first to take the surname of Mostyn ; 
Elinor m. Hugh Conway, Esq., of Bryneuryn. 

Note III. 

The Hollands of Plas Berw, to whose Arms Miss 
Conway-Griffith is entitled, were at an earlier date 
of Kinmel, Denbigh, and are stated to have originally 



come to England from France, and derived from the 
Count of Anjou. They came to Wales probably 
circ. 1400. 

It appears that Robert de Holland, or Baron 
Holland, of co. Lancaster, temp. Edward I. and 
Edward II., by his wife Maud, dau. of Allan le 
Zouche, of Ashby, was father of Sir Thomas de 
Holland, summoned to Parl. from 27 31 Edward 
III. (1360) as Earl of Kent. This Earl of Kent m. 
Joan Plantagenet, "the Fair Maid' of Kent," dau. of 
Edmund of Woodstock, 6th son of King Edward I. 
by his 2nd wife, Margaret, dau. of Philip, King of 
France, and Earl of Kent. De Holland, through 
his wife, the "Fair Maid," was made Earl of Kent, 
her father's title. She afterwards m. "the Black 
Prince " (by whom she became mother of Richard II., 
King of England ) , and subseq uently two other husbands. 

Sir Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, by Joan, his 
wife, became father of John Holland, Earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, 1337, Duke of Exeter, 1387, beheaded at 
Plessy, 1400, from whom, in direct line, and in the 
roth degree, according to Dwnn (Herald. Visit., ii., 
210), came Owen Holland, of "Y Plas Ymerw" 
(Plas Berw). 

Thomas Holland, Esq., of Berw (4th in descent 
from Owen, last mentioned, and owner of Berw in 
1588, when Dwnn visited the place and made out 
the pedigree), was Rector of Llangeinwen. He and 
his two sons d. s. p. His sister Jane m. Ellis Anwyl, 
Rector of Llaniestyn, Cam., whose dau. Elizabeth 
(d. 1792) became wife, 1723, of Richard Trygarn, 
Esq., of Trygarn, co. Cam. Their dau. Mary, as 
shown above, m. John Griffith, Esq., of Carreglwyd, 
and thus brought the Trygarn and Berw estates, and 
the blood of the Hollands and of "the Fair Maid of 
Kent" and the Plantagenets into the Carreglwyd 
family. This exhibits the right of Miss Conway- 
Griffith to the Arms of the Hollands. (See "Arms of 
Holland, Plas Berw" p. 31.) 

EDWARDS, R. Lloyd, Esq., of Monachdy. 
(See Edwards, Nanhoron, Cam.) 

FITZIAURICE, The Hon. Henry Warrender, 

of Plas Llwynon, Anglesey. 
Is a J. P. and D. L. for co. Anglesey ; has 
been High Sheriff; served in H. M. 72nd 
Highlanders for some years, and retired 
as Captain. Medals for service during 
Indian Mutiny. Son of 5th Earl of Orkney 
by the Hon. Charlotte Isabella, dau. of 
George, 3rd Lord Boston ; b. at Taplovv 
Court, Bucks, 1828; ed. Private Schools; 
m. 1 86 1 Sarah Jane, only dau. of G. Bradley 
Roose, Esq., of Bryntirion, Anglesey ; and 
has issue 2 sons and i daughter. 

Heir : Henry George Hamilton Fitzmaurice. 

Residence: Plas-Llwynon, Anglesey. 

Town Address: Army and Navy Club, St. 
James's Square. 

Arms: Same as those of Orkney. 

Motto: Through. 

GRIFFITH, Capt. David White, of Brynteg, 

Anglesey. 

Is Chief Constable of the county of Angle- 
sey ; J. P. and D. L. co. Carnarvon ; High 
Sheriff for Carnarvonshire 1841, and for 
Merionethshire 1844. Late Capt. in the 
East Kent Militia when serving at Malta 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



43 



during the Crimean war ; son of the late 
Wm. Glynne Griffith, Esq., of Bodegroes, 
co. Carnarvon ; b. at Bodegroes, March 
23rd, 1816; ed.ak Shrewsbury School under 
Dr. Samuel Butler, late Bishop of Lich- 
field, and University of Oxford ; grad. 
B.A., Jesus College, Oxon., April i6th, 
1839 ; m. Elizabeth Moore, dau. of the 
late Major Bennett, Plasynrhiw, co. Car- 
narvon, Feb. nth, 1843 (see particulars 
of her descent below) ; appointed to office 
of Chief Constable of the co. of Anglesey, 
March 3rd, 1857 ; has issue i son. 

Heir: David Glynne Griffith, late Lieut., 3rd 

Regt., "The Buffs," and now a Capt. in the 

Royal Cam. Rifles. 
Residence: Brynteg, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, 

LINEAGE. 

Capt. White Griffith is lineally descended 
from Dr.^Vm. Glynne, once rector of St. 
Martin's -le-Grand, London, and conse- 
crated Bishop of Bangor 1555, whose son 
Griffith Glynne was High Sheriff of Car- 
narvonshire in 1564. Bp. Glynne claimed a 
genealogy which led up to Einion, son of 
Gwalchmai of Treveilir, who m. Angharad, 
dau. of Riccart, son of Cadwaladr, son of 
Griffith ap Cynan, and brother of Owen 
Gwynedd. From Griffith Glynne was 
lineally descended Margaret Glynne, heiress 
of Rhosfawr, whose granddaughter Elinor 
Jones, heiress of Rhosfawr, had a son, Wil- 
liam Griffith, of Rhosfawr and Bodegroes, 
who had issue by his wife Anne, dau. of 
Wm. Williams, Esq., of Ty-hir, and his 
wife, Jane Lewis, heiress of Rhiw, William 
Glynne Griffith, High Sheriff for Carnarvon- 
shire 1827, who m. Catherine Longville 
White, dau. of David White, Esq., of 
Whitehall, Jamaica. Capt. D. White 
Griffith is their second son. 

Mrs. Griffith is of an ancient Carnarvon- 
shire stock, and claims descent from 
Roderic the Great through Ilia of Rhiw, 
in Lleyn, descended from Meirion Goch of 
Lleyn (loth century), who is said to have 
borne, argent, a chevron, azure, between 
three nags' heads, erased, sable; with motto, 
" Omnia vincit improbus labor." From Ilia 
of Rhiw was descended in direct line John 
Lewis of Rhiw (living 1723), who m. Jane, 
dau. of Morris Griffith of Methlem, who 
was descended from Margaret, sister of 
Dr. Rowlands, Bishop of Bangor (1598), 
founder of two Fellowships in Jesus Col- 
lege, Oxford, of Bottwnog School, and of 
an hospital in Bangor, and died 1616. 
Jane, gr. dau. of John Lewis, m. William 
Williams, and their gr. dau. Jane Anne 
m. Major Lewis Moore Bennett, J. P. 
and D. L. for Carnarvonshire, whose 



grandson, Capt. W. Lewis Williams, is 
now owner of Rhiw. Mrs. Capt. White 
Griffith, of Brynteg, is their second dau., 
and has issue (as above) Capt. David 
Glynne Griffith, late of the 3rd Regt., 
" The Buffs," who m. Emily, dau. of J. 
Reily, Esq., and has issue Maria Glynne, 
Elinor Margaret Glynne, now living. 

GRIFFITH, Miss Conway, of Plas Berw. 
(See Conway-Griffith, Carreglwyd, &c.) 

HAMPTON, Col. Thomas Lewis, of Henllys. 
(See Lewis, Hampton, of Henllys.) 

HUGHES, Robert George, Major-General, of 

Brynddu, Anglesey. 

Major-General (H. M. S.) formerly of i3th 
Lt. Infantry, Soth regt, and 5 2nd Lt. In- 
fantry. (For services, see Hart's Army List.} 
Is J. P. for Anglesey ; High Sheriff, 1859 ; 
third son of Sir W. Bulkeley Hughes, Kt. 
of Plas Coch, Anglesey ; b. at Plas Coch, 
1 804 ; ed. at Oswestry Grammar School ; 
m., 5th August, 1830, to Hannah, second 
dau. of J. Jordan, Esq., of Shrewsbury, and 
has issue 2 sons and 3 daughters, of whom 
the eldest is George William Bulkeley, 
Capt. in the army. 

Residence: Brynddu, Anglesey. 
Town Address : Army and Navy Club. 
Crest: Cornish chough, holding fleur-de-lis in 
claw. 

Motto: Duwa ddarpar ir brain, " God provides 
for the ravens." 

Note. For the line of descent from Llyrwarch ap 
Bran, see Hughes, Plas Coch, of whom Gen. Hughes 
is younger brother. 

HUGHES, Robert Jones, Esq., of Plas Llan- 

- goed, Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. for co. of Anglesey ; served as 
High Sheriff 1845 ; is son of the late 
Robert Hughes, Esq., J. P., High Sheriff, 
1815, by his wife, Dorothy Philadelphia, 
dau. of Herbert Jones, Esq., of Llynon, 
co. of Anglesey; b. 1810 ; s. on the 
death of his father, 1827 ; patron of vicar- 
age of Llangoed, with Llaniestyn and 
Llanfihangel-din-Sylwy. 

Residence : Plas Llangoed, Beaumaris. 

Arms : the Coat of Hughes, Plas Coch (which 
see), being descended from a junior branch of that 
family. 

HUGHES, William Bulkeley, Esq., of Plas 

Coch, Anglesey. 

Is M. P. for Carnarvonshire Borough, J. P. 
and D. L.for cos. Carnarvon and Anglesey ; 
was High Sheriff for Anglesey 1861 ; was 
M.P. for Cam. Boroughs 1837 59 > was 
chosen to represent same boroughs 1865, 
and has continued in that capacity to the 
present time. Mr. Hughes is the eldest 



44 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



son of the late Sir W. B. Hughes, Knt. of 
Plas Coch, by his wife Elizabeth, dau. 
and co-h. of the late Rice Thomas, Esq., of 
Coed-helen, co. Carnarvon; b. 1797; ed. 
for the bar, and called by the society of 
Lincoln's Inn, 1826 ; m., ist, 1825, Eliza- 
beth, dau. and h. of J. Nettleship, Esq., of 
Mattersey Abbey, Notts (widow of H. 
Wormald, Esq.). Mr. Hughes has m. a 
second time, and has issue. 

Residence : Plas Coch, Anglesey. 

Town Address : Union Club, Trafalgar Square. 

Arms: Argent, a chevron, ermine, between three 
Cornish choughs, proper. 

Crest : A Cornish chough, proper. 

Motto : Duw a ddarpar ir brain, ' ' God provides 
for the ravens." 

LINEAGE. 

This family has been resident at Plas 
Coch, formerly called Porthamel Issa, for 
several centuries, and is one of the most 
ancient in N. Wales. It traces an un- 
broken descent from Llywarch ap Bran, 
Lord of Tre-Llywarch, and founder of the 
second noble tribe of North Wales, living 
in the time of Prince Owen Gwynedd (i2th 
cent.), and m. to his wife's sister. These 
princesses were daus. of Goronwy ap 
Edwin, ruler of Tegeingl. Plas Coch 
(the Red Hall) is a name which origi- 
nated after the erection of the present 
mansion (1569), which is built of the red 
sandstone of the neighbourhood, the re- 
presentative of the family at that time 
being Hugh Hughes, Esq., for some time 
M.P. for Anglesey, and Attorney-General 
for N. Wales. The Hughes of Plas Coch 
have interm. with the Bulkeleys of Brynddu 
and Beaumaris, the Owens of Clenenney, 
Cam., the Trevors of Denbighshire, &c. 
Mr. W. B. Hughes' next eldest brother is 
Major-General Hughes, of Brynddu. (See 
Hughes, Brynddu?) 

JONES, Humphrey Stanley Herbert, Esq., of 

Llynon, Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. for Anglesey ; Companion of 
the Most Honourable Order of the Bath ; 
Commissary-General to Her Majesty's 
forces, retired in 1869. Mr. Commissary 
Jones is the son of Humphrey Herbert 
Jones, Esq., of Llynon, J. P. and D. L. 
for Anglesey ; b. at Llynon ; ed. at Edin- 
burgh University ; m., ist, Agnes, dau. of 
Colonel N. Muter, R. C. Rifles; 2nd, 
Emma, dau. of the Hon. A. Buchanan, 
M.D., New Zealand ; s. to estates 1848. 

Residence : Llynon, Holyhead, Anglesey. 
Arms : Azure, a chevron, or, between three 
nags' heads, erased, two and one. 
Ci est : A nag's head, erased. 
Mottoes: Conanti nil arduum, and "Onward." 



JONES, Yen. Archd. John Wynne, of Treior- 
werth, Anglesey. 

Is Archdeacon of Bangor, appointed 1863; 
Canon Resident of Bangor Cathedral ; was 
formerly Incumbent of Holyhead, after- 
wards Rector of Heneglwys, Llangefni, 
and subsequently Vicar of Bodedern, An- 
glesey; J. P. and D. L. for the co. of 
Anglesey ; ed. at Jesus Coll., Oxford, of 
which college he was a scholar ; grad. B. A. 
1827, M.A. 1830; ordained Deacon 1827, 
Priest 1828. 

Mr. Jones is the son of the late Rev. 
Hugh Wynne Jones, M.A., by Mary, dau. 
of John Jones, Esq., of Bodednyfed, An- 
glesey ; b. 1804 ; s. 1849 > m -> 1843, Geor- 
giana, 3rd dau. of William Jones, Com- 
mander, R.N., and has, with other issue, a 
son, 

Hugh Wynne, b. 1847. 

Residence: Treiorwerth, Bodedern, Anglesey. 

KING, Captain James, of Presaddfed, An- 
glesey. 

Is a D. L. for co. Anglesey; was High 
Sheriff for the year 1839, late Capt. of the 
8;th regt. ; b. 1787, London; s. to the 
Presaddfed estate 1831 ; is son of the 
late James King, Esq., of Bath ; m., Oct. 
26th, 1831, Mary Moullin, dau. of Nichs. 
Moullin, Esq., of Guernsey ; ed. at Dr. 
Burney's, of Greenwich. 

Residence: Presaddfed, Bodedern, Anglesey. 

Arms: A chevron, sable, charged with 3 mullets. 

Crest : Demi-lion rampant. 

Motto : Virtutis praemium felicitas. 

Presaddfed is a place of great note in the 
history of Anglesey, having been the abode 
of Hwfa ap Cynddelw, founder of the first 
of the fifteen noble tribes, and steward to 
Prince Owain Gwynedd. It was his office 
by inheritance to bear the prince's coronet 
and place it on his head when anointed. 
Even prior to this time Presaddfed was a 
place of celebrity, and there are. traces re- 
maining to the present day of great monu- 
ments of an antiquity entirely pre-historic, 
which seem to have abounded around this 
spot. In a meadow adjoining the grounds 
a fine cromlech stands almost uninjured : 
and not far from this the remains of 
another, thrown down, are seen. On an 
eminence within sight is the maenhir of 
Llechcynfarwy, otherwise called Llech- 
gwyn-farwy, standing about nine feet 
above the ground. The Bulkeleys resided 
here for some time. The present mansion 
was built about the year 1568. The 
estate has been in the King family since 
1819. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



45 



LEWIS, John Lewis Hampton, Esq., of 
Henllys, Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Angle- 
sey ; was a Capt. in the Army ; served as 
High Sheriff of Anglesey 1846. Capt. 
Hampton Lewis is the eldest son of the 
late John Hampton Lewis, Esq., of Hen- 
llys (d. 1843); b. Oct. 18, 1.798; ed. at 
Sandhurst; m., 1833, Frances Elizabeth, 
only child and heiress of Thomas Jan son, 
Esq., of Yorkshire, and has issue 2 sons 
and 2 daughters, Fanny Mary Hampton 
and Mary Freeman Hampton. The second 
son, John Vivian Hampton, Esq., b. 1835, 
. m., June 2, 1868, the Lady Laura Phipps, 
eldest dau. of the Marquis of Normanby. 

Heir : Capt. Thomas Lewis Hampton, b. 1834. 

Residences : Henllys, Beaumaris, and Bodior, 
Holyhead. 

Arms: Quarterly, the Anns of Lewis, of Roberts 
(see Lineage), and of Hampton. 

The HamptonArms, as described in Dwnn (1588), 

are as follows : 

" Arfau Richard Hampton, Esq., yw. (G.) a plaine 
bend (ar) Larchyd with 3 Kornys loch upon a 
jyff-molet of the 2 an a bordr. of az. with a scalop 
shel or so mani as ressin." This is obscure, but 
probably means generally that the Arms of Richard 
Hampton, then of Henllys, were a plain bend, ar. , 
charged with 3 Cornish choughs ; upon a chief a 
mullet of the second ; a bordure az. with scallop 
shells, or. This is altered in the present coat, and 
stands thus (for Hampton), on a fess, or, between 
a mullet, in chief, and an escallop, in base, arg. , 3 
martlets, sa. (See Burke, Land. Gent.) 

Motto : A Deo et rege. 

LINEAGE. 

Of this very ancient and influential 
family the original founder, of the name 
Hampton, came from Lancashire, but the 
alliances of the Hamptons for many genera- 
tions, as ascertained by Dwnn, when, in 
1588, he visited Henllys as Deputy Herald, 
were almost entirely confined to Welsh 
families. The first Hampton, we are by 
him informed (and his statement is authen- 
ticated by Thomas Hampton, of Henllys, 
then representing the house), was named 
William, and he came to Beaumaris, pro- 
bably on military service, temp. Edward 
IV. He had a gr. gr. grandson named 
Richard Hampton, of Henllys, who is re- 
corded in the 1588 pedigree as having m. 
Elin, dau. and co-h. of William ap Gryf- 
fydd, of Cornwy, son of Sir William 
Griffith, of Penrhyn, Knt. 

Their son, William Hampton, m., according to 
the same authority, Elin, dau. of Robert Griffith, 
Esq., of Plas Newydd, and had, with other issue, 
Richard, who was the head of the Henllys family 
in 1588. He m., 1st, Margaret, dau. of Robert 
Wyn ap Cadwaladr ap Morys Gethin, of Plas yn 
Foelas, with issue I dau., Grace ; 2nd, Catharine, 
dau. of William ap Richard, descended from Lloyd 



of Glynllivon, and had issue Richard and Lowry ; 
3rd, Elin, dau. of Thomas Wyn. 

These latter particulars are likely to be correct, 
being ascertained on the spot, and so near to the 
time ; and they show alliances with the leading 
families of the surrounding country. Richard 
Hampton, last mentioned, .was Sheriff of Anglesey 
1546. 

The name Lewis came into the family 
through the marriage of a former heir with 
a dau. of the Rev. John Lewis, of Plas 
Llanfihangel, who himself had m. the 
heiress of Bodior. 

The mansion of Henllys is of recent 
erection, and, as may be seen from the 
illustration (p. 4), most pleasantly stands 
in view of the Bay of Beaumaris and the 
Carnarvon hills. 

LLOYD, Thomas Edward John, Esq., of 
Tregaian, Anglesey. 

Is a minor ; only son of late Robert Lloyd 
Jones-Parry, Esq., of Aberdunant, in the 
co. of Carnarvon, by Mary Isabella Owen 
Snow, only dau. of the late Edward Owen, 
who assumed his wife's surname of Snow, 
according to conditions in her father's will 
(see Lloyd, Aberdunant); b. at Villa Santa 
Croce, Macerata, Italy, July 29, 1856 ; ed. 
privately ; s. to his gr. gr. father's property 
in Anglesey, &c., 1870. 

Residences : Tregaian, Anglesey ; Aberdunant, 
Cam. 
Note. For Lineage, see Jones-Parry, Madryn, Cam. 

MEYBICK, Owen J. A. Euller, Esq., of Bodor- 
gan, Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for co. Anglesey ; 
b. 1804; High Sheriff 1827 ; s. to the 
Bodorgan estate on thedeath of his gr. father, 
O. P. Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan, 1858. 

Mr. Meyrick is the eldest son of the late 
A. Elliott Fuller, Esq., of Rosehill, Sussex, 
by Clara, eldest dau. and co-h. of O. P. 
Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan. In Meyrick's 
notes on Dwnn's Herald. Visit, of 
Wales it is said, " Upon the death of the 
late Owen Putland Meyrick, Esq., Bodor- 
gan and its extensive possessions passed 
under his will to his gr. son, Owen John 
Augustus Fuller, only son of his eldest dau. 
Clara by her marriage with Augustus Elliott 
Fuller, Esq., of Ashdown House, Sussex. 
He has adopted the additional surname of 
Meyrick; was Sheriff of Anglesey 1827, 
and is the present proprietor." 

LINEAGE. 

The Welsh descent of Mr. Owen J. A. 
F. Meyrick, now of Bodorgan, is through 
his mother, Clara, as above, who was of 
purely Cymric lineage, from Einion Sais 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



and Cadavael, Lord of Cydewain in Mont- 
gomeryshire. According to the pedigree 
authenticated by Dwnn, 1594, and bearing 
the signature of " Richard Meirig," then of 
Bodorgan, Einion Sais, of Bodorgan (who is 
said to have been usher of the palace of 
Sheen, or Richmond, temp. Henry VI., and 
was so much out of Wales that he acquired 
the nickname of " Sais ") ; was m. to Eva, 
dau. of Cadwgan ap Llywarch ap Bran, of 
Bodorgan, founder of one of the noble 
tribes, and from them, through their 
younger son, Heilin, was descended a 
grandson named Meirig ap Llywelyn ap 
Heilin, a "Yeoman of the Guard" to 
Henry VIII. (or as the Dale Castle MS. 
has it, Henry VII.), from whose son, 
Richard Meirig, who was m. to Jane, 
dau. of Llewelyn ap Rhys ap Llewelyn 
ap Hwlkyn, at about the seventh degree, 
Owen Putland Meyrick, of Bodorgan, gr. 
father of the present proprietor, derived. 

Residence: Bodorgan, Anglesey. 

Arms : Sable, on a chevron, arg. between three 
brands erect, raguly, or, inflamed, proper, a fleur- 
de-lis, gu. between two Cornish choughs, regarding 
each other, proper. (This is a variation from the 
Arms of Llywarch ap Bran, who is said to have 
borne ar. between three crows, each bearing a 
Queen of Ermine in its bill, a chevron, sa. 
(Cambr. Reg.} 

Bodorgan, though situated in an unin- 
viting district, is a mansion displaying con- 
siderable magnificence, situated in grounds 
carefully kept, and surrounded by an ex- 
tensive and well-wooded park, which con- 
tains along the principal drives five speci- 
mens of various kinds of pine a proof 
that on the south-western, the most exposed 
coast of Anglesey, these trees, with proper 
cultivation, will thrive. 

NEAVE, Sir Arundel, Bart, of Llys-dulas, 

Anglesey. 

Is the son of the late Sir Richard Neave, 
3rd baronet (created 1795), f Dagnam 
Park, Essex, by the Hon. Mar}-, dau. of 
James Everard, LordArundell, of Wardour; 
was an officer in the army; b. 1828; m. 
1871 to the Hon. Miss Hughes, of Llys- 
dulas. 

Gwyn Gertrude Hughes, now Lady 
Arundell Neave, is dau. and only surviving 
child of the late W. Lewis Hughes, Baron 
Dinorben (created 1831), of Kinmel Park, 
co. Denbigh, and Llys-dulas, co. Anglesey, 
by his second wife, Gertrude, youngest 
dau. of G. B. Smyth, Esq., of Ballynatray, 
co. Water ford. 

The late Lord Dinorben was descended 
from an old Anglesey family, the Hughes's 
of Lleiniog. Hugh Hughes, Esq., of 



Lliniog, or Lleiniog, was succeeded by his 
son, the Rev. Edward Hughes, of Kinmel, 
who m. Mary, dau. and co-heiress of Robert 
Lewis, Esq., of Llys-dulas, and d. 1815, 
leaving issue William Lewis, the late 
Baron Dinorben, who inherited through 
his mother the lands of Llys-dulas, in- 
cluding a portion of the Parys mountain, 
so well known for its rich copper mines. 
He was b. 1767; m. as his second wife 
Gertrude Smyth, as above, and had issue 
2 daughters, Gertrude Cecilia, d. 1843, 
and Gwyn-Gertrude, present representative 
and proprietor of the Llys-dulas estate. 

Residences : Llys-dulas, Anglesey ; and Dagnam 
Park, Essex. 

Arms: Ar., on a cross, sa., five fleurs-de-lis, 
or, for NEAVE. The Dinorben arms were gules, 
two lions passant between three roses, per pale, 
argent. 

Crest: A demi-lion rampant, arg., holding a 
trident. 

Motto : Sola proba, honesta, for NEAVE. 

Note. For present representative male of 
the Hughes family, see Hughes, Kinmel Park, 
Denb., to whom, as nephew of the late 
Baron Dinorben, great part of the landed 
estates has reverted. 

OWEN, Jolin, Esq., of Gadlys, Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for Anglesey ; was for 
some time Belgian Consul at Canton ; son 
of the late Owen Owen, Esq., of Gadlys ; b. 
1 8 ; ed. at Rugby School; s. to the 
Gadlys property on the death of his brother 
Owen in 1867. 

Residence: Gadlys, Menai Bridge. 

OWEN, Robert Brisco, Esq., of Eaulfre, 

Anglesey. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Angle- 
sey ; was High Sheriff 1854 ; is Lord of 
the Manor of Haulfre ; is the third son of 
the late Owen Owen, Esq., of Glynafon, in 
the co. of Anglesey, who d. 1833, by 
Anne, his wife, dau. of Edward Owen, 
Esq. ; b. 1800 ; ;., ist, 1845, Marianne, 
dau. of George Gardner, Esq., of Pen- 
dleton Priory, in the co. of Lancaster (she 
d. 1867); 2nd, Annie, youngest dau. of 
the late Robert Beatty, Esq., whose family 
was of good descent, his mother being a 
Mackay, and maternally of the line of 
Cromwell. Dr. Brisco Owen was ed. at 
Edinburgh University, where he graduated 
M.D. in 1823; elected Fellow of the 
Linnaean Society 1824 ; entered same year 
the Hon. East India Co.'s Service as phy- 
sician, and was engaged under the late 
Gen. Sir James Outram in the jungles of 
Canderish, where Sir James formed the 
Bheel corps ; served with the Bombay 3rd 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



47 



Light Infantry in the Affghan and Scinde 
war ; was superintendent of the Hon. E..I. 
Co.'s Botanic Garden in the Deccan, under 
the government of the late Sir Robert 
Grant ; retired from the India Service 1844. 

Residence: Haulfre, Llangoed, Anglesey. 
Town Address: 9, Spring Gardens, S.W. 

Haulfre is a picturesque villa recently 
erected in the beautiful and historic parish 
of Llangoed, near Penmon. It commands 
a fine view of Beaumaris Bay and the 
Carnarvon hills, and is surrounded on 
every hand by remains of ecclesiastical 
and warlike monuments of great interest. 
Penmon Park and Priory are close by, and 
the sacred island of Priestholm, Lleiniog 
Castle, and Llanfaes Abbey within easy 
reach. The district of Penmon is seldom 
surpassed for sweet and tranquil beauty of 
landscape. 

PAGET, Lord Clarence Edward, K.C.B., of 
Plas Llanfair, Anglesey. 

Is a member of the P. C., and K.C.B. 
Entered the navy; became rear-admiral 
1858 ; was secretary of the Ordnance for 
seven years, 184652; secretary to Ad- 
miralty seven years from 1859 ; com- 
manded ship Princess Royal in the Russian 
war ; was at the battle of Navarino ; or- 
ganized ship night attack on Sebastopol, 
and was made K.C.B. for that action. 
Commanded the Mediterranean fleet, 
1866 69; was sent Envoy to invest the 
Khedive of Egypt with the Order of the 
Bath in 1867. Is a J. P. for co. Anglesey, 
and was for several years M.P. for Sandwich. 
Lord Clarence Paget is third son of the 
late Field-Marshal Henry William Paget, 
ist Marquess of Anglesey, K.G., G.C.B., 
&c., by his second wife, the Lady Charlotte, 
dau. of Charles, ist Earl Cadogan; b. 181 1 ; 
ed. at Westminster School ; entered the 
navy 1825; m. 1852 Martha Stuart, 
youngest dau. of the late Admiral Sir 
Robert Waller Otway, Bart., G.C.B., and 
has issue i son, Fitzroy Richard Clarence, 
b. 1853, and 2 daughters. 

Residence: Plas Llanfair, Anglesey. 

Tmvn Address : United Service Club, S.W. 

Arms: Sa. on a cross, engrailed, inter four 
eagles displayed, ar., five lions, passant, guardant, 
of the field. 

Crest: A demi-tiger, salient, sa., ducally gorged 
and tufted, ar. 

Motto : Per il suo contrario, "By its opposite." 

Among distinguished members of this 
family must be mentioned with special 
distinction Lord Uxbridge, ist Marquess 
of Anglesey, whose career under the Duke 
of Wellington is commemorated by the 



Anglesey Column near Menai Bridge ; 
also Sir Arthur Paget, his brother, am- 
bassador at several foreign courts ; Sir 
Edward Paget, another brother, a distin- 
guished Peninsular officer. 

The mansion of Plas Llanfair was built 
about the middle of the i8th century, and 
has been much enlarged and improved by 
its present proprietor. It occupies a charm- 
ing position on the banks of the Menai 
Straits in view of the Carnarvon mountains 
and near the Tubular Bridge. 

PANTON, Paul, Esq., of Qarreglwyd, Holy- 
head. 

Is an officer in the R. N., and descendant 
of the late Paul Panton, Esq., of Plas 
Gwyn, Anglesey, whose name will be long 
remembered in connection with the litera- 
ture of Wales. He was a great collector 
of MSS. bearing upon the history and 
antiquities of his country ; and it is said 
that many of these still remain in the pos- 
session of Mr. Panton of Holyhead. 

Residence: Garreglwyd, Holyhead Island, An- 
glesey. 

PAINTER, John Wynne, Esq., of JYTaesllwyn, 

Anglesey. 

Is J. P. and D. L. for co. Anglesey; High 
Sheriff, 1871; son of the late Zaccheus 
Paynter, Esq., of Maesllwyn, by his wife 
Anne, dau.- of John Hughes, Esq., of 
Amlwch ; b. 18 ; m. 18 Jane, dau. of 
G. Hughes, Esq., of Monachdy, Anglesey, 
and has issue i son, John Wynne, and 2 
daughters, Catharine Anne, and Margaret 
Mary. 

Heir : John Wynne. 
Residence: Maesllwyn, Amlwch. 

LINEAGE. 

Mr. Paynter traces his lineage from 
Collwyn ap Tangno, Lord of Eifionydd and 
Ardudwy, founder of one of the noble 
tribes of North Wales, whose descendants 
are very numerous in Merionethshire and 
Carnarvonshire to this day. At a distance 
of many generations from Collwyn, 

Morys Gethin m. Gwerfyl, dau. of Gruffydd ap 
Dafydd, descended from Dafydd, lord of Denbigh, 
by whom he had a son, Lewis, who m. Elinor, 
dau. of Hugh ap Hugh ap Hywel of Ffosoglan, 
Anglesey. 

Their son, Hugh, m, Jane, dau. of William 
Wood of Llangwyfan, in Anglesey, and by her had 
a son, William, whose wife was Jane, dau. of Lewis 
Anwyl of Parkiau, Llanfrothen, Mer. 

They had a son, Morris ap William, or Williams, 
who was Sheriff of Mer. 1665. He m. Lowry, 
dau. of Morris Prydderch of Blaen-y-pennant, co. 
Carnarvon, and had a son, 

William Williams, who m. Lucy, dau. of Wil- 
liam Glyn of Llanerfawr, co. Carnarvon, and was 
s. by his son, 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



Morris Williams, Esq., who was Sheriff of 
Anglesey 1716. He m. Gainor, dau. of Owen 
Wynne, Esq., of Glascoed. William Williams had 
also a dau., Catherine, who m. Owen Wynne of 
Glascoed, and their dau. Ellen m. Joseph Cox, 
Comptroller of the Customs, Pwllheli, and it was 
by the marriage of their dau. Catherine with Andrew 
Paynter, Esq., that the name Paynter. came into 
the family. 

Zacheus Paynter, Esq., their third son, m. Annie, 
dau. of John Hughes, Esq., of Amlwch, and had 
issue Margaret, John Wynne, William Cox, An- 
drew, Ellen, Anne. 

John Wynne Paynter, Esq., of Maesllwyn, is 
the present representative of the family. 

PRICHARD, Riohard Williams, Esq., of 

Dinam, Anglesey. 

J. P. and D. L. for co. of Anglesey, and 

Lord of the Manor of Dinam, or Denham, 

in said co. ; High Sheriff 1853 ; eldest 

son of the late Rev. Richard Prichard of 

Dinam; b. 1798; m., in 1834, Elizabeth, 

dau. of the late Rev. Robert Housman of 

Lancaster, who was magistrate for the 

county of Lancaster for forty years; s. 

1850 ; has issue i son and 5 daughters. 

Heir: Rev. Richard William Prichard, in 

holy orders ; scholar of St. John's, Cambridge { 

and a wrangler. 

Residences: Dinam, Anglesey; and Parkfield, 
Birkenhead. 

LINEAGE. 

This family, as appears from an ancient 
roll in their possession, can trace their 
pedigree through the houses of Arianell 
Goch (by marriage of the heiress with John 
Prichard of Dinam) and Bodewryd up to 
Jarddur of Mor, Hwfa ap Cynddelw, 
Llywelyn ap lorwerth, Prince of North 
Wales, and Rhys Goch. Appended to the 
roll or genealogical record referred to is 
the following condensed note : 

" The paternal coat of the heirs of the 
above-mentioned estates are the arms of 
Jarddur ap Mor, of Hwfa ap Cynddelw, 
of Llywelyn ap lorwerth, and of Gweirydd 
ap Rhys Goch, one of [the founders of] 
the fifteen tribes of North Wales, by Mar- 
garet, the wife of Owen Wynn, Gent. See 
the monument in Llechcynfarwy Church, 
about the grave of Owen Wynn, Gent., 
late of Arianell Goch. Done according 
to authority by Hugh Hughes, O.C. } 1758. 
(Signed) " HUGH HUGHES." 

STANLEY, The Hon. William Owen, of 

Penrhos, Anglesey. 

Is J. P. and D. L. for Anglesey ; was cap- 
tain in the army ; captain of local Artillery 
Volunteers ; has been M.P. for Beaumaris 
and contributory boroughs since 1857 ; was 
M.P. for Anglesey for several years up to 
1847, and previously for Chester; is the 
son of John Thomas, ist Lord Stanley, of 



Alderley (created a peer 1839), by his wife 
Lady Maria Josepha Holroyd, dau. of 
John, ist Earl of Sheffield ; b. i3th Novem- 
ber, 1802 ; ;., 1832, Ellen, dau. of the 
late Sir John Williams, Bart, of Bodel- 
wyddan, Denb. 

Residence : Penrhos, Holyhead. 

Town Address: 40, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

Arms : Those of STANLEY, argent, on abend, 
azure, three stags' heads, caboshed, or, a crescent 
for difference. 

Crest: On a chapeau, gu., an eagle, wings 
displayed, or. 

Motto : Sans changer. 

LINEAGE. 

Mr. W. Owen Stanley's Welsh descent 
is through the Owens of Penrhyn^ an 
ancient mansion which stood on a head- 
land of Holyhead, near the present Pen- 
rhos, and which is commemorated in 
the name of his cousin, Arthur Penrhyn 
Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster, 
son of the late Dr. Stanley, Bishop 
of Norwich, who was brother to the 
ist Lord Stanley, of Alderley. Sir 
John Thomas Stanley, Bart., of Alderley, 
created Baron Stanley in 1839, was de- 
scended through a long line of ancestry 
from Sir John Stanley, Kt., who lived 
temp. Edward IV. His father, Sir John 
Thomas, Bart., of Alderley, Cheshire, was 
the person who brought the name of Stan- 
ley of this branch into Wales. He m. 
Mary, dau. and heiress of Hugh Owen, 
Esq., of Penrhyn and Penrhos, the former 
being the ancient seat of the family, and 
by her became the father of, 

1. John Thomas, ist Lord Stanley, as above. 

2. Edward, late Bishop of Norwich, father of the 
present Dean of Westminster. 

There were several daus., one of whom, the 
youngest, was Emma, who m. Capt. Digby Car- 
penter, and had, among other issue, Emma Mary, 
the present Mrs. Trygarn Griffith, of Carreglwyd, 
Anglesey. (See Conway-Griffith, ped.) 

THOMAS, Capt. William Hugh, of Trevor, 

Anglesey. 

Late Captain in the 4pth Regiment ; was 
Adjutant of 49th Regiment of Foot from 
1865 to 1869 ; served in India with the 
33rd, Duke of Wellington's Regiment, 
during the mutiny of 1857 and 1858 ; son 
of the Rev. William Thomas, M.A., rector 
of Llansadwrn, Anglesey, and Orlestane, 
Kent, J. P. for Anglesey and a rural dean 
of the diocese, by Anne, dau. of Griffith 
Roberts, Esq., surgeon, Beaumaris; b. at 
Trevor, 26th of March, 1833 ; ed. at Friars 
School, Bangor, and Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, of which college he was a " Rustal 
Scholar;" s. to the Trevor property in 
1852, on the death of his uncle. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



49 



Heir Pres. : His brother, Rev. Hugh Thomas, 
vicar of Old Newton, Suffolk. 
Residence: Trevor, Beaumaris. 
Town Address : Junior United Service Club. 
Crest : A split eagle. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from 
William Thomas, yeoman, who lived to a 
great age, and d. in 1692, and was buried 
in the parish church of Llansadwrn. He 
was s. by his son Richard, and so on in 
an unbroken line to the present time. 
This family by marriage is connected with 
the Vivians of Glyn, Cornwall, and the 
Gorings of Sussex the aunt of the present 
owner of the property, Mrs. Lewis of 
Plas Llanddyfnan, being the mother of the 
Dowager Lady Goring, and grandmother of 
the present Lady Vivian of Plas Gwyn, 
Anglesey, and Glyn, Cornwall. The man- 
sion of Trevor was originally built in 1700, 
but has been since enlarged and modern- 
ized. 

VIVIAN, Lord Charles Crespigny, of Plas- 

gwyn, Anglesey, and &lyn, Cornwall. 
Creation, 1841. Lord Vivian is a J. P. 
and D. L. for the ' co. of Anglesey, and 
Lord Lieutenant for co. of Cornwall ; was 
M.P. for Bodmin 1835 42 ; is retired 
Major of Dragoon Guards ; eldest son of 
the late Richard Hussey, ist Lord Vivian, 
G.C.B., of Truro, Lieutenant-General (who 
owing to his distinguished public services 
was created a baron of the United King- 
dom, being already a bart.), by Eliza, dau. 
of Philip Champion de Crespigny, Esq., of 
Aldborough; b. 1808; s. to the title and 
estates on the death of his father, 1842; 
m., ist, 1833, Arabella, dau. of the late 
Rev. J. M. Scott, who d. 1837; 2nd, 1841, 
Mary Elizabeth, eldest dau. and heiress of 
the late Jones Panton, Esq., of Plas Gwyn, 
Anglesey, and has issue, from ist m., 
Hon. Hussey Crespigny, b. 1834, and 
another son; by 2nd m., Hon. Charles 
Hussey Panton, b. 1847, and six other 
children. 

Heir: Hussey Crespigny, J. P. for the co. 
of Cornwall. 

Residents : Plas Gwyn, Anglesey ; Glyn, Corn- 
wall. 

Town Address: United Service Club, S.W. 

Arms: Or, on a chevron, az., between three 
lions' heads, erased, three annulets ; on a chief, 
gu., a wreath of oak leaves, between two medals 
(commemorative of the Peninsular and Waterloo 
battles) . 

Supporters : Dexter, a war-horse with mounted 
hussar; sinister, a ditto, with mounted lancer. 

Motto: Cor nobyle, corimmobyle, "The noble 
heart is immoveable." 



WILLIAMS, John, Esq., of Treffos, Anglesey. 
Is J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Anglesey; 
J. P. for co. Carnarvon, and for the city of 
Chester, where he is a banker; Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Anglesey local Militia ; is 
son of the late Rev. John Williams of 
Treffos, by Eleanor, dau. of the Rev. James 
Vincent, rector of Bangor ; b. 1784; ed. at 
Eton and Jesus College, Oxford ; was called 
to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn; m., 1808, 
Elizabeth Jane Winter, 2nd dau. of Cap- 
tain W. Goddard, R.N., and has issue, 
Thomas Norris Williams, M.A., Clerk, 
rector of Aber, Carnarvon ; John V. H. 
Williams ; and one dau., Mrs. Stanhope 
Jones, widow of Captain Charles Stanhope 
Jones, of the 59th Regiment. 
Heir : Thomas Norris Williams. 
Residence: Treffos, Beaumaris. 
Arms : Arg. a chev. sable, betw. three Cornish 
choughs, proper, each having ermine in its bill. 

Crest: A Cornish chough, holding in its bill a 
fleur-de-lis. 

Motto : Duw i mi dy ras, " God give me grace." 
Note. The mansion and property were 
purchased by Owen Williams, the grand- 
father of the present possessor. The manor 
of Treffos is among the temporalities of the 
Bishop of Bangor, having been granted to 
him by King Edward I. in 1284, on the 
occasion of his baptizing the first Prince 
of Wales. Tradition says that in bygone 
times his Lordship maintained a farm in 
the manor, and kept his hounds there. 
According to Browne Willis, " Treffos is 
reputed the capital of the bishop's barony, 
. by virtue of which he is said to claim his 
seat in Parliament." 

WILLIAMS, Richard, Esq., of Trosyrafon, 

Anglesey. 

Is town-clerk of Beaumaris ; acts as clerk 
of the Malldraeth Commissioners ; son of 
the late Rev. John Williams, vicar of 
Llanfaes and Penmon, Anglesey; b. i2th 
September, 1853 ; ed. at Beaumaris Gram- 
mar School and Preston Grammar School ; 
m., May 7th, 1861, Anne, dau. of Owen 
Owen, Esq., Clerk of the Peace of the co. 
of Anglesey; s. March, 1860. 

Residence: Trosyrafon, Penmon, Anglesey. 
Crest : An eagle displayed. 

LINEAGE. 

Mr. Williams derives his lineage from 
the ancient family of Sybwlldir, Anglesey. 
About this place, which in past times main- 
tained a prominent position, part culars 
are given on p. 26, but no particulars have 
been furnished of the continuous pedigree 
down to the present time. These may be 
supplied for a future edition. 



ANGLESEY COUNTY FAMILIES. 



WILLIAMS, Rev. Robert, of Llanfaelog, 
Anglesey. 

Is Rector of Llanbeulan, with the Chapel- 
ries of Llanfaelog, Llechylched, and 
Ceirchiog, and Rural Dean of Llifon, in 
the co. of Anglesey ; also a Surrogate ; 
formerly a Curate of Carnarvon, 1837 4^, 
and successively Rector of Meyllteyrne- 
cum-Bottwnog, 1844 8, and Vicar of 
Clynnog, Carnarvonshire, 1848 64 ; 
author of an English sermon (published 
by request) on " The Christening of the 
Prince of Wales," besides several sermons 
and pamphlets, both in English and 
Welsh educated at the Friars Grammar 
School, Bangor, in which parish he was 
born, being the son of the late Robert 
Williams, Esq., Frondeg in that city ; 
graduated B.A. A.D. 1835, and M.A. 1838, 
and was of Jesus College, Oxford ; m., 
first, 1846, Elizabeth Constable, dau. of 
the late John Ellis, Esq., solicitor, Pwll- 
heli (she d. 1858, leaving three daus. 
surviving) ; secondly, 1866, Elizabeth 
Anne, dau. of the late Rev. Walter Poole, 
Vicar of Moulton, Northamptonshire, and 
maternal niece of the late Owen Jones Ellis 
Nanney, Esq., of Gvvynfryn, Carnarvon. 

LINEAGE. 

The paternal grandfather of the Rev. R. 
Williams was the late Mr. William Williams, 
of Llandegai, Carnarvonshire, a distin- 
guished Welsh scholar, and estate agent 
of the first Lord Penrhyn. He was author 
of " Observations on the Snowdon Moun- 
tains," " A Pedigree of the Penrhyn 
Family," and " Prydnawn - Gwaith y 
Cymry." His pedigree, as drawn out by 
himself, is traced to Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 
Prince of Powys, a collateral branch with 
that of Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley, 
Bart., of Baron Hill, through the line of 
Rowlands, of Plas y Nant and Ystrad, 
Carnarvonshire, viz. : 

" William Williams, of Tymawr, Llande- 
gai, ab William, ab Hugh, ab Sion, ab 
Owen, ab Rowland. The above Sion, ab 
Owen, ab Rowland, was the grandfather 
of Thomas Rowlands, Esq., of Nant and 
Caerau, who was father of Emma, the late 
Baroness Bulkeley, who by her second 
marriage was grandmother of Sir Richard 
Williams Bulkeley, Bart. The Rowlands 
of Nant were descended from lorwerth 
Goch, ab Meredydd, ab Bleddyn, ab 
Cynfyn, as above stated." 

Arms and Crest: Argent, a lion rampant, 
sable. 

Residence : Llanfaelog Rectory, Holyhead. 



WILLIAMS, Lady Sarah Elizabeth Hay, of 
Rhianva, Anglesey. 

Is widow of Sir John Hay Williams, 2nd 
Bart., of Bodelwyddan, Flintshire, whom 
she m. 1848 ; is the only dau. of the late 
William Pitt, ist Earl Amherst, Ambas- 
sador to China, 1816 17, Gov.-Gen. of 
India, 1823 1828; b. in London, pth 
July, 1 80 1. Lady Hay Williams has 
issue two daus. The eldest, Margaret 
Maria, m. to Capt. Edmund Hope Verney, 
R.N., eldest son of Sir Harry Verney, 
Bart., of Claydon House, Bucks. The 
second, Maude Sarah, m. to the Rev. 
Frederick William Verney, youngest son 
of the same. 

Heiress : Margaret Maria, Mrs. Verney. 

Residence: Rhianva, Anglesey. 

Arms: Parted per pale. Dexter, ar. two 
foxes counter-salient, gu. ; sinister, gu. three 
lances erect, or, headed, azure. 

LINEAGE. 

The eminent family of Williams, of Bodel- 
wyddan, of which the ist Baronet, John, 
was father of the above Sir John Hay, is 
in the junior branch of the same origin as 
that of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, of 
Wynnstay, Sir William Williams, speaker 
of the House of Commons, temp. Charles 
II., being the common ancestor of both. 

Its original seat was Anglesey, Speaker 
Williams being the first member of it who 
lived in Denbighshire. According to 
Dwnn, Heraldic Visit, of Wales, William 
ap levan, of Bryn Gwallanog, Anglesey, 
was 7th in descent from Adda ap Einion, 
which last, according to the extenta of 
Edward III. A.D. 1352, held a "Wele," 
or freehold in the Ville of Rhoscolyn. 
From William, whose mother was Mar- 
garet, dau. of lorwerth ap levan Llwyd, 
of the line of Gweirydd ap Rhys, founder 
of one of the 15 noble tribes of N. Wales, 
were the Williams's of Chwaen Issa, from 
whom sprang, the son of a clergyman, the 
eminent lawyer, Speaker William Williams 
already named. (See Williams- Wynn, 
Wynnstay.) 

Rhianva was built by Sir John Hay 
Williams, 1850, in the style of a small 
French chateau, of the date of Fran9ois I., 
and furnished in the taste of the Renais- 
sance of that period. 

WILLIAMS, Col. Thomas Peer?, of Craig y 

Don, Anglesey. 

Lieut.-Col. in command of Royal Anglesey 
Lt. Infantry ; was M.P. for Great Mario w 
1820 1868 ; is J. P. and D. L. for cos. 
Anglesey and Bucks ; patron of Rectory of 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF ANGLESEY. 



5' 



Horton, Bucks. Col. Williams is the eldest 
son of the late Owen Williams, Esq., of 
Temple House, Great Marlow (who d. 
1832); b. in London, 1795; ed. at West- 
minster School and Ch. Ch., Oxford ; s. to 
estates 1832; m., August 27, 1835, Emily, 
youngest dau. of Anthony Bacon, Esq., 
and has issue 2 sons and 6 daughters. 
Eldest son, Owen Lewis Cope, Capt. Royal 
Horse Guards, b. 1836. Of the daus., the 
eldest, Margaret Elizabeth, m., Aug. 13, 
1866, Capt. Richard L. M. Williams Bul- 
keley, eldest son of Sir Richard B. Williams 
Bulkeley, Bart, of Baron Hill, Anglesey. 

Mary Gwendolen m., 1863, William 
Henry, Visct. Dangan, eldest son of Earl 
Cowley, G.C.B., P.C. 

Blanche Mary x ;;/., 1866, Lord Charles 
John, son of the Duke of Roxburghe. 

Residences : Craig-y-don, Anglesey ; Temple 
House, Bucks. 

Town Address: 50, South Audley Street, W. 

Arms : Quarterly : first and fourth, argent, a 
chevron, sa., between three Cornish choughs, ppr., 
limbed and beaked gules. Second and third, 
argent, three boars' heads erased, ppr. 

Crest: A Cornish chough holding an ermine in 
dexter claw. 

Motto: Duw a ddarpar i'r brain, "God pro- 
vides for the ravens." 

Craig-y-don (the rock by the wave) is 
delightfully situated close on the Menai 
Straits, near the road from " the bridges " 
to Beaumaris, surrounded by extensive and 
luxuriant woods. 



WILLIAMS, The Rev. William, of Menaifron, 
Anglesey. 

Rector of Llangeinwen and Llangaffo ; 
Rural Dean of Menai, Anglesey ; Canon 
Residentiary of Bangor Cathedral; pre- 
viously for twenty years Honorary Canon 
of the same ; was Private Chaplain to 
the late Earl of Pembroke ; is J. P. 
and D. L. for the co. of Carnarvon ; 
son of David Williams, Esq., of Llan- 
dderfer, co. Merioneth ; b. June 28, 1798 ; 
ed. at Oswestry Grammar School and St. 
John's College, Cambridge ; grad. B.A. 
1820, M.A. 1826; m., 1826, Jane Wynne 
Hughes, of Trefan, Carnarvonshire, and 
has issue living 2 sons and i daughter. 

Residence: Menaifron, Anglesey. 

Canon Williams is patron of the united 
parishes of Llangeinwen and Llangaffo. 

The family of Mrs. "Williams is de 
scended in direct line from the celebrated 
poet " Rhys Goch Eryri," temp. Owen Glyn- 
dwr. 



WILLOUGHBY DE BROKE, The Dowager 
Lady Margaret, of Plas Newydd, An- 
glesey. 

Is the widow of Henry Verney, 8th Baron 
Willoughby de Broke, of Compton Verney, 
co. Warwick, who was descended from a 
junior branch of the ancient line of Wil- 
loughby D'Eresby, through Sir R. Willough- 
by, of Broke, who was a supporter of the 
cause of Henry VII., by whom he was 
created a baron, 1492, taking his title from 
Broke, his paternal inheritance. Her lady- 
ship is dau. of the late Sir John Williams, 
Bart., of Bodelwyddan, Flintshire, by Mar- 
garet, dau. and h. of Hugh Williams, Esq., 
of Ty-fry, Anglesey. Her marriage took 
place 1829. Lord Willoughby de Broke 
d. 1852. 

Residence : Plas Newydd, Anglesey. 
Toiun House : 21, Hill Street, Berkeley Square. 
Arms : Gu. three crosses, limbs double-pointed, 
or ; on a chief, vair and ermines. 

Crest: A Saracen's head, crowned, or. 
Motto : Vertue vaunceth. 

Note. Plas Newydd, now occupied by 
Lady Willoughby de Broke, is celebrated 
in many points of view. It stands on a site 
hallowed by the most venerable associa- 
tions, connected with times partly pre- 
historic, and witnessed to by some of the 
most stupendous monuments in Great 
Britain. In the grounds of this mansion 
are the noble cromlechs we have elsewhere 
described, and a tumulus a place of 
sepulture of unusually large size, recently 
opened. It is said that on the site of the 
present house stood the dwelling of Gwen- 
llian, of the line of Cadrod Hardd, and 
there are many traditions and names con- 
nected with the place which indicate that 
the extensive slope occupied by the well- 
wooded and noble park has from time 
immemorial been the home of sacred rites 
and glorious deeds. The present superb 
mansion was built by the Earl of Uxbridge, 
afterwards ist Marquess of Anglesey. 

YORKE, Mrs. Elizabeth, of Brynllwyd, An- 
glesey. 

Widow of the late Peirce Wynne Yorke, 
Esq., of Dyffryn Aled, Denbighshire (who 
was J. P. for the co. of Denbigh, High 
Sheriff for same co. 1817; he d. 1837); 
dau. of Sir William Hughes, Kt, of Plas 
Coch, Anglesey ; and sister of William 
Bulkeley Hughes, Esq., M.P. for the Car- 
narvonshire boroughs, and of Major-Gen. 
Hughes, of Brynddu, Anglesey ; was m. 
to P. W. Yorke, Esq., 1817, and had issue, 
P. Wynne Yorke, Esq., now of Dyffryn 



ANGLESEY-COUNTY FAMILIES. 



Aled, Denbighshire ; Diana Elizabeth, ///. 
A. Alexander, Esq. ; and Margaret, m. 
Rev. A. Lodge, Rector of Wavertree. 

Residence: Brynllwyd, Llanidan, Anglesey. 



Note. For Mrs. Yorke's family pedigree, 
see Hughes, Plas Cock; and for the late 
Mr. Yorke's lineage, see Yorke, Dyffryn 
Aled, Denb. 



ADDENDA. 



Information has not been obtained respecting the following : 



Bulkeley, R. W. Hughes, Esq., Gronant, 

Holybead. 
Copeland, W. H., Esq., Plas Cadnant, Menai 

Bridge. 

Higgins, George, Esq., Red Hill, Beaumaris. 
Lewis, Mrs., Plas Llanddyfnan, Beaumaris. 
Mason, Rev. R. W., Llantrisant, Anglesey. 
Massey, William, Esq., Cornelyn, Beaumaris. 



Mitchell, H. B., Esq., Lleiniog Castle, Beau- 
maris. 

Poole, The Rev. W. H., Aberffraw. 

Schwabe, Mrs., Glyngarth, Beaumaris. 

Smith, Col. Bramston, Pencraig, Llangefni. 

Williams, The Rev. Chancellor, Llanfair-yn- 
Nghornwy. 

Williams, Mrs. H. O., Trecastle, Beaumaris. 

Williams, Mrs., Tanygraig, Pentraeth. 



ANNALS, &c., OF WALES. 



BRECONSHIRE. 

(BRYCHEINIOG.) 

THIS is one of the newer counties of Wales, created by Henry VIII. As we shall here- 
after see, it was first taken from Wales by the Norman Lords Marchers in the eleventh 
centhry, and only restored by Henry in the sixteenth. 

Like most of the divisions of the Principality, it inherits a name which is the legacy of 
primitive ages. Whether we call it Breconshire or Brecknock, we are equally true and 
equally untrue to etymology, for both these forms are but the distortions which foreign name- 
givers, ignorant of the meaning of the native appellation, have been pleased to coin. Bry- 
chan, a pious and puissant chieftain, said to have come from Ireland, but about whose 
history there clings a good deal of fable, is the true name-giver of this county. Brecon is 
but a mild and excusable corruption of Brychan, and Brecknock is but a slightly grosser one 
of Brychan-wg, or Brychein-iog, the country of Brychan. The term wg, or og, signifying a 
region, or country, is visible in other Cymric names of places, as Morgan-wg, the land of 
Morgan ; Essyllwg, the land of Essyllt. 

As to the comparative merits of Brecon and Brecknock, the latter may be considered the 
more correct name for the county, as representing, though far from accurately, the lordship 
or territory of Brychan ; while the former is more suitable for the town, as the supposed seat, 
or contiguous to the supposed seat, of that ancient chieftain. The town was planted where it 
stands by the Norman Newmarch, the original British settlement and stronghold having 
been, as is believed, on the hill called " Benni," half a mile S.E. of the confluence of the 
Usk and Eskir, near which spot the Romans had their station Bannium. 

SECTION I. SURFACE OUTLINE AND SCENERY OF BRECONSHIRE. 

It is comparatively easy to describe a country which, by nature, is so distinctly lined out 
and indented as is the beautiful county of Brecknock. We have but to notice the water- 
sheds and the rivers, the hills and the vales, and the whole is plain. The great features of the 
outhern side of this county are the Beacons and the Usk, and on the western the Eppynt 
Hills. To the north the Irvon and the Elan, and to the east the Wye, are at once our 
guides to the topography and to the almost unsurpassable scenes of physical beauty which 
so profusely fringe them. 

Those who travel only by railway, although they see an infinite number of things, see, in 



54 BRECONSHIRE. 

reality, not half so much as those who move by slower methods. The railway levels the land 
for its track, and levels all landscapes to a similar uniformity of confused arid evanescent 
pictures. Giraldus Cambrensis in the twelfth century saw more of picturesque, romantic, 
and lovely landscape by going on horseback from Brecon, over the Talgarth Mountain, to 
Llanthony Abbey, and thence by the Vale of Gronwy to the Usk, than our modern traveller 
often sees by making a Continental tour. 

To understand what any county which has a part of the surface covered by mountains 
contains, its eminences must be surmounted, and the eye must survey the prospect from 
advantageous points of view, which the mind must have time to observe in detail, and com- 
pare, and allow the image to sink and settle in the memory. Few would encounter the 
labour of climbing the Beacons (2,862 feet the highest point in S. Wales), although it would 
be labour well repaid by the prodigious grandeur of the scene, which around, below, above, 
at almost every step assumes a new kaleidoscopic form and colouring. This labour may be 
spared, and a pleasure almost equal enjoyed, if the observer happens to approach Brecon- 
shire by the Merthyr road, which mounts a depressed part of the Beacon range, and 
suddenly on emerging on the ridge presents the beholder with a scene, towards and beyond 
the town of Brecon, the magnificence of which no attempt at description could ever hope to 
portray. If Bernard Newmarch first approached Brycheiniog from this direction, it admits 
of no wonder that he resolved to choose that region as his home. 

Of more sequestered scenes, rich, ornate, and wild, though limited and less varied, the 
larger and smaller vaHeys of this county present a multitude. The deep and gloomy 
Cwmdu, the narrow stony gorges of the Gronwy Fawr and Gronwy Fach, entering the Usk 
together below Crickhowel, the dingles of Llanwrtyd, the glen of the Dihonwy, near Builth, 
the vale of Llangammarch, and the whole of the Irvon Valley to the Wye, with the glen of 
the Tarell, are all of this character. But the whole sweep of the valley of the Usk from Senny 
Bridge to Brecon, and thence to Crickhowel and Abergavenny, the wild and rugged glen of 
the Elan, with its deep and rocky gorges, and the whole of the valley of the Wye for thirty 
miles from Rhayader to Hay, especially about Aberedw the old home of Prince Llewelyn, 
as well as the precipitous valley of the Nedd are marked by exquisite beauty, and frequently 
by impressive grandeur of scenery. 

There are scenes enough in Breconshire of a very different character, the bleak and 
distant moorland, the chill and silent mountain side, the half-hill, half-mountain velvet sheep- 
walks, which seem to stretch onwards and on either side to infinite distance like a vast 
rolling sea converted into solid land, making you feel as if you had left the world of human 
mortals, and were destined evermore to welcome as companions diminutive sheep and 
screaming grouse. Such tracts are to be found south and west and east, and in great 
abundance. 

The county ranks third in extent of surface in S. Wales, and measures a total of 754 
square miles. Of this surface a very large proportion is mountainous, divided into three 
principal portions, forming each an intermittent ridge taking a direction of its own. The 
Beacons on the south of the county are the culminating points of a ridge running nearly due 
east and west from the higher mountains of Carmarthenshire into Monmouthshire ; and the 
Eppynt mountains, less rugged and aspiring, travel likewise from Carmarthenshire, but have 
a bearing more towards the N.E., and end in Radnorshire; while the third system of 



SURFACE AND SCENERY. 55 

mountains, on a smaller scale than either of these, but equally bold and picturesque in 
character, springs up abruptly in the neighbourhood of Talgarth, and stretching in a south- 
easterly direction towards Abergavenny, throws out various spurs and bluffs of more or less 
prominence, enclosing many pretty gorges and dingles in their bosoms. 

From the elevated parts of the road to Crickhowel a good view is obtained of the conical 
forms of the Beacons. Three in number, they shoot up as if piled by the art and strength 
of supernal beings, Arthur's Chair receiving the last course and finish. Old Leland has some 
quaint remarks on this proud castle of nature : " This hille of some is counted the highest 
hille in Wales, and in a veri cleare day a mane may see from hit a part of Malvern hilles, and 
Gloucestre, and Bristow, and parte of Devonshire and Cornewall. There be divers other 
hills by Arture's hille, the wich with it be commonly called Banne Brekeniauc." Holinshed 
clothes it with great marvels : " One mountain on the south, and three miles from Brecknock, 
is of such height and operation as is incredible ; and were it not that I have witnesses to 
affirme what I shall speak, I should blush to let the report thereof pass from my pen. 
From the top of that hill called Cadier Arthur, they (the witnesses) had oftentimes cast from 
them and doune the N.E. rocks their cloakes, hats, and staves, which, notwithstanding, 
would never fall, but were by the air and winde still returned backe and blown up; neither, 
said they, will anything descend from that cliffe, unless it be stone or some mattalline 
substance, affirming the cause to be the clouds which are seen to racke much lower than the 
top of that hille." In our days there are no clouds lower than Arthur's Chair except the 
masses of mist which often cluster around its sides; and falling objects meet with no obstacle 
except currents and gusts of wind in particularly boisterous weather. The north-east Beacon, 
however, presents a side of terrific grandeur, being some 600 feet of nearly perpendicular 
rock, which seems to threaten momentarily to fall on the near beholder. 

The Lake of Llangorse (Llyn Savathan), about two miles in length and one in average 
breadth, is the largest in S. Wales, and much larger than its two diminutive sister lakes in 
Breconshire. An historical tradition, which won credence from Camden, claims attention, and 
will have to be referred to again, with its apparent solution, in our section on the Pre-historic 
Antiquities of Breconshire. " It hath been an ancient tradition in this neighbourhood," says 
the author of Britannia, " that where the lake is now, there was formerly a city, which, being 
swallowed up by an earthquake, resigned its place to the waters ; and to confirm this they 
allege, besides other arguments, that all the highways of this county tend to this lake." A 
remarkable discovery of a pre-historic town or village has recently been made in the lake, 
of which we shall by and by give account. 

Of the modern legends which hang about this lake of Savathan, or Safaddu, it is not 
needful to speak; but a few of those which fed the minds of the surrounding peasantry in the 
twelfth century, and some of which have lived to our time, may be given. The authority of 
Giraldus de Barri (" Cambrensis "), who passed by the lake when preaching the Crusades in 
Brecknockshire, in the year 1188, vouches their accuracy. 

" In the reign of King Henry I.," says Giraldus, " Gryffydd, son of Rhys ap Theodor 
(Tewdwr), held under the king one commot, or fourth part, of the Cantred of Caoe 
(Caio, Carm.), in the cantref Mawr, which in title and dignity was esteemed by the Welsh 
equal in value to the southern part of Wales called Debeubarth, /'. e., Wales on the righ 
hand. When Gryffydd, returning from the king's court, passed by this lake which at that 



56 BRECONSHIRE. 

cold season of the year was covered with water-fowl of various sorts, being acccompanied 
by Milo, Earl of Hereford, and Lord of Brecheinoc, and Payn Fitz-John, Lord of Ewyas, 
secretaries and councillors to the king, Earl Milo, wishing to draw forth from Gryffydd some 
discourse concerning his innate nobility, more in jest than in earnest, thus addressed him : 
' It is an ancient saying in Wales, that if the natural prince of the country, coming to this 
lake, shall order the birds to sing, they will immediately obey him.' To this Gryffydd, having 
more wealth of mind than of gold, . . . replied, ' Do you, therefore, who now hold sway 
in this land, first give the command.' Milo and Payn in vain commanded the birds ; where- 
upon Gryffydd, perceiving the necessity of doing the same in his turn, dismounted from his 
horse, and falling on his knees towards the east, as if he had been about to engage in battle, 
, . . with his eyes and hands uplifted towards heaven, poured forth devout prayers to the 
Lord ; and rising, and signing his face and forehead with the sign of the cross, he exclaimed, 
' Almighty God and Lord Jesus Christ, who knoweth all things, declare here this day Thy 
power. If Thou hast caused me to descend lineally from the native princes of Wales, I 
command these birds in Thy name to declare it ! ' And immediately the birds, beating the 
water with their wings, began to cry aloud, proclaiming him." This was a twelfth century 
method of settling a Welsh pedigree. 

" The lake also," continues Giraldus, " according to the testimony of the inhabitants, is 
celebrated for its miracles [the reader will remember that Giraldus was himself a great 
believer in miracles] ; for, as we have before observed, it sometimes assumed a greenish hue ; 
so in our days it has appeared to be tinged with red, not universally, but as if blood flowed 
partially through certain veins and small channels. Moreover it is sometimes seen by the 
inhabitants covered and adorned with buildings, pastures, gardens, and orchards. In the 
winter, when it is frozen over and the surface of the water is a shell of ice, it emits a horrible 
sound, resembling the moans of many animals collected together. But this perhaps may be 
occasioned by the sudden bursting of the shell, and the gradual ebullition of the air through 
unseen crevices." Itin., chap. ii. 

Giraldus's description of this region is the result of correct observation : 
" This country is well sheltered on every side, except the northern, by high mountains ; 
on the western by those of Cantref Bachan ; on the southern by that range of which the 
principal [point] is Cadair Arthur. . . . Being thus sheltered on the south by high 
mountains, the cooler breezes protect this district from the heat of the sun, and, by their 
natural salubrity, render the climate most temperate. Towards the east are the mountains 
of Talgarth and Ewyas." 

He then gives us an insight into the state of society : 

" The natives of these parts, through continual enmities and implacable hatred, are 
perpetually engaged in bloody contests. But we leave to others to describe the great and 
enormous excesses which in our time have been here committed with respect to marriages, 
divorces, and many other circumstances of cruelty and oppression." 

Giraldus's visit took place after the disorganization of society which accompanied the 
conquest of Brycheiniog by Bernard de Newmarch. 

The chief divisions of this district before its formation into a county were the four cantrefs 
or cantreds, into which it was partitioned at the survey of Wales by Howel Dda, Cantref 
Mawr, Cantref Tewdos, Cantref Eudaf, and Cantref Selyf. But in the partition of Wales by 



GEOLOGY OF BRECONSHIRE. 57 

Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd (i3th century), as given in the Myv. Arch, of Wales, Brycheiniog 
has only two cantrefs, viz., Cantrev Selyv and Cantrev Mawr ; the former taking in the 
eastern part of the county, the latter the western, or Llewel, and " Tir Rawf," the Land of 
Ralf. It is now divided into six hundreds, exclusive of the borough of Brecon. These 
are Builth, Crickhowel, Defynog, Merthyr, Penkelly (or more properly Pencelli), and 
Talgarth. 

Breconshire is sparse in population, and diminishing, and is deficient in the life of great 
towns. It has only one corporate borough, that of Brecon, and its other chief centres of 
population are Crickhowel, Builth, Hay, Talgarth, and Llanelly, whose limits are too 
confined to form a powerful centre of either commercial or political life. The growth of 
population occurs only in the south-eastern mining parts, bordering on Monmouthshire. 

The county is divided into four Poor Law or "Local Government" unions, Brecon, 
Builth, Hay, and Crickhowel; and in these towns the county courts are also held. It has 
sixty-six parishes. 

POPULATION OF BRECONSHIRE. 

Total population in 1841 . . . . . 55>6c3 

1851 61,474 

1861 ..... 61,627 

1871 59>94 

SECTION II. GEOLOGY OF BRECONSHIRE. 

In the progress of geological change the great Builder assigned to Brecknock a broad 
foundation of old red sandstone, and an ornamental capstone of the same material ; and so 
piled on each other the various courses of the S. Wales edifice, that the slightly dipping red 
capstone of the Beacons should so extend as to form the pavement of the great coal 
formations of Glamorgan and Carmarthenshire, turning up again at the extreme end of the 
basin at Llandaff, Bridgend, and in Gower. We all observe how the waters of the swift Usk 
turn reddish during a flood, and this comes to pass because they assume for the time 
the colour of the surface soil which the stream and its tributaries through more than half 
the county drain. 

Taking Brecon town as a centre, resting on the red, we look geologically to the N. as 
far as the Eppynt hills, where they point towards Builth and Allt Fawr ; to the E. till the 
eye rests on the line of the Black Mountain and its spurs, travelling down from Talgarth 
towards the Abergavenny Sugar-loaf, and springing up at Pencader-Fawr, 2,545 ft. high; to 
the S.E; as far as Crickhowel; to the S., beyond the Beacons, to within half a dozen miles 
of Merthyr Tydfil ; to the W. till we are stopped by the heights of Mynydd Bwlch y Groes ; 
and all round we survey the venerable remains of a world which had existence before any of 
our carboniferous limestone rocks or our coal beds had been brought into shape. In one 
place alone, and that not far, is the prospect interrupted by an intruder. Let him who can 
inform us how the carboniferous limestone was heaped on the top of Pencerrig (2,200 ft.) 
between Cwm Du and Llanbedr Ystrad. What if we say that it is not a heaped-up mass at 
all, but merely a solitary remain, left undisturbed, of a great limestone coat of mail, itself 
surmounted by the coal measures and beds, some thousand feet thick, which at one time 



5 8 BRECONSHIRE. 

encased the whole area of Breconshire, and of which the land was totally denuded by some 
stupendous water action, leaving this capstone behind ? 

All the rocks of this county, of whatsoever kind, are of primeval age, and the car- 
boniferous are the youngest ; but of these latter the coal-bearing parts are very few, 
and situated to the S. and S.E. of the county. Of other minerals there are scarcely 
any, although traces of copper ore have been discovered in the old red, and surveyed 
by Mr. Isaac Davies, C.E. ; but the quantity lodged is too small to promise an adequate 
return for working it. 

Next in age to the staple rock of Breconshire, in a downward direction, comes the upper 
Silurian fossil-bearing Ludlow formation, which we encounter in a strip shooting out from 
beneath the Devonian between Corn-y-Fan, five miles north of Brecon, and Erwood, on the 
Wye, and thenceforward continuing through the Clyro hills into Radnorshire. " To the 
south of Builth, the Ludlow rocks, surmounting a noble escarpment of the other members of 
the upper Silurian division on the right bank of the Wye, but in which no limestones occur, 
exhibit a fine upward development as they pass under the expanse of the old red sandstone 
in the wilds of Mynydd Eppynt. There the upper Ludlow rises from beneath the old red 
in a rapid anticlinal flexure at Allt-fawr and Corn-y-Fan " (Murchison, Siluria, 140). This 
Ludlow is the rock which contains the earliest known fish remains. It abounds in shells, 
univalve and bivalve, and in peculiar beds, of slight thickness, seldom more than twelve 
inches, but often not more than an inch, abundantly charged with bones of fish. These 
beds occur just at the junction of the lowest part of the old red and the upper part of the 
Ludlow. 

This formation throughout Breconshire devoid of its usual limestone, on leaving Corn- 
y-Fan, turns the Eppynt N.E. point, and follows the line of those hills, accompanied by a 
band of the still older Wenlock rocks, into Carmarthenshire, passing to the left of 
Llandeilo-fawr, always as a fringe upon the old red, along the escarpment of the 
Vale of Towy, to Laugharne, and on, a still narrower strip, to Narberth, and out into 
the sea clififs at Marloes Bay, Pembrokeshire, in average breadth throughout this long 
course of not more than a fourth of a mile, but always maintaining its distinct and 
unequivocal character. 

The band of Wenlock rocks which runs parallel to the Ludlow from Builth, along the 
Irvon, has an average breadth of two miles, and its course is visibly continued into 
Carmarthenshire, beyond Llandeilo-fawr. 

The whole of the surface of Breconshire to the N.W. of this last formation consists of the 
lower Silurian, Llandeilo group, a formation which covers the whole of Cardiganshire, three- 
fourths of Carmarthenshire, and more than the half of Pembrokeshire. 



The Mineral Springs of Breconshire. 

In the Llandeilo rocks, sometimes called after the Continental nomenclature, the Grey- 
wacke, there occurs near Llanwrtyd, and extending N.N.E. about four miles in a narrow strip, a 
remarkable outburst of trap and porphyry ; and this igneous rock supplies the key which 
explains the mineral and medicinal qualities of the Llanwrtyd, Builth, and Llandrindod 



GEOLOGY OF BRECONSHIRE. 59 

waters. Why Snowdon and Cader Idris, largely composed of precisely the same materials, 
are not surrounded with mineral springs of like nature it is hard to say. The following is 
Murchison's account of the geological and chemical reasons of the virtues of the Llanwrtyd 
springs : 

" On the farms of Gellifelen and Pen-y-banc is a line of intrusive rock about three miles 
in length and half a mile in its greatest width, running, like the trap ridges of Radnorshire, 
from N.E. to S.W. A narrow and deep dell, through which flows the rivulet Cerdin, divides 
this elliptical-shaped ridge into two mountains, Caercwm and Garndwad, each about 1,600 feet 
in height. At the north-eastern extremity of Caercwm, trap is seen for the last time on the 
banks of the little stream Nantgynon, alternating with slaty schists [the Llandeilo beds], while 
at the south-western end of Garndwad the trap crosses the Irvon between Llanwrtyd and the 
mineral spring, near a boss of rock called Werngoch, upon the right bank of the river, and 
near Doldymer. In this ridge of Garndwad and Caercwm the predominant character of the 
trap is porphyritic, and the following varieties occur : 

" i. A rock having a base of greenish grey colour, composed apparently of an intimate 
mixture of compact felspar and hornblende, spotted white, probably by a separation of felspar 
from the compound base. 

" 2. Coarse rock of granular felspar, with minute crystals of common felspar, containing 
a number of minute grains of quartz. 

" 3. A variety of the same, containing many well-defined crystals of felspar in a greyish 
granular base, and a few small elliptical cells filled with, green earth. 

" 4. Dark grey and green, concretionary, compact felspar. 

" 5. Greenstone, highly crystalline, both fine and coarse grained, and sometimes very 
hornblendic. 

" 6. Greystone, or grey granular felspar, intimately mixed with hornblende, and a few 
crystals of the carbonate of lime. 

" 7. Amygdaloidal trap, cellular on the weathered side. 

" The greenstone is best seen near Pen-y-banc, and the more porphyritic rocks occupy 
the centre of the hill. 

" Associated with a porphyritic greenstone in the bed of the Irvon at Doldymer is a 
greenish grey close-grained amygdaloid, having the cells filled with calcareous spar, 
generally coated with pellicles of green earth, and varying in size from mustard seeds to 
almonds. In some cases the stratified rocks [the Llandeilo] in contact appear to have 
undergone a kind of boursonflure, and are scarcely to be distinguished from the amygdaloid. 
On- the sides of the principal ridge of trap the changes produced in the vertical and dislocated 
strata are numerous and clear. On its lower flanks and south-western extremity near 
Pen-y-banc the trap is coated with a thin and broken covering of schist, which is silicified, or 
in a state of hornstone, highly translucent at the edges, of a shaly fracture and dark grey 
colour with cloudy streaks, as if formed by an imperfect separation of hornblende. 

" Other varieties are black Lydian stones, ringing under the hammer, splitting with a 
fine conchoidal fracture, some of them containing a number of bright metallic spots, &c. 
In the little cwm of Nantyrodyn, north of the gorge of the Cerdin, the black and highly 
inclined shale has been penetrated by galleries in search of coal. These stratified slaty 
deposits are unquestionably a part of the Cambrian system, for to the W. of this they pass 



60 BRECONSIIIRE. 

into true roofing slate.* Whilst the porphyritic trap occasionally peeps out in rugged bosses 
along the summits and sides of Caercwm and Garndwad, the little transverse dell of the 
Cerdin lays bare the true nature of this nucleus in a rock called Craig y Castell, which 
towers above the left bank of the stream. 

" This precipitous cliff is a porphyry, the exterior of which is black, but the interior is 
grey compact felspar, with minute white crystals of common felspar. It is arranged in 
slender four-sided prisms, from twenty-five to thirty feet in length, by five or six inches in 
diameter, and crossed by transverse joints, the planes of which dip to the north-west. The large 
and broken masses below are partly of the same rock, partly of other varieties. This is one 
of the most impenetrable rocks met with in the whole country I examined, being very analo- 
gous, both in composition and relations, to some of the porphyries of Snowdon, Cader 
Idris, &c., and like them its forms arise from joints separating the mass into four-sided 
prisms. . . . The bed of the river Irvon offers many beautiful examples of highly 
silicified and indurated strata in contact with trap, strictly according with those on the banks 
of the Wye near Builth. The analogy is also rendered quite striking by sulphureous mineral 
springs issuing from the adjoining shale ; and judging from the appearance of the veined 
and altered strata which are exposed on these trap hills, we can hardly doubt that the 
mineralization of this spring is due to the decomposition of sulphuret of iron, which has been 
largely accumulated at some of those points where the trap has been intruded into 
pyritous shale in a manner similar to that pointed out at the Park Wells near Builth, and at 
Llandrindod." 

It is not often that the direct sources of mineral properties in springs can be so satisfac- 
torily explained. There is here a perpetual creation of antidotes to human complaints, and 
the materials out of which the cunning mixture is compounded have been there for 
unnumbered ages before a human being existed on the face of the earth, and in the process 
of preparing an elixir of health are apparently subject to no wear or exhaustion. 

To the materials which compose Breconshire we have only one more to add. On the 
southern side, just where the red sandstone steals out of sight to plunge beneath the South 
Wales coal basin, a narrow band of limestone, carboniferous in quality, in some places a mile, 
in some two or three miles in width, is visible. It keeps close company with the edge of the 
old red everywhere, and probably never deserts it in making the underground journey beneath 
the deepest coal beds until they emerge again together, to form the ornamental parti- 
coloured south-western rim of the basin in which the whole of the Glamorgan and Car- 
marthenshire coal and iron treasures are held. 

It is a somewhat remarkable fact that long before geology was born, the well-known and 
observant antiquary, George Owen of Henllys, in his History of Pembrokeshire, written in 
1603, had traced and minutely described this thin band of limestone all the way from 
Pembrokeshire to the further side of Breconshire. His words are worth quoting : 

"And although it be somewhat from my purpose to treat of matters out of Pembroke- 
shire, yet because I have sayd that this veyne of limestone taketh his course from west to 
east, I will follow on the course of this veyne so far as I have been and learned the same. 

* The slightest knowledge of geology would, therefore, have shown that search for coal in such a place 
was hopeless. . 



THE ROMAN PERIOD. 61 

This vayne continuing his course eastward, at Cromweare entereth into the sea, passing 
south of Ereweare, sheweth againe at Castell Hobly and Pen dine, in Carmarthenshire, 
and then passing under Langharn Marsh, appeareth againe at the wood in Langharn, and 
holding still eastward, sheweth at Llanstephan ; from thence it entereth in betweene the two 
rivers of Gwendraeth in Carmarthenshire, and is found at the Glyn. Betweene the sayd two 
rivers of Gwendraeth there ariseth a great hill called Mynith Kyvor, which runneth east- 
ward, and is all lymestone : which passeth on by the same course to Castell Kyrig Kynon 
[Carreg Cennen Castle], and all along the topp of the Black Mountains south of Capel 
Gwinfay, by Blaen Cwmgarw, betweene the rivers Clydach and Aman, and soe by Llwyn y 
Constable, and betweene the risings of the rivers Neath and Usk, to Blaen Cray, and to the 
great hill of Blaen Cwm Collwyn, and soe to Llanygwyne, crossing the Usk to Tavarn y 
Maith Syr, further than which I have not learned the course of the sayd vayne." 



SECTION III. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF BRECONSHIRE. 

The annals of this county are not divisible into periods which can be named after the 
broadly marked eras of English history. It can scarcely be said to have a Saxon or Danish 
period. A Roman age it certainly had ; and a Norman age came afterwards, divided 
however from the former by a British period of long duration and much obscurity. 

The people who inhabited these parts were probably of that section of the Cymry called 
by the Romans Dimetce. ; but whether they were of the Dimetian or of the Silurian branch 
both of which are tinged with Iberian characteristics they were undoubtedly of the Cymric 
variety of the Celtic race ; and judging from the distant and secluded character of the 
region, it is safe to conclude, in the absence of all evidence to the contrary, that they were 
of a type comparatively unmixed and genuine. To this day, after the changes of many 
generations, the depopulation and unsettlements of warlike times, the introduction of Norman 
and German settlers, and the manifold sources of admixture which arise from the migratory 
habits of the modern age, the physical characteristics of the inhabitants betray no marked 
departure from the Celtic type. Dark hair, the dolichocephalic head, the lithe and active 
limb, the warm, excitable temperament, which are characteristic of the Celtic race, some of 
them known to be so since the time of Strabo and Suetonius, are prevalent. 



i. The Roman Period. 

The rule of the Romans over Wales was established in a general way by the efforts in 
succession of Ostorius, Suetonius, and Agricola, although the weight of their onset fell most 
severely on the northern parts, especially Anglesey. The Britons of the parts now called 
England gave them work enough for 150 years to put their yoke upon their necks, and it 
was only when compelled by the galling attacks which were directed upon their flanks from 
the hilly districts of Wales that they seriously undertook the subjugation of that land. But 
Wales was at last conquered not without trouble, not without sacrifice, not without 
carnage. The brave Silures, under the puissant Caractacus, proved as formidable as 
the Brigantes of Yorkshire ; and it may be safely believed that in the mighty efforts made by 



62 BRECONSHIRE. 

these people to repel and thrust out the foreign invader, the inhabitants of the district now 
called Brecknockshire bore their part. 

The district inhabited by the Silures, as far as can be judged from the descriptions of 
Roman writers, embraced a good portion of South Wales, and beyond the Wye, parts of 
Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and Shropshire, as far as the line of the Severn. Where the 
Silures ended towards the west, and the Dimetse, who are generally assigned to the parts 
now called Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, and Cardiganshire, began, it is impossible to 
say with precision ; but that the region of Brecknock was partly possessed by both is highly 
probable, and that Monmouthshire was the heart of the Silurian country, the Essyllwg of the 
Welsh the origin of Siluri being nothing else than the Welsh Essyllwyr or Essyllwys^-is 
all but demonstrable. The hard-won conquest of the Siluri, therefore, which was not effected 
in less than twenty years after the fall of Caractacus, and the death through harassment and 
fatigue of Ostorius, in all likelihood made Breconshire subject to Roman sway, and led to 
the construction of those roads, stations, and camps, which to this day are memorials of the 
Roman power in the land. We have absolutely more monuments of the presence of the 
Romans in Breconshire, although that people quitted Britain in the fifth century, than we 
have of the presence of the old Cymry here, although they possessed the county for 500 
years after. 

It may be the fact that the great roads which the Romans made through Wales are not 
proofs of intimate rule and fiscal exaction in all the districts traversed. In all Wales they 
had only four fortified cities, and only one of these, Isca Silurum, now Caerleon, on the 
Usk, which one of the Triads ranks as one of " the three principal cities of the Isle of 
Britain " (London and York being the other two), was a colonia a privileged Roman city. 
They had no city of importance in Breconshire, and we may well presume that their rule 
over this region was mild and general, and probably consisted in keeping the British 
reguli in order, receiving their tribute, and encouraging peace, more than in direct govern- 
ment ; their principle being, everywhere, to make the natives pay the cost of their own 
conquest and continued subjugation, the cost of making roads, camps, and fortresses, of 
supporting a great army, and enriching generals and procurators. It is doubtful whether the 
fair and fertile vales of Garthmadrin (if so called at that time) escaped the gleaning hand of 
the tax-gatherer. The station Bannium was set down in close proximity to the British 
stronghold and town now known as Gaer and " Benni," and the great Roman road, as here- 
after to be described, led straight from Cardiff by this station to Rhayader for Chester. 
Other roads converged upon Bannium. The evidence of such facts is sufficient to establish 
the conclusion that the Romans not only had a footing, but a somewhat prolonged footing 
in these parts. Allusion will again be made in our antiquarian section to the foundations 
of Roman buildings, Roman coins, and other antiquities discovered, which corroborate this 
conclusion. 

The Roman period in Breconshire appears to have extended from the overthrow of the 
Silurian power by Frontinus, A.D. 78, to the withdrawal of the imperial legions from Britain 
or about 330 years. During a great portion of this time the imperial government in most 
parts of the island, and most of all in Wales, was a mere name. The attention and resources 
of the Emperors were drawn in other directions, their powers were fast failing and preparing 
for the gloomy obsequies which soon shrouded in darkness the Eternal City ; and Garthmadrin 



RENEWED BRITISH RULE. 63 

had, long before A.D. 418, when the last of the invaders departed leaving none behind them, 
as the Triad says, "except women and children under the age of nine years, who became a 
part of the Cymry," been taken possession of by some bold Silurian or Dyfedian chieftain, 
who could by the longest sword or the clearest genealogical tablet prove his right to sit 
in the vacated chair of the Roman. It is supposed that Brychan was that chieftain. 



2. Renewed British Rule. 

We have now a great gulf of 600 years before us, filled with figures moving to and fro, 
and hues ever changing and ever disappearing, about the real substance and meaning of 
which there is room for perplexing theory and doubt. The only thing certain is that we 
cannot be certain about anything except here and there an authentic fact. Bernard New- 
march, the Norman, will come at last and put an end to doubt and controversy, but mean- 
time we have to stand over the chasm of fifteen generations, and make out what we can of 
the then fortunes of Garthmadrin or Aberhonddu, as best we can. 

About Gwraldeg, regulus of Garthmadrin, Teidfallt, its first king, or his son Tewdrig, 
we have the means of knowing little, except that their names are given in the old Welsh 
records, and these records are not necessarily supposititious. Of one thing there is even 
here certainty, this period of fifteen generations was filled up by some species of government 
or competitions for government ; real men must have been employed in the work, and it is 
quite as likely that the names which have descended to us, partly surrounded by the orna- 
mentation of fable, represent those real persons as not. 

Garthmadrin was a seat of British rule, that is pretty clear ; and nothing whatever would 
be gained, except a kind of sourish satisfaction by men of the anti-British school, by denying 
it. Our misfortune is that our best chroniclers are nearly silent about this period in Brecon- 
shire, and that it is left at the mercy of recorders of tales and prodigies, who interweave fact 
with fiction, and neutralize the integrity of the former by the unreality of the latter. 
Writers of glosses and fancies like the so-called bards and monkish " heralds " of mid-age 
Wales are unreliable as producers of bare facts ; but they at the same time afford hints and 
implications and disguised facts most useful to the historian. 

On the very same principle as that which guides infallibly to the belief that there once 
existed a personage to whom the name Arthur has been given, it is inevitable that we should 
believe that Brychan Brycheiniog once existed. That principle is the absence of any ade- 
quate cause for the belief that obtains except the supposed fact. A thousand things said 
about Arthur may be utter fictions ; and in like manner a thousand things said about Brychan 
may be utter fictions. It is conceivable that poetry and love of the marvellous should in 
after ages clothe a real figure with illusory and factitious drapery; but it is totally incon- 
ceivable that the figure itself should be accepted by immediately subsequent ages except 
on the ground of its authentic reality. But who can fail to see in the story of Brychan, 
as given in Bonedd y Saint, the hand of the cunning marvel-writer? The man, no doubt, 
was a great prince, but why entail upon him four-and-twenty sons and five-and-twenty 
daughters? (held by some, however, to include nephews and nieces); and why must his 
mother's journey to Ireland to find a husband be marked by such calamitous and im- 



64 13RECONSHIRE. 

probable circumstances ? and why must she be represented as daughter of a great-great 
great-grandson of " Amun the Black, King of Greece " 1 

The journey to Ireland runs thus : Marchell, the daughter of Tewdrig, Prince of 
Garthmadrin or Brecon, is sent by her father to Ireland to avoid the plague, and is 
provided with an escort of three hundred men. On the first night they reach Llansemin, 
where from the excessive cold TOO men are dead in the morning. On the second night 
they halt at Meidrym, where, from similar cause, another too men lie dead. The third 
night they lodge at Porthmawr, near St. David's, and thence the princess crosses to Ireland 
with the residue of her escort. On her arrival, Anlach, son of the king of the land, is so 
entranced with her beauty that forthwith he makes her his wife, with the solemn vow that if 
she bear him a son he will return with her to her own people in Wales. He also finds 
husbands for her twelve handmaids, who somehow, in spite of the cold, have reached 
Ireland without loss. A son is born, and is called Brychan, whom, when two years of age, 
his parents bring to Wales, and they reside at Benni, or Bannium, when as yet Brecknock 
was not built. This is Brychan, the founder of the name and power of Brecknock, who 
became the father of nine-and-forty children, one of " the three Blessed Families of the Isle 
of Britain." 

To show that our heraldic bards and monks of the Middle Ages stick at nothing if it only 
enhances the glory of their hero, we are seriously informed that at this early time a 
few years only after, or just about the departure of the Romans Anlach, the Irish prince, 
the father of Brychan, has a fully developed coat of arms which would be a credit to the 
fourteenth century : "Or, three bats, azure, beaked and clawed, gules 1" The truth seems to be 
that these arms, which are the arms of the county of Brecknock, were in due time assumed 
by his descendants, and were in after ages, by a licence which was slight as compared with 
some others taken by monkish writers, ascribed to him. These arms are borne by several 
families in Brecknockshire and other counties in S. Wales, whose lineage is traced back to 
Brychan Brycheiniog, such as the Gwynne-Holfords and Gwyns. 

' Brychan, it is said, ruled at Garthmadrin with great wisdom and repute, and died 
A.D. 450. His lordship is described as a land of Goshen, the dwelling-place of a divine race, 
where religion was taught and practised, and whence the gospel proceeded in pure streams to 
be the life of the hitherto unbelieving tribes of the Cymry. His four-and-twenty sons were 
indoctrinated in the faith, and taught it ; many were martyrs, and all saints. Cynawc, the 
eldest, was slain by the "pagan Saxons" at Merthyr-Cynawc, a place and church thence- 
forward called after his name ; Dingad gave name to Llandingad ; Dyfnan was buried at 
Llanddyfnan, Anglesey. Of the five-and-twenty daughters many were illustrious examples of 
piety. Dwynwen was head of a religious house in Anglesey (see p. 24) ; and Tydfil, who 
perhaps was granddaughter and not daughter to Brychan, was martyred by the "pagan 
Saxons " at Merthyr Tydfil, and gave name to that place. One of his daughters, Ceneu, 
was both a holy recluse and a performer of miracles. Having retired to a place in the 
summer country (Somerset) called Keynsham, a place so infested with serpents that human- 
kind could not dwell therein, the holy Ceneu turned the serpents into stones, and as proof 
of the marvel, stones in the form of coiled-up serpents were produced from the soil. These 
were probably the Ammonites Bucklandi, or Planorbis, of the lias beds, the very strata 
on which Keynsham stands. 



RENEWED BRITISH RULE. 65 

It is well to keep in mind that the tradition respecting the sanctity of Brychan's family is 
not a creation of the later dark ages ; as some have imagined. It was current in Brecon- 
shire and believed in the Church in the twelfth century, when Giraldus de Barri travelled 
through these parts. These are the words he has left on record in his Itinerary : " The 
British histories testify that he (Brychan) had /0#r-and-twenty daughters, all of whom, 
dedicated from their youth to religious observances, happily ended their lives in sanctity. 
There are many churches in Wales distinguished by their names, one of which, situated on 
the summit of a hill near Brecheinoc, and not far from the Castle of Aberhondi, is called 
the Church of St. Almedha [said by Hugh Thomas, in an Essay on Brecknockshire, 1698, 
to survive, as a ruin, in his time], after the name of the holy virgin who, refusing there the 
hand of an earthly spouse, married the Eternal King, and triumphed in a happy martyrdom, 
to whose honour a solemn feast is annually held in the beginning of August, and attended 
by a large concourse, . . . when persons labouring under various diseases, through the 
merits of the blessed virgin receive their sought-for health." 

It is of little purpose now to endeavour to trace the fortunes of the Brycheiniog country 
after the days of Brychan and his holy family. The times were unsettled. Kings did not 
rule by right of birth, Brychan himself did not do so : according to one account he was an 
invading warrior, who came from Ireland to seek a settlement, and conquered the region 
which afterwards bore his name. It is doubtful whether his lordship descended to one of 
his sons. It was a dark and sanguinary period the period of the Saxon invasions, of 
Gwrtheyrn, of Arthur, of the battle of Mount Badon. It was the period of the battle 
of Llongborth, where the prince-bard Llywarch Hen fought, and where Arthur is said to 
have commanded. Llywarch's ode on that battle echoes the very spirit and doings of 
the times : 

"At Llongborth I saw the clashing edges of blades, 
Men in terror, with blood upon their brows, 

Before Geraint, the great son of Erbin. 
At Llongborth was Geraint slain, 
A bold warrior from the forests of Dyfnaint, 

Slaughtering his foes he fell." 

In time the new conquerors of Britain the Saxons made their way into Wales. As soon 
as they had gained positions on the Severn, under stress of difficulties in their bloody contests 
with the Cymry of Mid-England, still unsubdued, they would often rush for plunder and 
forage into Wales, and retire. But when Mercia was founded, their closer neighbourhood 
became more galling to the Cymry of Wales. The great rampart, Offa's Dyke, is an 
indelible memorial of a struggle between the two races in the eighth century, of which we 
have but scanty records in history. Occasionally they penetrated as far as Brycheiniog. 
The Saxon Chronicle, speaking of the brave Queen of Mercia, Ethelfleda (daughter of Alfred 
the Great), says that in the year 916 she "sent her forces among the Welsh, and stormed 
Brecenanmere, and there took the king's wife and some four-and-thirty persons." In the 
conflict, the king, Hwgan, was slain. It is highly probable that this Brecenanmere was the 
fortress of Brychan's country, and it is left doubtful by Camden whether it was situated at 
Brecon or at Castell Dinas, a place, according to him, situated on a rock above the Lake of 
Llangorse (Llyn Savaddan). 

That Brycheiniog was ruled by a chief called Helised in the time of King Alfred of 

F 



65 BRECONSHIRE. 

England we have as good a proof, or very nearly so, as that Alfred himself existed. The 
fidelity of Asser is admitted. In his Life of Alfred he distinctly tells us that " Helised, son 
of Teudyr, king of Brechonia [films Tewdyr rex Brechonias], compelled by the force of the 
sons of Rhodri, sought the government of King Alfred." This would of course occur after 
the death of Rhodri the Great, when his sons assumed the command of his divided kingdom, 
or about the end of the ninth century. Alfred died in 901. 

Even before this the " Nordmani," or Danes they could not be the Normans of France, 
in the year A.D. 895, according to the Annettes Cambrice, " came and devastated Loyer, 
Brecheniauc, Gwent, and Gwinnliguiauc (Gwentllwg)." The same respectable authority 
informs us that, A.D. 983, "Hoel, son of Idwal, with Alfre, leader [dux] of the Angles, 
ravaged Brecheniauc, and all the region of Einiaun, son of Owen ; but Owen slew a great 
number of them." Einiaun ap Owain was prince of Dyfed, and it would therefore seem that 
Brycheiniog at this time was a part of Dyfed. 

All these events were subsequent to the reign of Hywel Dda, whcfbeing at one period 
king of all Wales, must have included Brycheiniog in his territories ; but we have only a 
meagre record of events in this part during his reign. It has already been noted that the 
dividing of Brycheiniog into four cantrevs was his work. 

3. Norman Period. 

We are but sketching the outline annals of one limited region, and doing it under the 
disadvantage of scanty historic records of a reliable kind to draw from. If we could 
widen the field of vision, and group together the events of the different princedoms and 
lordships of Wales known to have occurred about this time, an impressive picture might 
be presented of a whole nationality drifting unconsciously, while engaged in constant 
internecine conflict, or in painful struggle with foreign intruders, towards a great and 
calamitous crisis. 

Breconshire enters now upon a new era. William the Norman had already struck the 
power of the Saxons to the dust. In a short time he lays his iron hand on Wales. 
Following the ingenious method, adopted in other parts, of conquering the Welsh through 
the agency of adventurer knights, to whom " letters of marque " were granted, authorizing 
them to seize lands, reduce their inhabitants to their own rule, and hold them in fief under 
the king, William Rufus sanctioned the attack of Bernard de Neuf Marche, or Newmarch, 
on the lands of Brycheiniog. 

Bernard Newmarch came to this district, according to the Annales Cambrics, in the year 
1091, in pursuit of Rhys ap Tewdwr, ruler of "the right-hand part" [dextralis partis] a 
phrase which is the exact equivalent of the old Welsh Deheu-barth, and at Brechenauc 
Rhys ap Tewdwr was slain. It is said (see Jones, Hist. Breck., i., 90, &c.) that Maenarch 
had ruled Brycheiniog in peace, and that his son Bleddyn ap Maenarch was ruler when the 
Normans arrived. Fitzhamon had just taken possession of Glamorganshire, or Gwlad- 
morgan, and now Newmarch conquers Brycheiniog. He approaches Brychan's strong- 
hold, the Gaer, from the north, but finding the place too strong, makes as if for the Eppynt 
hills along a ridge parallel with the river Eskir. The British troops were on the opposite 
side, where the lane called " Heol y Cymry " runs in the same direction. 



THE NORMAN PERIOD. 



67 



It is stated by Jones that Newmarch, unaware of the presence of the Welsh troops, 
crossed over through a wood, called after the event " Cwm-gwern-gad," now corrupted into 
" Cwmgwingad;" that the Welsh rushed upon them with fury, but that the Normans, with 
better discipline, stood firm against the onset, and in the end won the field. The Welsh 
were dispersed, the brave Rhys ap Tewdwr was slain near the well called to this day 
" Ffynon pen Rhys ;" Bleddyn ap Maenarch also fell. With this defeat ended for ever the 
British lordship of Brycheiniog. Newmarch immediately settled down as lord of the district, 
adding one more to the redoubtable Lords Marchers. He moved the seat of government 
from the spot where Brychan and his successors had dwelt the Gaer on the Eskir, now 
a knoll covered with " stately trees," and built his castle near the confluence of the 
Honddu and the Usk, a place which probably even then was called Aberhonddu. Of 
the existence of a town or even of a village on this spot before Newmarch's conquest we 
have no information, so that the town of Brecknock and its castle must be viewed as the 
creation of the Norman freebooter. 




BRECON CASTLE (from a drawing by Birket Foster}, 



The robbed of lands, the robbed of name, 
The gentle crushed by heel of power, 

Life to the sword and homes to flame 
I read them all on yonder tower. 



About a hundred years only after Bernard Newmarch's settlement, Giraldus Cambrensis 
passed through Brecon, and his reference to this event may be taken as almost tantamount 
to that of an eye-witness or contemporary. " Bernard Newmarch," he says, " was the 



68 BRECONSHIRE. 

first of the Normans who acquired by conquest from the Welsh this province, divided into 
three cantrevs. He married the daughter of Nest, daughter of Gruffydd ap Llewelyn, 
who by his tyranny had for a long while oppressed Wales." It would therefore seem that 
this plundering adventurer was a man of policy and aptitude for government as well as a 
fell and bloody man of war. By marrying a Welsh wife he took the most likely course to 
reconcile his vassals to the rule and exactions of a foreigner. Crushed to the dust by the iron 
heel of the conqueror, robbed of their substance in kind to feed his pampered men-at-arms, 
subject to constant insult and frequent injury from a contemptuous and cruel soldiery of 
foreign speech and foreign manners, it was still some small consolation to the warm though 
sinking heart of the Welshman that in that frowning castle of Aberhonddu there was one 
lady of the blood of the Cymry ; though it might be one of the line of Trahaern the Usurper, 
and herself of worse than doubtful morals, she was still the descendant of Anarawd, son 
of that Rhodri the Great who two hundred years before was king of all Wales, and deemed 
" the pride and protector of the Cymry." 

Bernard de Newmarch so firmly established himself at Brecknock that no efforts of the 
natives could dislodge him. The lordship was granted him by the king in regular feudal 
order, the land and its inhabitants being considered the king's by conquest, to be given to 
whom he listed. Newmarch in like manner parted the lordship among his chief men, and the 
rightful owners were converted into tenants and vassals, bound to serve the lord in the field, 
and maintain by their means the requirements of his castle. 

The men of Brycheiniog did what they could to resent the affront and oppression. Their 
own ruling family had been driven to the Eppynt and other hills, forming such strongholds 
and gathering such retainers as their means allowed. Forays were made on the lands of 
Newmarch, battles were fought, and occasional advantages gained. Three or four years 
after his settlement, A.D. 1094, according to the Annal. Cambr., "the Britons of Brecheniauc, 
Gwent, and Gwentllwg made an immense slaughter [caedem non modicam] of the French 
at Gelli Darnauc." In 1169, we find in the same authority that the redoubtable "Lord 
Rhys " ap Gruffydd, grandson of our Rhys ap Tewdwr slain by Newmarch, "after building 
a castle at a place called Abereynaun, led an army into Brycheinauc," but is "put to flight;" 
and that again, " aroused by vexation [commotus dolore], he leads on another army, 
consumes a great part of the region, destroys the castle of Buellt, and having made peace 
on just terms with the king [Henry II. Plantagenet was now king], returned a joyful victor 
to his home " in Dyfed. 

Bernard Newmarch left no son to be Lord of Brecknock, for though he had a son named 
Mahel, Giraldus informs us that his mother, by declaring that he was not in truth the son of 
Newmarch at all, got Henry I. to deprive him of his right of succession ; and thus, observes 
De Barri, " by the same act deprived .her son of his patrimony and herself of honour." 
The eldest daughter was appointed by the king as heir, and her husband, Milo Fitz Walter, 
afterwards created Earl of Hereford in right of his wife, became second Lord of Brecknock. 
This earl was succeeded by his four sons in turn, all of whom, as Giraldus puts it, " by 
divine vengeance, or by fatal misfortunes, came to untimely ends." Giraldus was a severe 
moralist : all this evil came upon the sons, in his opinion, as a punishment for the sin of 
the mother, and he, archdeacon as he was of this very Brecknock of whose affairs and sins 
he is treating, is not slow to utter charges against all womankind, slightly misquoting 



THE NORMAN PERIOD. 69 

Scripture in proof, because of the misdeeds of a daughter of Gruffydd. "Nor is it 
wonderful," he observes, " if a woman follows her innate bad disposition, for it is written in 
Ecclesiastes, ' One good man among a thousand have I found, but a woman among them 
all I have not found.' . . . And in the same manner as we may gather grapes from 
thorns and figs from thistles, Tully, describing the nature of women, says, ' Men, perhaps, for 
the sake of some advantage, will commit one crime ; but woman, to gratify one inclination, 
will not scruple to perpetrate all sorts of wickedness.' " Celibacy was about this time 
introduced into the Church of Rome, and we must suppose that Giraldus was its partisan. 

These sons of Fitz Walter were followed by their brother-in-law, Philip de Breos, and he 
by his son William de Breos, to whom the lordship was confirmed by King John in 1194. 
This man was a fraudulent spendthrift. He mortgaged his inheritance three times over, 
cheating all his creditors, and then succeeded to sell it to three different persons at the same 
time, not one of whom was fortunate enough to obtain possession, although all had paid the 
price. He was at last attainted, and the lordship of Talgarth was taken away, and given to 
John's favourite, Peter Fitzherbert. 

William was succeeded by Roger, then by Giles de Breos, Bishop of Hereford, and next 
by Reginald de Breos, who married, as his second wife, Gwladis, daughter of Llewelyn ap 
lorwerth " the Great," Prince of N. Wales. 

This was the incident which brought Llewelyn ap lorwerth, long in earnest conflict with 
the Norman Marchers of the north, into Brecknockshire, and in the end entailed upon 
Llewelyn, as well as upon the house of De Breos, serious consequences. The barons of the 
kingdom were now in opposition to the king, working in that great movement which 
eventually led to Magna Charta. Llewelyn heartily joined them, and his son-in-law, De 
Breos, joined with him, openly renouncing his allegiance to John, who, on his part, retaliated 
by sending an army to Brycheiniog, and, among other things, burning the Castles of Hay and 
Radnor. On the accession of Henry III., Reginald broke with Llewelyn, and Llewelyn at 
once marched into the south, attacked Brecknock, and compelled Reginald to become his 
" friend" once more. We find from the Annal. Cambr. that Reginald died in 1224 ; he was 
buried, it is said, in the Priory Church of Brecknock, and was succeeded in his lordship by 
his son, William de Breos, who sided with the king in the fiery contest he was holding 
against the border Welsh. The Annal. Cambr., under the year 1224, the very year of his 
accession, record the capture of William at " Kery ; " but it would seem that he was soon 
liberated, for in the following year it is recorded that " Llewelyn (ap lorwerth), Prince of 
N. Wales, having held conference with the leaders of S. Wales, effected a great overthrow 
of the king's forces, and took William de Breos prisoner." 

William's stormy career soon after came to a tragic end, and this at the strong and 
righteous hand of Llewelyn. But in the meantime he once more gets his liberty. " For a 
large sum of money," says the Annal. Cambr., " and on condition of ceding the Castle of 
Buelth, Llewelyn lets him out of prison." The very next year, however, 1127, William is 
again Llewelyn's prisoner : and the story goes, that being confined, with chivalrous leniency, 
in Llewelyn's own house at Aber, the courtly knight became too familiar with Joan, Llewelyn's 
princess, herself a Norman and daughter of King John ; and the end was that with swift 
vengeance Llewelyn hanged him on a gallows, and William de Breos's body was thrust into 
a cave in the Carnarvonshire mountains. 



70 BRECONSHIRE. 

The De Breoses were followed by the De Bohuns as Lords of Brecknock, and Edward I. 
of England was confronted by another and the last Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, whose fate it 
was to pour forth his last blood in Brecknockshire. Llewelyn ap GrufTydd had a castle at 
Aberedw, on the Wye, amid some of the fairest scenery that Britain can produce ; and his 
influence in those parts being great, he thought he could recruit his waning fortunes by 
bringing the conflict into the south. Accordingly, while Edward was maturing a plan to hem 
him in beyond power of escape in Snowdon, he swiftly marches south, ravages Cardiganshire 
and Ystrad Tywi, and in the midst of winter comes with a considerable force to Builth. He 
had posted his troops on a height, and, anticipating no surprise, had wandered, unarmed, 
and with only one attendant, to some distance ; when suddenly his men were attacked by a 
troop of English under Edmund Mortimer, who succeeded in crossing the river Irvon near 
the dingle where Llewelyn was concealed. The prince and his attendant now hastened to 
join their companions, but they were spied by the English and pursued, and a horseman, 
Adam Francton by name, overtaking the prince, but not knowing who he was, thrust a spear 
through his body, and rushed on to join in the attack on the Welsh. After the dispersion of 
these, the soldier, remembering the man he had speared, resolved to return to see what booty 
he might take from his body, when, on closer examination, he found that the expiring 
soldier was none other than the prince whose might and genius had for so long been a terror 
to the English throne. His head was instantly cut off and sent as a trophy to Edward, then 
in N. Wales ; it was thence conveyed to London, exhibited through the streets of the city 
amid vehement joy and acclamation, and finally fixed over the entrance to the Tower. 
Llewelyn's mutilated body was buried near where he fell, where at a distance of two miles 
from Builth for Llangammarch the road turns off for Llanafan-Fawr. The dingle where he 
fell is called Cwm-Llewelyn, and where he is buried is called Cefn-y-bedd. This took place 
A.D. 1282. To this day there is not a stone raised to the memory of Prince Llewelyn. 
Brecknockshire has the honour to enshrine his dust ; but Brecknockshire has not the honour 
of having reared a monument worthy of such a name and character ! 

But the fact must be confessed that the sense of high and puissant patriotism is dead in 
Wales. A mockery of the name is relegated to the care of ranting persons at Eisteddfods. 
Among the better class a sickly sentiment conceives that the best treatment of Welsh history, 
as far as they are concerned, is to let it alone. Hence the lamentable lack existing, not of 
a fanatical zeal for Welsh nationality with all its old characteristics, the resuscitation of which 
would be a public bane, but of a manly and intelligent sympathy with the grand old 
traditions and brilliant exploits recorded in the annals of Wales traditions and exploits 
whose merits cannot be eclipsed by those of any nation known to history. That such 
enlightened sympathy is perfectly consistent with the acceptance as a blessing of English rule 
is made obvious by the Scotch, who have nobly cherished the recollection of every event in 
their old history, every feature in their national character, and even every fragment of the 
legendary lore of their land. 

Meantime Cefn-y-bedd, undistinguished and poverty-stricken, remains the fitting symbol 
of the public respect in Wales for the memory and deeds of Llewelyn. 

The De Bohun family continued to lord it over Brecknock till the insurrection of the 
Earl of Lancaster, temp. Edward II., when Humphrey de Bohun, who had married a daughter 
of Edward I., and who had done great service to the Royal cause, joined the standard of the 



THE NORMAN PERIOD. HENRY VII. 71 

Lancastrian party in the north with a troop of retainers numbering 3,000 men, and lost his 
life at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire. 

The De Spencers being now the court favourites, a young De Spencer was made new 
Lord of Brecknock. This arrangement came to an end in a few years, and the De Bohuns 
were restored to their lordship, and held the Castle of Brecknock, with the feudal immunities 
pertaining to it, as long as an heir male of that family existed. The War of the Roses 
placed on the throne Henry, Duke of Lancaster, Henry IV., who had married a daughter of 
the last De Bohun, and the lordship of Brecknock now vested in the king. Owen Glyndwr 
attacked it in 1404, and his men, under command of his son Gruffydd, were met and over- 
come on the heights near Crickhowel. 

It was from the hands of Henry IV., when the lordship was in his possession, that 
Brecknock received its first charter. He granted it also an exemption from tolls and other 
exactions, and restored allowances to the religious houses. But on the king granting the 
lordship to Annie, Countess of Stafford, all these immunities were revoked, and continued 
revoked until her death in 1439. 

The son of this lady, Henry, Earl of Buckingham, afterwards created Duke of Bucking- 
ham, now became Lord of Brecknockshire. He was a strong supporter of the reigning house 
of Lancaster, and lost his life in the battle of Northampton, 1460, the last year of the 
Lancastrian rule. It was some years before his grandson, then a minor, under the 
guardianship of Sir William Herbert, entered upon his vast inheritance, consisting of the 
castle and lordship of Brecon, with the stewardship of all the other Welsh castles which 
had belonged to his grandfather. He lived a retired life within the Castle of Brecon for 
many years ; but on the death of Edward IV. he took an active part in the cause of the 
Duke of Gloucester, until he became King Richard III., and was rewarded for his services 
with the governorship of all the king's castles in Wales, and with the Lord High Constable- 
ship of England. But promises of other advantages which were made to him not being 
fulfilled, he took up arms against the king, was captured, and executed at Salisbury without 
trial. 

Richard's reign, fortunately for the nation, was cut short at the end of two years by Henry, 
Duke of Richmond, grandson of the Welshman, Owen Tudyr, of Penmynydd, Anglesey. 
He landed at Milford Haven, and on his march through Wales passed through Breconshire, 
where his standard was joined by great numbers, advanced to meet the king's forces, and on 
Bosworth Field put an end to the tyranny of Richard III. and to the dynasty of the 
Plantagenets. 

The Duke of Richmond mounted the throne as Henry VII. in 1485, and immediately 
gave proof of his sense of justice by restoring to Edward, son of the late Duke of Bucking- 
ham, the seigniory of Brecknock with all its immunities. Edward, however, was afterwards 
accused of treason, and paid the penalty with his life, 1521, when his castle and lordship 
were seized by the Crown, and were never again conferred on a subject. Henry VIII. 
constituted into a county the suzerainty of Brecknock, annulled the feudal laws and customs, 
placing this district, along with other parts of Wales, under English law. Here, therefore, 
ends the separate government and history of Brecknockshire. 

We have been detailing the changes of Lords Marchers and kings, but have nearly 
overlooked the condition of the people. During this fell Normun period, what was the 



72 BRECONSHIRE. 

real state of the subordinate fiefholders, the tillers of the soil, and the peasantry, in Breck- 
nockshire ? 



4. Norman Rule and State of the People. 

It is a question of interest how the Lords Marchers in Brecknock kept up their state, 
built their castles, and maintained their soldiery ; and what was the treatment which the 
native population, now deprived of all right to the land, and of all real liberty of person, 
received from their self-appointed lords. 

The king was ultimate owner of all the soil. This was the first principle of feudalism, 
and feudalism was the principle of Norman rule. Under the king, the Lord of Brecknock 
held in fief all the three cantreds he had conquered. Under him, his chief men, all 
Normans, held the manors assigned them. Under them, the native population lived as 
they were permitted, were drafted for the wars as they were compelled, cultivated the soil, 
reared cattle, made weirs on rivers, kept mills going all for the profit and power of those 
whose long swords had made them masters. 

To make subjection distinct and secure, the tenant, or holder of land, was periodically 
compelled to take an oath of allegiance to his " lord," with every outward sign of humiliation 
and subjection. His lord claimed to be absolute master over his whole estate and person ; 
he was supposed to live for the behoof of his lord ; he was a growth on the land, and the 
land, with all that stood or might stand upon it, had been " lawfully " gotten by sword and 
battle-axe. He was to be thankful for being permitted to live, and as a fruit of gratitude 
he was to love his lord with all his mind and heart, and serve him with all his substance. 
The cradle of this ideal of society was France, and thence it was brought to England by the 
Norman Conquest. 

From Newmarch to the Tudors this system reigned supreme in Brecknockshire. 
Elizabeth issued a Commission of Inquiry, and we find that in her time the following oath 
of obedience was exacted by the Lord of Crickhowel from his tenants, and we may fairly 
conclude that the law and custom at Crickhowel was the law and custom throughout the 
Lord Marcher's territory : 

" All the tenants that helde their land of the saide prince [the king] ought to acknowledge the lord by the 
words followinge, that is to saie, ffirst he ought to come before the lord kneelinge, and acknowledge to hould 
of the lord of Crughowell such rents and lands by service of homage, and ought to close his handes within the 
lorde's deposeinge truly, on his faith by God and the holy Evangelists, that with his whole heart and soul above 
all thinges he shall love his lord, and in all places of any dread, shall stand by his lord him to defend, and his 
bodie well and truely, and without fraude and guile against his enemyes keepe. And this done, the lord shall 
command him to stand upp from his kneelinge and shall kisse him, and after that all the tenants [are] soe 
sworn, they shall give the lord or his officer by him appoynted, the sum of .5 of lawful money of England 
immediately after the oathes and homages made." 

Mr. Powell Price, in a paper on this subject, which we quote, shows clearly from docu- 
ments of the time that bad as was the condition of all tenants in the lordship of Crickhowel, 
that of the native Welsh was still worse a distinction being made expressly to their dis- 
advantage. An " ayde " to the lord was required of them which was not required of other 
tenentes. 



LAW-MAKING UNDER THE LORDS MARCHERS. 73 

' ' The Welsh tenants shall give to the lord at his makinge knight reasonable ayde, that is to witte, eight- 
pence for to buy him a horse. . . . The said tenants shall give unto the lord at his first cominge to his 
lordshippe 100 shillings ; and to the marryinge of his first begotten daughter 100 shillings ; and to the son of 
the said lord when he is made knight, fnve poundes." 

Still more clearly is this exceptional black -mail upon the Welsh shown in the matter of 
" custome for payment of rent." 

"The lord of Crughowell and his heires have of oulde custome that all the tenants of the borrowe and 
village, and all manner of tenants both Welsh and forren, shall come and paie the rents to the lord's bayliffes 
certeyne days in which the said rents be leinable upon reasonable summoninge, that is to wit, the third clay 
before the rent days, and if any of them come not, with their rents to pay them to the said bayliffes, they 
ought before the steward at the Lord's Barr, every each of them, to be amerced, if he be a Welshe tenant, in 
ten shillings ; a fforeigne tenant in seven shillings ; a burgesse in twelve pence." 

These Norman lords had an easy way of supplying their table with poultry ; and like- 
wise of getting the fields of their own domains ploughed and sown. Nor were they for- 
getful of making the poor Welsh villeins provide them with mills, and fish-ponds, and weirs, 
and even in all seasons plenty of water ! 

"All the Welshe tenants within the lordship of Crughowell ought by the custom of their landes to come 
with their oxen to eare (plough) the Demeane lands by certeyne days of the winter season. The said tenants 
ought to do the like by certeyne days of the Lent season. ... If any man enters the said parke (the lord's 
demesne) and there be founde, he ought to be attached by the Keeper of the Parke, and to be kept in the 
stocks, without the gate of the said parke, till he pay up, or else to loose his right foote, if the parke be closed 
round about. " The tenants of Llanelly were to keep the mill of Clydach in good repair, and well served with 
ponds and water at all seasons of the year, or "be amerced in ten shillings every each of them." 

The Castle of Crickhowel, the residence of the " lord " who imposed these and similar 
exactions, is situated on the left bank of the Usk, its remains (of which an engraving is 
given) being still visible in the close neighbourhood of the town. It is most difficult at this 
distance of time to form an idea of the extent and direction of the demesne ; but it doubt- 
less included the best lands of the Vale of Crickhowel, and surrounded the castle on all 
sides. From foundations which have been discovered, it is estimated that the castle and its 
appendages must have covered about three acres of ground, and that the walls which 
surrounded it, with courtyards, gardens, lodgings for the men-at-arms, &c., enclosed an area 
of eight or ten acres. (See engraving, next page.) 



5. Law-making under the Lords Marchers. 

It appears that in Brycheiniog and Morganwg there were great powers conferred on 
the Lords Marchers, in respect to the enactment and administration of law. Sir John 
Dodridge, in his valuable work on the Government of Wales and the Marchers (1630), 
referring more particularly to Fitzhamon, Newmarch, and De Laci, which last conquered 
and settled on the lands of Ewyas Lacy, says : " And because they and their posterity might 
the better keep those lands so acquired, . . . the said lordships and lands so conquered 
were ordained Baronies Marchers, and had a kind of palatine jurisdiction erected in every 
of them, and power to administer justice unto their tenants in every of their territories, 
having therein courts with divers privileges, ... so that the writs of ordinary justice 
out of the king's courts were for the most part not current amongst them." 



74 



BRECONSHIRE. 



It is manifest the Lords Marchers in Brecknockshire were not behind their compeers in 
other parts in availing themselves of this licence granted by their suzerain, and in oppress- 
ing to the utmost the miserable people placed under their power. And they were frequently 
sufferers for their excesses. Arbitrary and oppressive law led to lawlessness and reprisal. 
The lord dared not move about without his troop of soldiers as a body-guard ; and with all 
his precautions, he was occasionally waylaid and cut down, or pierced from a distance by 




CRICKHOVVEL CASTLE. 

"In the days when outrage occupied the hour, 
When Law and Justice bent the knee to Power, 
When chieftain's safety was the moated wall, 
The hero's helmet, and the crowded hall." 



the swift arrow. Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary alludes to a tragedy of this sort 
which was perpetrated in the woody glen of the Gronwy, not far from Crickhowel, a short 
time previous to his visit a tragedy which, in that case, was the fruit of oppression, not of 
the poor, but of a neighbouring Welsh owner of land. 

" From thence we proceeded," he says, " through the narrow woody tract called the 
' bad pass of Coed Grono,' leaving the noble monastery of Lanthoni, inclosed by its 
mountains, on our left. ... It happened a short time after the death of King Henry I. 
that Richard de Clare, a nobleman of high birth, and Lord of Cardiganshire, passed this way 
on his journey from England into Wales, accompanied by Brian de Wallingford, Lord of 
this province (Abergavenny), and many men-at-arms. At the passage of Coed Grono, and 
at the entrance into the wood, he dismissed him and his attendants, though much against 
their will, and proceeded on his journey unarmed, from too great a presumption of security, 
preceded only by a flute-player and a singer, one accompanying the other on the lute. The 
Welsh, awaiting their arrival, with lorvverth, brother of Morgan, of Caerleon, at their head, 



ANTIQUITIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 75 

and others of his kindred, rushed upon him unawares from the thickets, and killed him and 
many of his followers." De Clare, therefore, had still an escort. 

A place in this glen is still called Coed Dial the wood of revenge, commemorating this 
very event. Sir Richard C. Hoare, in his notes on Giraldus, says, " By the modern name 
of the place we are enabled to fix the very spot on which Richard de Clare was murdered. 
The Welsh Chronicle informs us that in ' 1135 Morgan ap Owen, a man of considerable 
quality and estate in Wales, remembering the wrong and injury he had received at the 
hands of Richard Fitz-Gilbert, slew him, together with his son Gilbert.' " 

A picture of the times is suggested rather than given by Giraldus a little further on : 
" We leave to others the relation of those frequent excesses which in our time have arisen 
amongst the inhabitants of these parts, against the governors of castles, and the vindictive 
retaliations of the governors against the natives." To the events obscurely alluded to in this 
passage we shall have occasion again to refer. 



SECTION IV. ANTIQUITIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 
i . Pre-historic. 

In pre-historic remains this county is not so prolific as some others in Wales. Its 
cromlechs and Meini-hirion have never been numerous, and some once existing have 
disappeared. 

Strangely enough the great antiquarian, Sir Richard C. Hoare, was himself a party to 
the gratuitous overthrow of the finest cromlech in Breconshire. During his zealous search of 
the objects of pre-historic interest in these parts he came upon the great monument which 
stood near the wayside, about three quarters of a mile on the road from Crickhowel to 
Brecon, and nearly opposite Gwern Vale. He was accompanied by Mr. Jones, the 
historian of Breconshire, and by Sir William Ousely, probably the owner of the land on 
which the cromlech, with its magnificent capstone, fourteen feet long and eighteen inches 
thick, with an average breadth of nearly seven feet, standing on four supporters, had for 
unnumbered ages been witnessing for the affection and veneration of the past for its dead ; 
and the two baronets, in order to see what was beneath, dug around the pillars, and 
attaching teams of horses to the mighty flag overthrew in a few minutes what it had cost 
nameless labour to erect and for their pains found nothing of value. Considering that it 
is now settled that cromlechs were but coffins on a colossal scale, and that the body, whether 
deposited entire or after cremation, was not necessarily interred below the natural surface, 
it is to be regretted that these savans had not the wit to dig the ample space under the 
capstone without removing it. 

In the grounds of Dr. Lucas's residence at Glanyrafon, Crickhowel, we noticed a 
small cromlech, which appeared genuine, but of which no published account has been 
obtained. 

When Jones wrote his History a cromlech existed near Talgarth, in a field called Croes- 
i) on the farm of Bryn-groes, parish of Brynllys. (Jones, Hist. Brec., ii., 338.) 

The megaliths of Maen-y-Menvynion a sculptured stone probably commemorating 



76 BRECONSHIRE. 

some virgin feats or virtues, near Battle Church, and Maen Illtyd, on an eminence near 
Llansantffraed, are well known, though not so well understood ; and the same may be 
said of the two inscribed stones at Llandyfaelog Fach Church, one of which is declared by 
local tradition to have some relation to the grave of Brochwel Ysgythrog. Theoph. Jones 
thinks it may have been the " grave covering of Rhain, son of Brychan ; " but Mr. Price 
(Carnhuanawc) could see nothing in the inscription to justify such an idea. Other stones 
of a mysterious character are Maen Llia, on Blaen-senni heights, and Maen Madog, near 
Ystradgynlais, figured in Camden. 

Of pre-historic Caers and Camps there are many the first place being due to the Gaer 
of Benni, the Bannium of the Romans, near the junction of the Eskir with the Usk, two 
miles N.W. of Brecon. This place is in some respects the most venerable in the county ; 
it was the cradle of Brecon, the site of counsel and rule, of princely residence and mortal 
combat, long before Rome sent her legions across the British Channel. It is to be classed 
as pre-historic on the ground of its authentic existence prior to all authentic history the 
seat of Cymric chieftainship, in all probability, from the first arrival of the primitive 
inhabitants in these parts. 

Penycrug in the same locality is also an entrenched camp of the British type, having 
an apparently corresponding one, of similar form, on the rising ground of Slwch to the 
E. of Brecon. Next to this original seat of the Brychanic power must be classed the site 
of antiquities undoubtedly pre-historic although without a visible monument of the same 
age surviving about Caerau and Carnau, two miles to the S. of Brecon. Some years ago, 
in this locality, on Ty-llwyn farm, a carnedd or barrow was opened, and a cist-faen 
discovered, formed in the usual way of four flags on- end, enclosing a quadrangular space 
containing human bones, and covered over with a large topstone. 

The British caer on the Braenog eminence to the N. of Crickhowel, from which that 
fair little town has taken its name, must in early British times have been a place of prime 
importance, both for defence and observation. It commanded a view of the greater part of 
Monmouthshire, with much of the adjoining country, and had in its immediate rear the wild 
hills and broken valleys and ravines of Brecknockshire. On all sides except the N.E. it was 
surrounded by steeps and rocks, and its strength increased by an outer ditch excavated from 
the hard rock, and an inner rampart of stones which encloses a space on the apex of the 
mountain of about 500 feet one way and 250 in another, but with a general form approach- 
ing to a triangle. This stronghold was entered only from the N.E., whence it looked out 
on the Black Mountains towards Talgarth, and communicated by a ridge with the Disgwylfa 
or " Watch-tower " Mountain. 

The name of the town below enshrines the memory of one Hywel, whose name in 
early times must have been associated with this fortress, but of whose relations to it the 
deponent, history, " sayeth nought." It is just possible, however, that Hywel in Crughywel 
(Crickhowel) is not the name of a person, but an epithet applied to the crug or craig 
(rock), as a height commanding a good and distant view, or plainly seen from a distance : 
hywel, conspicuous, obvious. But this question must be left to the manipulation of the 
philologists. 

There are British camps also near Pipton, Glasbury; at Alltfilo, Talgarth; at Twyn-y-^^r, 
Aberbran ; on the Castell-dinas eminence on the Talgarth Mountains. 



CRANNOGE OF LLYN SAVATHAN. 77 

In Vaenor parish, Theoph. Jones informs us, there are several carnau or carneddau, 
" two of which are called Cam Wen, and Y Garn ddu; also a barrow or artificial mound." 
On the side of Ystradgynlais parish adjoining Llywel some ancient people have also erected 
over the graves of their dead great cairns; and in the same neighbourhood, on the S.E. 
side of the mountain, two or three British camps may be seen. 

But the most important of all modern discoveries of pre-historic remains in Breconshire 
is the ancient village or 



Crannoge of Llyn Savathan. 

We have alluded to the tradition recorded in Camden's Britannia of a city having once 
stood where the Lake of Savathan now is. His words are " It hath been an ancient 
tradition in this neighbourhood that where the lake is now, there was formerly a city, which 
being swallowed up by an earthquake, resigned its place to the waters." Bishop Gibson 
adds to this, by way of throwing discredit on the tradition, "As to the sinking of Llyn 
Savadhan, above mentioned, we find the tradition of cities being drowned applied to many 
other lakes in Wales, as Pwlh-Kynffig in Glamorganshire, Llyn Lhan-Lhwch in Kaermardhin- 
shire, Y Lhyn-gwyn in Radnorshire, &c. all which I suspect as fabulous, and not to be 
otherwise regarded than as one of those erroneous traditions of the vulgar, from which few 
if any nations are exempted." 

In judging of such matters, however, it is necessary to remember that tradition is not in 
general an invention, but, even in its worst forms, a distortion of the truth by the accretion 
of the factitious. 

It now turns out that for this tradition of a former " city " on the site of Lake Savathan, 
there was at least this foundation, viz., that on a part of the site actually covered by the 
water there stood at one time a village or town, held hovering over the lake by piles driven 
into the bottom. Crannoges are the discovery of modern antiquarian and scientific research. 
They have been found in many parts of the world though few in England and none in 
Wales, in some cases on the sites of lakes which have been dried up, in others, as in 
Switzerland, where the lake still remains, and where, down through the clear and deep 
water, the rotting piles, with the debris of flint stones and other substances on which the 
lake dwellers were employed in their various handicrafts, can be actually seen. We have 
seen at Zurich a most interesting collection of flint flukes, arrow-heads, and divers weapons of 
flint recovered from the debris of the lake villages. 

The Rev. E. N. Dumbleton, M.A., describes the Savathan crannoge thus (Archceol. 
Cambr. y 1870, p. 192) : 

"Immediately beneath the southern spurs of the Black Mountains, and on the hollow of the great 
geological fracture which parts that chain from the Brecknockshire Beacons, is situated a sheet of water called 
the Lake of Llangorse, . . . formerly Llyn Savathan. . . . The area of water was once far more 
extensive than it is now, and it has subsequently been, as I think, considerably less than at present. A circuit 
of five miles will now enclose it. The margin is flat and swampy, except on the N.E., where the mountain 
descends upon the shore-line somewhat abruptly. The depth, though by vulgar report vast and fearful, Leland 
has rather overstated in assigning to it thirteen fathoms. 

Within a bow-shot of the flat meadows on the north side there is an island that would appear but little 
above the water, were it not for some small trees and brushwood that have fastened upon it. ... Sailing by 



78 BRECONSHIRE. 

the island one day in 1867, 1 observed that the stones which stand out on the south and east sides were strangely 
new-looking, and most unlike the water-worn and rounded fragments that on the main shore have been 
exposed to the action of the waves ; neither did there seem to be any rock basis at all. It was, in fact, nothing 
less than a huge heap of stones thrown into the water three or four feet in depth. Was this the key, I thought, 
to the old tradition of a city in the lake ? In the summer of last year my brother, then living in the 
neighbourhood, first discovered a row of piles or slabs, some standing a few inches above water, for the lake 
was very low. We have together made some careful investigations during the past month, the results of which 
I will detail. 

"The island, as now above water, measures ninety yards in circumference, its form being that of a 
square with the corners rounded off. The highest part is nearly in the centre, and is five feet above the 
water level. 

" I must now speak of the piles. These are of two sorts, the most obvious being at the margin or within a 
few feet of it. Like the stones, they are most numerous where the action of the storm would be most felt, and 
upon the shallow side they disappear entirely. They have been disposed in segments of circles, the stones 
being heaped inside them, and thus saved from being torn away by the waves. These piles are of cleft oak, 
and have been pointed, as it seems, by cuts from a metal adze. We have counted about sixty. They have been 
driven tightly into the shell marl to the depth of four feet. There are also other piles, of which I shall have to 
speak again, which are round, generally of soft wood, and are found outside the present edge of the island. 
Several are in water two feet deep, and are driven into the marl only twelve or eighteen inches. 

"The examination of the interior would of course unfold the process of construction. We therefore made 
several perpendicular openings, and these invariably led us down to the shell marl, showing first a stratum of 
large loose stones, with vegetable mould and sand ; next (about eighteen inches above the marl), peat, black 
and compact ; and beneath this the remains of reeds and small wood. This faggot-like wood presented itself 
abundantly, . . . the object of it being, of course, to save the stones from sinking. ... I 
will now speak of the more special articles, the discovery of which, though not so copious as we had hoped, 
indicates human occupation." 

Bones are found in numbers amongst the stones where the water is quite shallow. 
Every spadeful of marl in some parts would, as the water dripped oft', show one or more 
small bone fragments or teeth, &c., &c. Prof. Rolleston, who examined the bones, found 
them to be those of the horse, the pig, the ox, and sheep; none of birds, dogs, or foxes, but 
some of the wild boar and red deer. Four fragments of pottery and a stone which appeared 
to have been ground whether into the form of a hammer or cutting instrument is not said 
were found. After further description, and adducing reasons for believing that the water 
of the lake has increased, Mr. Dumbleton continues : 

" It is clear, I think, that the waters of the lake have arisen ; and I cannot resist the idea that the change 
of level connects itself most forcibly with the tale of the sunken city, for with any considerable rise of the water 
the dwellings would have become untenable, and gradually would have perished." 

Further research is promised, and it is to be hoped that in the end a whole village will 
come to light. Enough seems to have been already discovered to bear out the belief that 
this island in ages gone by was nothing less than the foundation of lake habitations ; and 
the tradition concerning a " sunken city " is in a most interesting way illustrated, if not 
literally justified. 



2. Historical Antiquities. 

The Castle of Brecknock must stand first in the more obvious monumental history of 
this county ; it has been already referred to, and must again be treated of at greater length ; 
but we must revert here to earlier times in the progress of events in Brecknockshire. The 
most important, though not the most prominent and visible historic antiquities in this, as 



HISTORICAL ANTIQUITIES. 79 

indeed in most other counties of Britain, are the Roman, and of that class of antiquities 
in this county the Roman roads are the most noteworthy. Right through the 
heart of the county and all round its more strategic points did these wonderful 
people make their almost imperishable causeways. One of the most satisfactory and 
laborious parts of Tbeophilus Jones's History of Brecknockshire is that which treats of those 
great public highways, and they deserve all the attention he has bestowed upon them. 
They are as much works of art as tesselated pavements and statuary ; and were of far greater 
importance in the conquest and government of the country than the villas and baths, coins 
a nd pottery, which usually engross attention. 

Let a map of South Wales be opened, and the position of Breconshire ascertained. To 
the south lies Glamorganshire, to the west Carmarthenshire, to the north Radnor and 
Montgomery, &c., and to the east is Monmouthshire. Now the great monument (if we may 
so call it) of the Roman road system of Breconshire embraces all these regions in one con- 
ception, and displays a comprehensive unity and a scope of labour and outlay which would 
cast many of the "gigantic" undertakings of modern Englishmen far into shade. The 
Roman road was not a mere track through the forest and over the mountain side, smoothed 
and hardened by feet of men and animals, and wheels of waggons, but a solid pavement of 
stone set on edge and compactly fitted together, extending from one end of the kingdom to 
the other. Nothing is worthy of comparison with it in deliberate plan and costliness, except 
the modern railway, or the streets of a city. 

From Bannium, the great station which they had formed near Benni, or the " Gaer," 
Sarn Helen stretched away right to Chester, taking Builth, Rhaiadr, Caersws, and Meifod in 
Montgomeryshire, in its way. From the same centre the Via Julia proceeded to Gaer 
Cwmdu, and on to Abergavenny and Usk in one direction, to Merthyr and Cardiff in 
another, to the Vale of Towy and Carmarthen in a third, all which branches entered ultimately 
into the great Julian trunk which passed westward by Caerwent, Caerlleon ar Wysg, Cardiff, 
Loughor, Carmarthen, to St. David's. There is reason to believe that the Roman station at 
Bannium, which stood virtually in the centre of Britannia Secunda, was a place of con- 
siderable importance as a junction of roads. It was a Roman Rugby, or Crewe. What 
noise, what excitement, what strange articulations of foreign speech, what swift running of 
horsemen and chariots on the firmly paved causeways, must at. times have been witnessed at 
this junction of Bannium ! for example, when Boadicea raised her standard in the south of 
England, and the legions had to hurry away from Anglesey for Caerleon and Gloucester to 
meet her in the south ; or during the equally critical time when the heroic Caractacus threw 
his Silurian battalions upon the serried squares of the Roman veterans, and made them 
falter and disperse. 

But Brycheiniog, or whatever the name by which it was then called, was to the Romans 
little more than a convenience for passing to and fro, and obtaining men and revenue. 
Their great city in Wales was Isca Silurum, Caerleon ; here was their centre of gaiety, of 
architectural splendour and fiscal administration. Bannium, though important, was mainly 
so as a junction of military roads, and the villa at Llanfrynach was probably the residence 
and office of the sub-procurator, or tax-gatherer. 

Other Roman monuments and roads, with their stations and. accompanying villas, and the 
coins, pottery, &c., which have been found in digging on their sites, are not numerous in 



8o BRECONSHIRE. 

this county. The bath found in Llanfrynach about a century ago in "clearing" for 
agricultural purposes, was ignorantly destroyed, although, fortunately, not before a more 
intelligent man than the owner had taken a sketch of it. This sketch was engraved, and 
can be seen in Jones's History of Brecknockshire. 

Two or three Roman memorial stones are still remaining, that at Scethrog being the 
principal of them. This stone was described by Camden : " And at Pentre Yskythrog in 
Lhan St. Fred parish there is a stone pillar erected in the highway about the same height as 
the former (Maen-y-Morwyniori) but somewhat of a depressed-cylinder form, with this 
mutilated inscription to be read downwards. He then gives an approximate fac-simile of the 
inscription, of which VICTORINI was the only decipherable part, and hazards the conjecture 
that the monument was of post-Roman age, and erected in memory of some person who was 
son of a Victorinus. It is most probably a Roman monumental pillar. 

The stone in Vaenor parish, with the inscription IN NOMINE, &c., upon it, Camden con- 
sidered still later than the Victorinus stone, and at first was -inclined to give the characters 
the reading, In nomine Dei Summi, Tilus " In the name of God Most High, Tilus ; " but 
he considered this a " slight conjecture," and said he dare not rely upon it. Mr. Jones, 
however, considers this reading correct. 

In Cough's edition of Camden is given an engraving (incorrect) of the Turpilian stone, near 
Crickhowel. It has on it the word TVRPILII, according to Jones, but according to Cough, 
TVRPILIANI, and other words following, which some have deciphered into IACET VERI TR 
FILIVS DVNOCATI. Jones says, " The first word is certainly Turpilii, and not Turpiliani, 
as asserted by Cough ; the rest may be anything the reader pleases," and quotes rather 
sarcastically the rhyme : 

"As the bell clinketh, so the fool thinketh." 

But these disagreeing doctors are both wrong, and neither had the least idea that the stone 
had Ogham characters on it. Mr. J. O. Westwood has made out the inscription to be 
TURPILII ic JACIT ENNERI TRILUNI DUNOCATI. On the angle of the stone are Ogham 
characters ; but this part of the inscription is imperfect. (See Arch. Camb., 3rd S., xv.) 

Of the Mediaval Castles of Breconshire, those instructive memorials of ages of rapine and 
violence, that of Brecon must always stand first. An engraving on p. 67 shows its present 
state. It was doubtless the first edifice in the town of Brecknock in point of time, as it 
continued long to be in point .of rank and influence in the whole region surrounding it. 
For the long and varied story of its gradual and slow erection, and for the sway it bore as the 
frowning home of tyrannic domination we have no room. It has already been shown that 
it was built by Bernard Newmarch as a nucleus for his new town, and as a substitute for the 
ancient British fortress of " Benni." The year 1093, or 1094, is put down as the date of its 
foundation. In extent it was planned on the ample scale which contemplated the lodgment, 
provisioning, and protection of a body of soldiers with their horses, and all the appliances 
and appointments of a chieftain whose trade was war and government by sheer force. 

But a small part of the castle, even of what still survives of it, is depicted in our 
engraving ; but of the enormous area included within the walls one of which is seen to 
stretch forward to a considerable distance it is difficult to form an adequate conception. 
Its form was an oblong parallelogram loq yards long by about 80 yards wide. It stands 
on a moderate sloping elevation, at the base of which the chafing Honddu hastens to rush 



HISTORICAL ANTIQUITIES. 81 

into the near and much larger river Usk, the confluence of the two giving the Welsh name 
of Brecon Aber-honddu. It was a place of great strength, and continued to lord it over the 
population of Brycheiniog for nearly 400 years ; and even after its forfeiture to the Crown by 
the impeachment of Buckingham, it was still the place for the transaction of official business 
and for the administration of justice, and ended its course rather appropriately as a county 
prison. It was dismantled in the time of Charles I. 

The Castle of Brecon was the scene of many political intrigues and conspiracies as well 
as of many brave and chivalrous deeds. It did some good as well as much mischief. It 
may be looked upon as the cradle of the Tudor dynasty a dynasty that gave to England 
a government as energetic as that of Cromwell, and almost as despotic as that of the Stuarts, 
but withal beneficent and prosperous ; for it was within those castle walls that the plan was 
matured by Buckingham and the Bishop of Ely, then a prisoner, for the union of the Houses 
of York and Lancaster, and the termination by that means of the "War of the Roses." In 
furtherance of this scheme it was that the Duke of Richmond, grandson of the Welsh 
country gentleman of Anglesey, Owen Tudor, landed at Milford Haven, fought and 
conquered on Bosworth Field, and mounted the throne of England as Henry VII. 

The other castles of Breconshire are those of Crickhowel, of which a notice (with an 
engraving) has already been given at p. 68, Tretower, Bronllys, Builth, The Hay, Rhyd-y- 
briw, and Blaen-llyfni. 

Of ecclesiastical antiquities the chief are the Priory Church of St. John the Evangelist, 
near the castle, formerly called Ealesia Sanctce Crucis, originally built, it is said, by 
Bernard Newmarch, the priory belonging to which has nearly disappeared the only frag- 
ment remaining being a part of the wall near the churchyard entrance. Christ's College, 
transferred by Henry VIII. from Abergwili, and now existing, as far as its visible materials 
are concerned, only in history, was once an ecclesiastical foundation, but is now utilized 
for educational purposes in a beautiful group of Gothic buildings, where an efficient modern 
grammar school is supported with part of the ancient foundation, the other part having been 
appropriated to St. David's College, Lampeter. This county possesses many very ancient 
parish churches, among which may be especially mentioned the Church of St. Edmund at 
Crickhowel, Llanddew, near which is the site of the old residence of the Bishops of 
St. David's, and once occupied by Giraldus Cambrensis ; Defynog ; Menthyr-Cynog ; Llanfry- 
nach ; Cwmdu, Llywel, Llandyfaelog, Garthbrengy, &c. 

Breconshire is rich in domestic antiquities if such a term may be applied to ancient and 
historical dwellings. There is scarcely a parish but contains some memorable spot where 
dwelt a great family. It would be unpardonable in a work like the present not to put on 
record with emphasis such venerable places as Tref Traherne, where lived Traherne Fychan, 
Lord of Llangorse, brutally murdered by William de Breos ; Slwch, the residence of the 
Awbreys, and afterwards of the Thomases ; Pontwilym, where the Havards for many ages 
held sway ; Trebarried, the home of the Williamses ; Porthaml, the castellated house of the 
Vaughans, whose gateway tower still shows its venerable head in the valley ; TrJrtwr, the 
seat of the Vaughans ; Porthmawr, Crickhowel, where dwelt Sir John and other Herberts ; 
Tregunter and Gilston, the manors of the Gunters ; Peyton, now Peityn Gwyn, the property 

G 



82 BRECONSHIRE. 

of the Games, where probably lived Sir David Gam whenever he had a settled home, and 
whence he departed on his unhappy mission to assassinate Owen Glyndwr ; Peterstone, where 
there is now an elegant mansion built on the site of the ancient house of the Walbeoffs ; 
Scethrog, the home first of the Pychards, then of the Williamses, then of the Vaughans, 
where lived Henry Vaughan the poet ; - Tal-y-Llyn, the old manor of Bleddyn ap Maenarch, 
taken from him by Bernard Newmarch, and made his own country house ; Trebinshwn, where 
dwelt the Watkins of Llangorse ; and Newton^ the home of the chief branch of Games. 



SECTION V. OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 

In the succeeding genealogical part on the county of Brecknock, it will be seen in the 
account of several families now living, that the blood of the ancient inhabitants is 
by no means effete. Not only is the mass of the common people always the most 
unmixed representatives of the aboriginal race still a witness to the blood of the Cymry 
of the Silurian and Dyfedian stock (all probably somewhat tinged with the sable character- 
istics of the Iberian race), but the patrician families of the district are in numerous instances 
examples of the wonderful persistency of individual households. Gwynn, Powell, Price, 
Williams, Games, Havard, Vaughan, Watkins, Thomas, are names which have been familiar 
in Brycheiniog ever since surnames were invented ; and their owners in many instances can 
trace their lineage back to times when men bore only a single name, and one leuan or 
Owain had to be distinguished from another leuan or Owain by the addition of his father's 
name, the place of his abode, the colour of his hair, or the size of his body. 

But walking the field of history is like walking in ground where many dead are buried 
out of sight ; or in a Pantheon, where the monuments of the more recent age hide from 
view or cast into shade the more worn and venerable memorials. Nay, many of these are 
broken, fallen, buried in the dust with the dust of those they were designed to commemorate ; 
and the curiously searching antiquarian who would know what once existed as well as what 
now to the commonest apprehension exists, has to dig with care and decipher with patience, 
in order to make out an image in his own mind of the chief actors in the olden times before 
us. " Posterity " has done nothing for us, as implied in the well-known contemptuous 
question ; but our ancestors have done much for us and for our posterity, for the present is 
only an inheritance of the past, and thoughtlessness or ignorance alone can make us in- 
different to the good and the bad in the olden times. 

But the study of history and antiquities is justified by the value of knowledge per se, and 
the constant impulse to its cultivation is strengthened by the examples of high deed and 
thought which it discovers at every step in its researches. Cicero's question implies a truth, 
as well as a reproach upon those who were indifferent to antiquity, 

" Quern non moveat clarissimis monumentis testata consignataque antiquitas?" 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 83 



i . Pre- Norman and Norman Times, 

The old families of Brecknockshire, of the class we are here treating of, were descended 
partly from the old Cymry, and partly from the Norman conquerors of the province. 

A misconception is naturally fallen into when the conquest of a country, with the seizure 
of its lands and total absorption of its government by strangers, is contemplated, that the 
change involves the extinction, or at least total expulsion, of the families who were the 
preceding owners and rulers. No conception could be more erroneous or unreasonable. 
Whether we regard the tillers or the lords of the soil, in almost every instance of conquest 
known in Europe the change effected consisted not in extermination or expulsion, but 
in subjugation and deprivation. This is true with respect to the ancient Britons, as 
subjugated by Romans and Saxons,* as it is true with respect to the Saxons as subjugated by 
Danes and Normans ; and it is true also respecting the old families of Brycheiniog, con- 
quered and dispossessed by Bernard Newmarch and his companions. 

This being so, we can well believe a writer so painstaking, and on the whole so accurate 
as Theophilus Jones, when he assigns to different parts of the country the descendants of 
those old families who were prominent and powerful anterior to the Lord Marcher's 
conquest. Jones was not an infallible genealogist, but he had one habit which greatly 
contributed to the safety of his conclusions the habit of studying and describing heraldic 
devices. There can be no doubt but that he was credulous as to the origin and prevalence 
in Wales of developed coats of arms when heraldry was in its elementary state, but when 
this credulity was not a temptation, his knowledge, and consequently power of comparison 
of the arms of families, was a most valuable guide to the identification of their descendants 
in main and collateral branches. The chief Cymric heads of houses of the pre-Norman age 
and their descendants he distributes as follows (Hist. Brec., ii., 411, &c.) : 

" Our gentes of Brecknockshire may be divided into four ; the descendants of 
Caradog Freich-Fras [one of Arthur's knights, 6th century]. 
Bleddyn ap Maenarch [ruler of Brecknock, nth century], 
Rhys Goch of Ystrady w [about same time]. 
Elystan Glodrydd [Prince of Ferlex (Fferyllwg), nth century]. 

" The wild and refractory part of the gens Brachana upon the conquest of Bernard 
Newmarch was driven to the mountains of the hundred of Devynock, accompanied by no 
inconsiderable number of the descendants of Caradoc. 

" Rhys Goch's 'gens settled principally in the neighbourhood of Crickhowel ; and Elystan 
Glodrydd's, being divided from the remainder of the county by the Eppynt hills, continued 
to reside in that tract now called the hundred of Builth. The arms of the principal inhabit- 
ants of each of these districts are, or at least ought to be, indications of their descent from 
one or other of these ancestors." It must be confessed that whatever advantages of local 
knowledge the writer may have had, he was treading on very uncertain ground if the founda- 
tion was nothing better than the arms ascribed to persons so far back as Brychan and 
Caradog Freichfras. 

* This question is argued at length in the work entitled The Pedigree of the English People: an Argument, 
Historical and Scientific, on English Ethnology, by Thomas Nicholas, M.A., Ph.D. Third Edition (in the 
press). Longmans and Co. 



84 BRECONSHIRE. 

"The families from Brychan, so far from retaining surnames like the Roman gentry, by 
their customary and almost inexplicable interchange of generic names, as Mr. Dallaway 
properly expresses it, became so bewildered and confused, . . . that most of them 
forgot the ensign of their fathers' house. Three of them only preserved the coat-armour of 
their paternal ancestor Brychan Thomas of Llanfrynach, Gwyn of Trecastle, and Philips of 
Devynock. The Gwyns of Trecastle were, I believe, the first who in the reign of Elizabeth 
quartered the rere mice, or bats, of Marchell, the heiress of Breconshire and wife of Brychan." 
(See Gwynne of Dyffryn, Gwynne-Holford of Buckland, and Morgan of Defy 'nog.) 

" The descendants of Bleddyn ap Maenarch have been more tenacious in preserving the 
insigne proavorum than the three other tribes just named, though it is very extraordinary 
that his grandson, Sir Walter Wogan, the eldest son of Gwrgan, who went into Pembroke- 
shire, threw off his paternal coat, and assumed for arms, argent, on a chief sable, three 
martlets, or ; while many of their posterity have their maternal arms as quartered by Williams 
of Gwernyfed and several others in Breconshire ; but the chevron between the spear-heads 
may be almost said to be appropriated to and characteristic of Breconshire, and wherever 
they are found in England, there probably some Welsh blood may be discovered to have 
been introduced or contained in the family." 

" Rhys Goch, though a descendant of Caradoc Freich-fras, is yet considered as the 
ancestor of the gentry in the Vale of Ystradwy ; from some incident not known in history, 
he adopted for arms a wyvern's head erased, bearing a bloody hand in its beak, which are 
the arms of many of the old families of the hundred of Crickhowel at this day, where, from 
this circumstance, the dragon's head was and continues to be a common sign to public- 
houses." 

" The race of Elystan Glodrydd, in the hundred of Builth, soon differed upon the choice 
of armour, some of them taking the lion of Elystan, and others the boar's head assumed by 
his son Cadogan. When quarterings came into use, they adopted both, and in this manner 
they are now borne by the English Earls Cadogan, who are of this gens. Upon the settle- 
ment of the Lloyds of Cardiganshire in Breconshire, soon after the use of surnames, a 
confusion ensued as to arms, the Elystan Lloyds sometimes taking Cadivor ap Dinawal's, 
and Cadivor's bearing in the ist quarter the Prince of Ferreg's" (Elystan). 

It will be noticed that in the above observations the historian of Brecknockshire is in 
reality speaking of only two gentes, in the proper sense of the word gens, which is a family 
or clan confessing a common ancestor ; at least, so it was used among the Romans, and as 
Jones purposely uses the Latin word, it is fair to presume he means to use it in the classic 
sense. All the descendants of the first three heads of old Cymric Brecknockshire families, 
therefore, viz., Caradoc Freichfras, Bleddyn ap Maenarch, and Rhys Goch, who were alike 
of the line to which Brychan belonged, or the gens Brachana, were but one gens or clan ; 
and the descendants of Elystan Glodrydd, who was not of the clan of Brychan, nor of the 
district of Brycheiniog, but of Ferlex, or Fferyllwg, between the Wye and the Severn, were 
another. 

The Wogans, of Wiston, in Pembrokeshire, descendants of Gwrgan, son of Bleddyn ap 
Maenarch, continued in that part until late in the i8th century. (See Wogan.) 

Cadifor, another son of Gwrgan, took possession of the lands of Glyntawe, in Breconshire, 
and part of Gower, in Glam, but " how he acquired them does not appear." Among his 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 85 

descendants is R. Oliver Jones, Esq., of Fon-mon Castle, whose family have borne the arms 
of Bleddyn ap Maenarch, sa. a chevron bet. three spear-heads, ar., their points imbrued. 

To Trahaern, his second son, according to Jones, Gwrgan " left Aberllyfni, near Glas- 
bury," where' he resided, and Llanfihangel Tal y Llyn. From him, in the fourth generation, 
descended Einion Sais, and from him, at a distance, Sir David Gam; also Williams of 
Gwernyfed and Gaer long extinct in the male line. Another son, David, was 
prolific. The Lewises of Ffrwdgrech, Talachddu, Monachdy (Rad.), Llangorse, and 
Pennant ; Thomas of Slwch ; Haddocks of Llanfrynach ; Jeffreys of Llywel all in their time 
traced to him. 

From Cadivor, third son of Gwrgan, were the Powels of Cantref, Swansea, and Peter- 
stone (Brec.), Powel of Maesmawr, and Jones of Trebinshwn all extinct. From the fourth 
son, Howel, were the Sais of Boverton and Swansea. 

That so many families deriving from the last Cymric Lord of Brecknock remained in the 
district, and continued for so long a time prominent and wealthy, proves after all that the 
Norman rule was chastened by some toleration. As long as that rule continued, these old 
British households were, doubtless, under strict supervision, and subject to those duties 
towards the superior lord which the feudal system prescribed. But they were still per- 
mitted a measure of state and circumstance befitting their lineage, and held friendly 
intercourse and by and by intermarried with the better class of the conquerors. 

Occasionally the most barbaric insolence and atrocity were practised towards them. 
Thus we find that the tyrannic William de Breos brutally murdered Trahaern Fchan, Lord 
. of Llangorse, a grandson of Bleddyn ap Maenarch. Having a spite against him for some 
cause unknown, he treacherously invited Trahaern to meet him for consultation on a 
matter of business. The Welshman unsuspectingly went unarmed, was met on the road 
not far from Brecknock by the cruel oppressor, seized without ceremony, .tied to the tail of 
a horse, and dragged through the streets of the town to a place of execution, beheaded, and 
his body suspended for three days on a gibbet. The will of the Lord Marcher was law, and 
where the man happened to be a monster, as in this case he was, the subject Welsh were 
frequently miserable sufferers. The tyrant followed the " simple plan ," 

"That they should take who had the power." 

Giraldus Cambrensis refers, in too mild a way, to another, and if possible a more 
atrocious instance of William de Breos's cruelty, which occurred not at Brecknock, but at 
Abergavenny. His uncle Henry, of Hereford, having been murdered in A.D. 1176, 
William invited a large number of Welsh into the Castle of Abergavenny, under pretext of 
holding a conference with them ; but having got them together as guests, he proposed that 
they should take an oath " that no traveller by the waie amongst them should beare any 
bow, or other unlawful weapon," as Hollingshed expresses it. Having refused to take such 
an oath, they were told they must atone for the refusal by death. He called in his men-at- 
arms, and slaughtered them to a man. Giraldus speaks of this massacre as among " the 
vindictive retaliations of the governors against the natives ; " but he half excuses De Breos, 
as being only driven to such excesses by Henry II. 

We cannot but regret Giraldus 's strange silence about the families of this district. He 
knew Brycheiniog, as it was in the i2th century, so well, being its archdeacon, and having 



86 BRECONSHIRE. 

a residence at Llanddew, that the task would have been easy to give some account of the 
old Cymric heads of houses, their fortunes and sufferings, their haunts and their acts in 
those days of Norman oppression. Prudential considerations must have restrained his pen. 
A few names of abbots and monks, princes and devotees, are nearly all he has left us. 
He could utter scathing words against injustice ; but here he is almost silent. In the hills 
of Defynog and Llywel, about the Eppynt and Talgarth heights, the sides of the Beacons, 
and the woody gorges of the Elan and the Gronwy, there must have been at that very time, 
wandering without a home, and nestling for shelter in the clefts of rocks and thickets of the 
forest, many of the gentlest and most honoured of the Cymric race, whose names died away 
with their life, and whose children merged into the common suffering villein and ceorl class. 
Of these, a cautious archdeacon, though he might know much, must needs say little. But 
there were others, some of whom we have mentioned, who under conditions of subjection 
were permitted to hold land even distant lordships, as Cadifor, son of Gwrgan, in Glyntawe 
and engage in merchandise, whose names were on the lips of every Cymro in Brycheiniog, 
and who still looked forward to times of redemption and the re-establishment of the British 
rule. Many of these were known to Giraldus de Barri, and he would have done future 
generations good service by describing their condition, or even by simply recording their names. 



2. Old Families of Norman Blood. 

As was the custom under the Norman feudal system, Bernard Newmarch divided the 
land of Brycheiniog between himself and his chief followers ; and these became in course of 
time, through intermarriage with the Welsh, more Welsh than Norman. It has already been 
intimated that a large proportion of William the Conqueror's forces were pure or mixed 
Celts from Brittany, Normandy, and elsewhere, many of them, indeed, descendants of 
Cymry from Wales, who had sought refuge and settlement in Brittany during the Saxon and 
Danish troubles ; and it is more than probable that some of Newmarch's companions were 
of this description, and only restored the purity of their Celtic blood by alliances with the 
people of Brycheiniog. The example of marrying into Welsh families was set by Bernard 
Newmarch himself, who took to wife the notorious Nest, daughter of Trahaearn ap Caradog, 
and niece of Llewelyn ap Seissyllt. 

The descendants of the Norman fief-holders of Brycheiniog best known to our times are 
the BurghillS) the Gunters, the Aubreys, the Havards, the Peytons, the Walbeoffes. When 
Powel wrote his Historic of Cambria or, rather, annotated and published Caradog ap 
Llancarvan's Chronicle in the early part of the seventeenth century, most of the leading 
knights who fought with Newmarch had still representatives who claimed a share in their 
original estates. Powel says, 

" There came manie gentlemen with the said Bernard Newmarch, . . . upon whom 
he bestowed divers manours, which their heires do possess and enjoy even to our time." 
He then mentions some of them by name, with their manors. "The Awberyes" had 
received the manours of Abenynrig and Slowch; " the Walbiefes, the manour of Llanhamlach 
and Tal-y-Lhyn ; " the " Gunters, the manour of Gilston " (rather, of Tregunter, whence they 
removed to Gilston); and the " Havards, the manour of Pont-wilym." Hist. Cambr., p. 150. 



EXTINCT FAMILIES OF NORMAN ORIGIN. 87 



Awbreys of Abercynrig. 

The Awbreys^ derived from the Norman De Alberico, corrupted into Awbrey, were 
contemporary with the Conquest. Sir Reginald Awbrey was one of Newmarch's chief men, 
and got as his reward the lands of Abercynrig and Slwch. In the fifth generation after him, 
John Awbrey, according to Jones, sold Slwch to Richard, of the line of Caradog Freichfras, 
whose descendants resided there for upwards of four centuries, latterly under the name of 
Thomas. Abercynrig continued the seat of the Awbreys until their decline, but this also 
was sold in more recent times. The family, in the third generation after Bernard Newmarch's 
conquest, began to intermarry with the Welsh, and in course of time became a substantially 
Welsh family. 

Awbreys of Ynyscedwin. 

From Jenkin Awbrey, of Abercynrig, descended, at some distance, Evan Gwyn Awbrey, 
who married a Herbert of Crughowel. Their grandson, Morgan, was of Ynyscedwin, in the 
Vale of Tawe, and married a daughter of Thomas Games, of Aberbran. His great-grand- 
daughter merged the name of Awbrey in that of Gough, of Willersley, one of whose sons 
married Elinor Williams, of Aberpergwm (d. s. /.)/ and from the third son, Fleming, the 
present Mr. Gough of Ynyscedwin is descended. (See Gough.) 



Walbeoffes of Llanhamlach. 

Llanhamlach, three miles from Brecon, in the rich valley of the Usk, was the happy 
portion which fell to the first Walbeoffe. Who the Welshman was who gave way to the 
stranger is not known, and of the castle or house which the Norman built on his fair 
" manour " we know nothing except that it stood on a particular spot in the close vicinity of 
the present house. The Walbeoffes, although for several generations they intermarried 
with the best families, both Norman and British, were not a prosperous race, nor 
were they a race that deserved prosperity. What wealth they possessed was at last 
squandered by a certain John, whose son Charles, when he came to the nominal 
inheritance, found himself a needy man. To " better his condition " he sold his patrimony 
to a gentleman of the name of Powel, who about the year 1750 built the house now 
standing. John Walbeoffe, the spendthrift, had a considerable family, but what became 
of them and their descendants we cannot tell. The name seems to have long disappeared 
from Breconshire. 

r 

Gunters of Tregunter and Gilston. 

The first of this family was " Sir " Peter Gunter, or Gaunt d'or, an assistant of Newmarch's 
in the reduction of Brycheiniog. He was given a manor at Tregunter, otherwise called 
Gunterstone a place long ago alienated from the powerful family which indelibly inscribed 
their name upon it, which his descendants possessed for six or seven generations, until 
they removed to Gilston, in the parish of Llanfigan, perhaps under stress of weather, or, 



88 BRECONSHIRE. 

more probably, esteeming the Vale of Usk more desirable than the colder neighbourhood of 
Talgarth. 

Peter, the first settler at Tregunter, was followed by several vigorous representatives ; 
but the tendency towards degeneracy soon became visible in the family, until in the 
seventeenth century it virtually ceased to exist. The intermarriages of the Gunters were 
chiefly with the families which, like themselves, were of foreign origin, such as Pitcher, Skull, 
Walbeoffe, Mowbray, Boys, Pierrepoint, Havard. By the marriage of Walter of Tregunter 
into the family of Pierrepoint of Gilston, the Gilston property seems to have first come into 
their possession. They are from this time called " of Gilston." The arms of the Gunters 
are said to have been sa. a chevron, or, between three gauntlets, or. 

The Gunters spread widely and had many estates in the county. They were at Glan- 
wern, Treberfedd, Trefecca, Ysgythrog, and Pencelli, but their tendency was downwards : 
no Gunter is found in the shrievalty of the county after 1689, when John Gunter of Trevecca 
served. The present house of Tregunter was built by Harris, which see. 



BurghiUs of Talgarth. 

To Humphrey Burchil, or Burghill, who " came to the conquest of Brycheiniog with 
Bernard Newmarch in the reign of William Rufus," was given, " as his share," the lordship 
of Crughowel. His coat, as the St. Mark's Coll. MS. states, was " Paly of six, arg. sable, 
a bend, gules." This first lord by conquest of the fair region of Crughowel had a son, John 
Burghill, who succeeded him in the lordship, and m. Janet, dau. of Sir William Gunter, Lord 
of Tregunter, his fellow-countryman. He, Sir William, had a sable shield, as we have 
seen, bearing as charges a chevron, inter three gauntlets, or. The next Burghill of 
Crughowel took to wife a dau. of Sir Miles Pitcher, Kt, who is said by the same authority 
to carry an azure shield, charged with a fesse, ermine, inter three pitchers, or. 

The next Burghill m. a dau. of " Phillpott Walbeife," Esq., which Walbeiffe also bore a 
shield significant of his name, as all the Walbeoffes (or Vfa\-boeufs) did, arg., three bulls 
passant, in pale, gu., armed and unguled, or. 

William Burghill, the son, made up his mind to find a wife among the daughters of his 
adopted country a country, however, which had, with unconcealed reluctance, adopted him 
and his kin ; he accordingly m. Catherine, dau. of Howel ap Owen ap Gwgan, of true British 
blood and temper ; henceforth this family generally marries into Welsh households, and by 
and by gets its foreign name merged into a name truly British, becoming nothing less than 
Williams of Talgarth. It intermarries in the course of ten more generations with Turbervill, 
Madoc of Maesmawr, Awbrey of Abercynrig, Jenkyn, Blewet, Bullen, and Watkin. 

Of all the other families, now extinct, or merged into the common rank, who traced from 
the Norman subjugators of Brycheiniog, it is not possible here to speak at length. The 
Bullens ate mentioned under Williams, Abercamlais. The Boys, or Boes, of Felin-newydd, 
and a few others of like station, need no further reference. 



OLD FAMILIES OF BRITISH ORIGIN. 89 

Havards of Pontwilym. 

Among the Knights of Bernard Newmarch as already mentioned was one of the name 
of Havard, or whose name came to be so sounded and written in after times. It is said 
that he came from Havre de Grace, the seaport town of Normandy (Havre is the same 
word as W. aber, and Gaelic inver), and was called Walter de Havre de Grace. He was 
given for his services in the subjugation of Brycheiniog, a lordship at Pontwilym, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Bernard's own Castle of Brecon, and here for many genera- 
tions his descendants continued to reside in considerable affluence. In the eighth gene- 
ration Madog Havard m. a Welsh lady of the family of Einion Sais, ancestor of Sir David 
Gam and the Games family. A favourite family name with them was " Jenkin." 

We find that Thomas Havard served as sheriff (see Sheriff's of Breconshire) for the years 
1543, 1549, and 1555, but the name Havard does not afterwards occur. Indeed, it would 
appear that about the sixteenth generation, the family, for some reason or other, left 
Pontwilym, and probably, in its principal branch, Breconshire, for we find no mention of 
them henceforward as of Pontwilym, but find that John Havard (the son of the above 
Thomas), who is said to have m. a dau. of Llywelyn ap Rhys, of Peytyn Gwyn, and who is 
not called of Pontwilym, had a son, Harry Havard, who is " of Dolhaidd," co. Carmarthen, 
and his grandson Harry Havard is called " of Goittre in Emlyn." 

Harry Havard, of Goittre in Emlyn, m. Mary, a dau. of the Rev. Morrus Williams, vicar 
of Llangeler, circa 1613. In about six generations after him the name of Havard disappears 
in Carmarthenshire through failure of male issue. In Breconshire, in the descendants of 
junior branches, &c., the name existed longer, and possibly is not yet quite extinct. The 
site of the ancestral mansion is still dimly visible in the depression of a moat which 
surrounded it. 



3. Old British Families of the Post-Norman Period. 

Under this period we come near to great Welsh households who, along with the ancestors 
of still surviving families, for many hundred years held sway in the county of Brecknock 
some of them right through the perils and changes of the Norman times, others grown 
into importance since that period ended, but all holding to a line of pedigree which, like the 
sub-ocean cable, holds communication with the world beyond the flood. They, however, in 
time also decayed and gave place to others, novi homines, of as good quality by nature as 
themselves, and by favour of changeful fortune more successful in " the struggle for life." 
That many of the descendants of these old and " extinct " families of Breconshire, cast like 
waifs upon the unsteady tide, through marriage of female branches, re-emergence of forgotten 
scions, and the persistence of others in obscure nooks who have never emerged, are still in 
existence, if only known, is highly probable. Indeed, there is scarcely a neighbourhood 
where tradition does not speak of such. Not to speak of illegitimate offspring, of which, in 
a state of society now happily past, there was too great an abundance, it is probable enough 
that, in reality, though not perhaps in name, there are some still in the land possessing the 
genuine blood of the old post-Norman houses. Principal old Brecknockshire families were 
the following : 



90 BRECONSHIRE. 

THE GAMES FAMILY, OF NEWTON. 

Caradog Freichfras, Kt. of the Round Table, m. Tegaurfron, dau. of King Pelynor. His 
son was Cawrdaf, Lord of Ferreg and Brecon, so it is recorded. 

From Cawrdaf in the i4th generation is said to have descended Bleddyn ap Maenarch, 
Lord of Garthmadryn (Brecon) when Bernard Newmarch arrived. He had ;//. Elinor, dau. 
of Tewdwr Mawr, and sister of Rhys ap Tewdwr. 

The son of Bleddyn and Elinor, Gwgan, m. Gwenllian, dau. of Philip Gwys, Lord of 
Wiston, Pemb., and had issue Walter, who became Sir Walter Wogan, of Wiston, the 
progenitor of the Wogans, of Wiston and other places ; and Trahaern. 

Trahaern, the second son, Lord of Llangorse, m. Joan, dau. of Bleddyn, Lord of Cilsant, 
and their gr. gr. son was Einion Sais who m. for his first wife Joan, dau. of Howel, Lord of 
Miscin, and their gr. gr. gr. son was Dafydd ap Llywelyn, afterwards called, from a cast or 
squint he had in one of his eyes, Dafydd Gam, or the crooked. 

Sir David Gam, Kt., m. Gwenllian, dau. of Gwilym ap Howel y Grach. Their eldest 
son, Morgan, m. as his second wife Margaret, dau. of Lewelyn Gwilym Rees Lloyd ap Adam, 
and had a son Meredith, whose descendant m. Lewis Prodger, of Gwernvale (hence the 
Prodger Arms), and another son, Gwallter, of Porthgwyn, which his descendants sold to 
John Games of Newton. A third son, Jevan, or Edward, m. Anne, dau. of Gwilym 
Lloyd. 

Their son Gwilym m. Margaret, dau. of John Watkin Meredith Havard, of Pencelly, and 
had two daus. The second son, Morgan, m. Gwladis, dau. of Morgan Bloet, or Blewet (by a 
dau. of William Burchill) ; and their son John, of Newton, m. Margaret, dau. of Thomas 
Gwalter ap Jenkin Havard. 

Their second son, Meredith Games, of Buckland, m. Gwenllian, dau. of Thomas Gwyn, of 
Trecastle. The eldest son, Edward Games, of Newton,, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Sir William 
Vaughan, of Porthaml. He was Sheriff of Brecon 1558, and d. 1564. Their son, 

Sir John Games, Kt, of Newton (builder of the house still standing), m. for his second 
wife Elizabeth, dau. of Meredith Games, and had two sons, Edward Games, Sheriff in 1623, 
who m. Bridget, dau. of Sir Walter Vaughan, of Fallerstone, Wilts, and d. s. p.; and John 
Games, who m. Elizabeth, dau. of Richard Hoo, or Hoe, of Skerning, otherwise Skarming, 
Norfolk. From John was descended John Games, of Newton, who d. 1645, vita 
patris, s.p. 

The Games could build houses to last longer than their own posterity. The old house 
of Newton, which we give p. 83, and which is currently held in the neighbourhood to have 
been the residence of Sir David Gam, and has been described and published as such in 
the Art Journal, &c., was most certainly not his place of abode at any time, though the old 
dwelling on the spot may have been his place of frequent sojourn, being the property of a 
near relation. His patrimony was more likely to be the castle of his ancestor, Einion Sais, 
in the parish of Llanspyddid, the site of which is called the " Castle Field " to this day, but 
of which castle not a trace remains. The land is the property of Mr. Williams, of Penpont. 
But David's father had also purchased the lands of Peyton in Garthbrengy and Llanddew 
parishes, and it is conjectured that it was from Peyton, or Peityn Gwyn, that David started 
for Machynlleth, with the intent of taking the life of Glyndwr. 



OLD FAMILIES OF BRITISH ORIGIN. 




NEWTON, NEAR BRECON (from a drawing by Birket Foster). 



This interesting specimen of the strong and not unsightly mansions of the Elizabethan 
age, half fortress and half domestic residence, was built in 1582 by Sir John Games, Kt., 
son of Edward Games of Newton. This is shown by Jones (Hist, of JBrec.) to be the case, 
from an inscription on each side of the shield of arms sculptured in stone on the fireplace 
in the great hall, " John Games, mab ag etyfedd hena Edward Games ap John ap Morgan 
ap Edward ap Morgan ap Dafydd Gam, 1582. Ar Dduw y gyd. Games," John Games, 
the son and eldest 'heir of Edward Games, &c., 1582. On God depends everything. 
Games. 

Sir David Gam, Kt., the most prominent member of this once prominent family, 
deserves more than a passing notice. The name by which he was known at the time he 
lived was Davydd ap Llewelyn, the dignity of knighthood being only conferred upon him as 
his last breath was escaping on the field of Agincourt. Of impulsive and violent temper, 
prompt in action without calculation of consequences, cruel, unscrupulous, and brave, he 
was a dangerous man to either friend or foe. To use Jones's words, he lived like a wolf, 
and died like a lion. He started in life by slaying a kinsman in the street of Brecon, and 
fleeing to England to escape the consequences. He was a strong partisan, after this, of the 
English kings, Henry IV. and Henry V., under the former of which he undertook, in 1402, 
the assassination of the patriot insurrectionist, Owen Glyndwr (Owen having just traversed 
Breconshire with fire and sword), at Machynlleth ; and for his pains, though spared 
execution, got several years of imprisonment. This was the darkest blot on the stormy life 
of David Gam, for though the provocation was doubtless great, the mode of retaliation was 
base and atrocious. He was no sooner released than he again devoted himself to the cause 
of the Henrys. In 1415 Henry V. met the French at Agincourt, and there, in the crisis of 



92 BRECONSHIRE. 

a signal victory, when Henry himself was hemmed in and borne down by the enemy, 
" Davydd ap Llewelyn " (with other of his countrymen) rushed to the rescue of the king, 
and effected his deliverance ; but the brave deliverer fell mortally wounded. Henry, on the 
spot, as the last blood was ebbing, made him a knight, conferring the same honour on Gam's 
son-in-law, Roger Vaughan of Tre'rtwr, who also fell. 

It has been held by many that Shakspere in his Henry V. has under the character of 
Fluellin portrayed Sir David Gam. Theophilus Jones gives his sanction to this opinion. 
It can scarcely be correct, for after the battle, Fluellin being in conversation with Henry, a 
list of the dead is handed to the king, who reads out the names of the principal men who had 
fallen, and amongst them is " Davy Gam, Esquire." Shakspere has frequent anachronisms 
and inconsistencies, but it is inconceivable that he should on the same spot represent the 
same person as two persons, the one living, the other dead. In Fluellin the dramatist may 
be considered rather as embodying his own ideal of a brave, irascible, exacting Welshman, 
faithful in the service of the king, and freely admitted to his presence a type, in fact, of 
the Welsh people, whom Henry looked upon with a kindly eye, partly because he was born 
at Monmouth, and chiefly because of their enthusiastic support of his throne. Henry 
says of him, 

" I do know Fluellin valiant, 
And touched with choler ; hot as gunpowder, 
And quickly will return an injury." 

The character of Fluellin is on the whole higher than that of the real David Gam ; it 
has no tinge of cruelty or baseness ; its Welsh patriotism is warm and simple as the ardent 
love of a child. 

"Flu. I do believe your Majesty takes no scorn to wear the leek on St. Tavy's day. 

" K. Henry. I wear it for a memorable honour ; for I am Welsh, you know, good countryman. 

" Flu. All the water in the Wye cannot wash your Majesty's Welsh plood out of your pody, I can tell you 
that ; God pless it and preserve it as long as it pleases his Grace and his Majesty too. 

"JC. Hetiry. Thanks, my good countryman. 

" Flu I am your Majesty's countryman; I care not who know it ; I will confess it to all the 

'orld. I need not be ashamed of your Majesty, praised be God, so long as your Majesty is an honest man." 

The Welsh national feeling could not be more truly embodied in words. Then, in the 
contemptuous persistency with which Pistol is compelled to " eat the leek " he had despised, 
the same character is faithfully portrayed, without the introduction of the excessive violence 
which belongs to David Gam : 

"I peseech you heartily, scurvy, lowsy knave, at my desires and my requests and my petitions, to eat, 
look you, this leek. . . . You called me yesterday mountain squire, but I will make you to-day a squire 
of low degree. I pray you, fall to ; if you can mock a leek you can eat a leek. 

"Pist. Must I bite? 

' ' Flu. Yes, certainly ; and out of doubt and out of questions too, and ambiguities. 

" Pist. Quiet thy cudgel, thou dost see I eat. 

"Flu. Much goot do you, scald, knave, heartily. Nay, pray you, throw none away; the skin is 
goot for you proken coxcomb. When you take occasions to see leeks hereafter, I pray you mock at them, 
that is all. 

"Pist. Good. 

" Flu. Ay, leeks is goot. Hold you, there is a groat to heal your pate. . . . Yes, verily, and in 
truth, you shall take it, or I have another leek in my pocket which you shall cat. . . . God be wi' you, and 
keep you, and heal your pate." 



OLD FAMILIES OF BRITISH ORIGIN. 93 

All this and much more takes place after the announced death of "Davy Gam, Esquire," 
which is proof conclusive that Shakspere had not in view the temper and conduct of Gam 
when presenting us with the character of Fluellin. 

The name of Sir David Gam will always be a name of mark in Brecknockshire, partly 
through the weight of the family of which he was a member, partly through the boldness 
and energy of his own career, and the circumstances of its termination. He has been dead 
four centuries and a half, but his deeds are fresh in the popular memory ; and the old house 
of Newton, though built a hundred and seventy years after his death, serves as a memento 
of him and his family. 

Games of Tregaer. 

Edward Games of Tregaer, second son of Edward Games of Newton, who d. 1564, m. 
Jennet, dau. of John Walbeofife, and had a son, Edward, who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Jenkin 
ap leuan Ddu, of Glyn Nedd. Roger, their son, m. a dau. of Howel John Powel of 
Maesmawr. Their eldest son, 

Bartholomew Games, m. Cissil, dau. of Humphrey Baskerville of Pontrilas. They had 
several children, 4 daus. and 4 sons. Two sons d. s. p. Of the remaining 2 sons, Edward 
m. Anne, dau. of Lewis Gunter of Gileston, and had 2 daus. Walter Games (second son) 
of Pencelli m. Margaret, dau. of William Jeffreys, alias Dilwyn, d. 1744. He had 2 sons, 
Bartholomew, whose issue was a dau. Anne, who m. Thomas Watkins of Llangynider, and 

William Games, clerk, Rector of Llandetty, who m. Elizabeth Thomas of Abercriban, 
and left an only dau., Elizabeth, who m. Thomas, son of John Watkins of Brecon. Thus 
ended this branch. 

Games of Aberbran. c 

Morgan, son of Sir David Gam, already mentioned, m. (and) Margaret, dau. of Llewelyn 
Gwilym Rees Lloyd ap Adam, and had a son, Llewelyn of Penfathrin^ who m. Jennet, dau. 
of Lewis Rhaglan. They had 4 daus., one of whom m. Trahaern Morgan Tew, whose son 
John m. Jennet, dau. of William Havard of Aberbran. Their son, 

John Games of Aberbran, m. Anne, dau. of Sir William Vaughan, Kt. They had 9 daus. 
and 3 sons. Catharine m. William WalbiefFe ; Joan m. David Gwyn of Glanbran, and (2nd) 
Roger Williams of Park ; Margaret m. Sir David Williams of Gwernyfed ; Elizabeth, levan 
Rhys of Buallt, and (2nd) John, third son of Sir John Price, of the Priory, Brecon; Joan m. 
John Gwilym John Vaughan of Ystradfellte ; Maud, a nat. dau. by Joan, dau. of Sir Richard 
Burchill, m. leuan Rhys John Vaughan of Porthyrogof. William Games, the eldest son, 
m., but d. s. p. 

Thomas Games, second son, m. Elinor, dau. of John Morgan of Pen-y-crug, and had 
issue 2 sons ; the eldest John Games, who m. Wilgiford, dau. of Sir Edward Awbrey of 
Tredomen, whose family ceased in a grandson, John Games. 

Richard, third son, m. Mary, dau. of Thomas Prichard, and had issue a dau., who //;. 
Major Herbert ; a second son, William, who m. Mary, dau. of Sir Richard Basset, and d. 
s. p. ; Henry, who d. s. p. ; and the eldest son, 



94 



BRECONSHIRE. 



Richard Games of Llanelly and Penderin, who ///. Elizabeth, dau. of Peers Deere of 
Glamorganshire, and had issue Edward Games, who d. s. p. 
Thus ends the Games family. 

Williams of Gwernyfed. 

The old house of Williams of Gwernyfed was, until a period comparatively recent, one 
of great importance in this county. It claimed descent along with the Games, &c., through 
Einion Sais and Bleddyn ap Maenarch from Caradog Freich-fras. A Gwernyfed pedigree is 
given in a MS. in the possession of J. Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., of Brecon, copied from an 
ancient MS. at St. Mark's Coll., Chelsea, in which the arms of Caradog are given with as 
much particularity and fulness as if he had received them blazoned and authenticated by a 
Garter King of Arms of to-day. " Cradock Vraych-vras, Earl of Hereford, Lord of ye 
Dolorans tower (Dolorous Castle), and one of ye knights of King Arthur's Round Table. 
Arms: a chevron, inter three speare's heads arg., their points embrued, proper. He m. 
Tegaurfron, dau. and h. to Pelenor, Kt. of Monmouth, some say dau. and h. to Traharne, 
Kt. of Pelenor in Monmouthshire. Arms: arg., a dragon's head, erased, vert, in his jaws 
a man's hand, dext. coup, proper." As in a thousand other instances, this can only mean, 
of course, that the descendants or supposed descendants of these men bore these arms, 
which accordingly were loosely ascribed to their first reputed ancestor. 

Rhys ap Einion Sais had a son, Adam, whose wife was Elinor, daughter and co-heiress of 
Llewelyn ap Howel Hen, of " Cwmod," who bore " Quart, i and 4 sa., a fess or, inter two 
daggers, their points in chief and ba~se, arg., pommelled and hilted of the 2nd ; the 2 and 
3 or, three vespertillos (bats) displayed, az." the arms of Brychan and his wife Marchell, 
if we are to believe the " bards." 

Rhys, son of Adam, m. Goleubryd (" bright-featured," one of the many names among the 
olden people which prove their superiority to us in name-giving), dau. of David ap Owen. 
There are then many zigzag alternations of names among the chiefs of this family, and 
alliances with the Awbreys, Hopkins (of Llysnewydd), until we come to Sir David Williams, 
Kt, a Judge in the King's Bench, who m. a Games of Aberbrnn. His son was Sir Henry 
Williams, Kt. of Gwernyfed, the first of that place mentioned, whose wife was Eleanor 
Witney, of Whitney Court. Their son Henry was made a baronet by Charles I., and m. a 
dau. of Sir Walter Rye. A granddaughter carried by marriage the estate of Gwernyfed to 
Sir Edward Williams of Eltham, sprung from the Williams of Talyllyn, Brec., who for many 
years represented Breconshire in Parliament. The Gwernyfed estate thus parted company 
with the title, which latter was next worn by Sir Walter Williams, who is described as " now 
living" when the MS. we have used was written. He died without issue about the middle of 
the eighteenth century, and the title descended to two or three members of the family in 
succession until, with the death without issue male of Sir David Williams in 1798, the 
baronetcy became extinct. The Williamses of Gwernyfed bore arg., a chevron bet. 3 cocks, 
gu., on a chief, sa., three spear-heads, arg., ensanguined. 

Vaiighans of Tretower (Tre'rtwr). 

This is another family of Welsh derivation, "which in its day was of great consideration in 
Brecknockshire, and which has left, as far as known, no legitimate representative in the 



OLD FAMILIES OF BRITISH ORIGIN. 95 

district. The best known of the line was Sir Roger Vaughan, of Bredwardine, Herefordshire, 
who fell in the battle of Agincourt, and was, like his neighbour and father-in-law, Sir David 
Gam, vainly knighted by Henry V. while dying on the field. Another Breconshire man at 
the same time made a knight was Sir Watkin Llwyd, of Brecon. The house of the Vaughans, 
now a farmhouse in the village of Tre-twr, is generally overlooked by searchers after the 
antiquarian and picturesque. Leland calls it " the faire place of Henry Vehan, Esq." 

In Dwnn's Visitations of Wales, the Vaughan of Tretower lineage is given in brief as 
follows, beginning with " Sir Wa(l)ter Vychan, Kt.," living when that pedigree was written 
(1613): "Syr Wa(l)ter Vychan, Knt., ap Tomas Vychan, ap Wa(l)ter Vychan, ap Syr 
Richiart Vychan, Kt, ap Tomas Vychan, ap Watkyn Vychan as Syr Rosser [Roger] Vychan, 
[the Agincourt hero], (o Gwladys v. [dau. of] Syr David Gam,) ap Rosser hen, ap Gwallter 
Sais, ap Rosser Vawr, ap Jeuan, ap Howel, ap Seystyllt, ap Llewelyn, ap Moreiddig 
Warwyn, ap Trwmbaenog, ap Meynyrch, arglwydd Brycheiniog" (Lord of Brecknock). 

This lineage agrees with that given in the St. Mark's Coll. MS., already mentioned ; but 
from this MS. we get the information that it was the son of Sir Roger Vaughan of Agincourt 
celebrity (who was himself of " Bredwardine," and the son of a " Roger of Bredwardine," 
whose mother was a " daughter and co-heiress of Sir Walter Bredwarden ")that was first called 
of Tre'rtwr. He was the third son of Sir Roger (of Agincourt) by Gwladys, dau. of Sir 
David Gam, and had as wife Denis, dau. of Tomas Vychan, of Tyleglas. 

Their son Thomas was the last who enjoyed the dignity of knighthood, if our MS. is to 
be relied upon ; but the family maintained its position for generations after him ; for we find 
his gr. gr. grandson, " William Vychan, of Tre'rtwr," obtaining in marriage Frances, dau. of 
Thomas Somersett, Esq., 3rd son of Henry, Earl of Worcester. A gr. gr. son of theirs was the 
rare old poet Henry Vaughan, " Silurist," who lived and died at Newton, or Scethrog, parish 
of Llansantfraed. The next descendant, Charles, m. a gr. dau. of William Awbrey, Doctor of 
Laws ; and his son William m. Margaret, dau. of Meredith Gunter, of Llidiat-yw. 



Vaughans of Trebarried. 

The Vaughans of Trebarried were a branch of those of Tre'rtwr (Tretower), deriving as 
Vaughans from " Roger Vaughan of Talgarth," 2nd son, according to the St. Mark's Coll. 
MS., of Sir Roger of Tre'rtwr, son of the first knight (of Agincourt) of that name. Maternally 
they were derived from a Norman line, the mother of the first'Vaughan (Roger) of Trebarried 
being dau. and co-heiress of Robert Whitney, Esq., commonly called Lord Whitney, and 
back in direct line to " Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Belesmo " in Normandy, who " came 
into England with William the Conqueror," and so on, as usual. 

The second son of Roger and his Anglo-Norman spouse, Watkin, of Merthyr (Cynog), 
had as wife a dau. of Thomas Powell, of Pontvaen, Merthyr. His son, Roger how we 
cling to our old ancestral names ! married Sibyl, dau. of John Games, Esq., of Aberbrftn ; 
arid his son Walter, living about 1750, had as wife a daughter and co-heiress of Thomas 
Gwyn, Esq, of Hay Castle, whose coat was " Sa., a fess, or, between two daggers, y e 
points in chief and base, arg., their hilts and pommels of y e second " the Gwyn arms of 
the present time (see Gwyn of Dyffryn, Glam. ; and Gwynne-Holford, of Buckland). 



96 BRECONSHIRE. 

The mansion of Trebarried, so safely sheltered from the chill air of the mountains, was 
built about 200 years ago by William ap Harry Vaughan ap Fychan, and used to contain 
several interesting portraits of the old family. For many years the house has been let to a 
farming tenant, the estate having changed hands, and the ancient proprietors having died 
out. Tregunter, Pontywal, Bronllys, Garth, Tredustan Court, and other places in the same 
immediate neighbourhood, carry the mind of the annalist back, not without saddening reflec- 
tions, to times when people who are now all but forgotten were those who called the houses 
and the " lands after their own names." 



Madocks of Llanfrynach. 



At Maesmawr, Llanfrynach, only a short distance from Brecon, following the course of 
the Usk, lived for many generations one of the bravest families in Brycheiniog. It seems 
highly probable that they were on that land ages before William the Conqueror was born, 
and they were there when Newmarch came, by authority of Rufus, to steal the land of 
Brychan from the Welsh. But not only so ; it is more than probable that the convulsion 
which then shook the Brycheiniog world to its foundations was not able to dislodge this 
household from its paternal inheritance : in the parish of Llanfrynach Newmarch found them, 
and in the same parish, 300 years after his time, his tyrannic successor found them ; neither 
force of arms being able to expel them, nor feudal law to invalidate their title to their 
inheritance. Thomas ap Jenkin Madog was the Brycheiniog parallel to John Hampden, 
who refused to yield his lands upon which his forefathers had for so many generations dwelt, 
at the behest of a stranger refused to acknowledge any other paramount authority in that 
country than that of the King of England only. The king decided in his favour. 

The Madogs of Llanfrynach (Maesmawr) were of the line of Gwgan, second son of 
Moreiddig Warwyn that Moreiddig who was said to have been born with a snake about 
his neck, " and therefore he, changing his coat, assumed " as Arms, " sa. three boies heads, 
couped at y e shoulders, full faced, proper, ermined, or, about the neck of each a snake, 
proper." The son of Gwgan, Howel, displayed the boldness of his house by marrying a 
dau. of the Norman Burchill, and his example was followed by his son Traharne Dal (the 
tall), for he became son-in-law of Philip Walbeoffe, Lord of Llanhamlach ; and by his grand- 
son, Madog ap Traharne, who took to wife the dau. of Richard Boys. 

After this, for several generations the British blood of Maesmawr is re-invigorated by 
Welsh alliances, amongst the most distinguished of which was the marriage of John ap 
Howel ap Madog of Maesmawr who, by the way, was described in the St. Mark's Coll. 
MS. as " Steward to y e Duke of Buckingham," Lord of Brecknock with Mallt, dau. of Sir 
Howel y Fwyall (written by error " Sir Howel y Bwlch "), the N. Wales warrior, who did 
such execution with his battle-axe at the battle of Cressy that Edward III. gave him the 
honour of knighthood, with a pension, and a daily mess to be served before his battle-axe ! 

John ap Howel ap Madog's gr. grandson, Thomas Madock, of Llanfrynach, m. a dau. of 
Jenkin Morgan. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 97 



Morgan of Defy nog. 

This is an old though not an extinct family ; it has no male representative in Breck- 
nockshire. 

Thomas Morgan, D.D., of North End Lodge, Hampshire, clerk in Holy Orders, 
educated at Christ's College, Brecknock, and Jesus College, Oxon., rector of Llanfaches, 
co. Monmouth,- vicar of Talley in co. Carmarthen, once chaplain in H.M. Dockyard, 
Portsmouth was chaplain on board the Mars at the capture of the French ship Hercules. 
He received a medal with two bars for the action of June ist, 1794, and that of April 2ist, 
1798. In the Commission of the Peace for the co. of Brecknock. He m. Sarah, dau. and 
co-heiress of John Freeman, Esq., and d. 1851. He had issue as follows : 

(l) Thomas Charles Morgan, Lieut., 4th Regt. (King's Own); d. at Secunderabad, 1844, in his 26th year. 
(2) Elizabeth, m. Rev. David Morton, M.A., rector of Harleston, co. Northampton. (3) Anne, m. Vice- 
Admiral Woodford J. Williams, and has issue one dau., Annie Philadelphia. (4) Philadelphia Sarah, t/i. 
C. H. Binstead; she d. 1852, in her 38th year. (5) Mary, m. Rev. H. B. Snooke, M.A. ; they have issue 
Mary Elizabeth, Rosa Morgan. 

Lineage: In his Hist, of Brecknockshire, vol. i., Append., Theo. Jones tells us that the 
family has been settled in co. Brecknock since the time of Gwraldeg, King of Garthmaclryn 
(Brecknock), circa A D. 230. He had issue Morvydd, sole heiress, who m. Teithall ap 
Annwn Ddu, or Antoninus Niger, circa A.D. 260. From them descended Marchell, who m. 
Anlach, son of Cormack McCarbery, King of Ireland. They had issue 

Brychan Brecheiniog, King of Garthmadryn (since called Brecknock from him), who began 
to reign A.D. 400 ; d. circa 450 ; m. 3 wives, and had issue, it is said, 24 sons and 25 daus., 
many of whom propagated the gospel to the Britons and were canonized. (See MS. in 
British language in the archives of Jes. Coll., Oxon.) From his second son, Drem Dremrudd, 
who m. Maud, dau. of Evan ap Meilir of Brechfa in Monmouthshire, descended 

Elissai ap Tudor, King of Brecknock, who ;;/. Teg aur-Fron, dau. of Cynedda ap Yardhir 
of Penllin, and had a son, Griffith, Lord of Cwmwd (now the hundred of Merthyr Cynog and 
Talgarth, and other lands in Brecheiniog). His son, Selyf ap Griffith, lived in the time of 
Hyvvel Dda, and had his lands in the hundred of Talgarth, called from him Cantre-selyf ; he 
m. Lleici, dau. of Inon ap Gwilym Meredith, Lord of Gwinfe. Their descendant, Trahaern- 
fawr, Lord of Cwmwd, m. and had issue Griffith, who settled in Powysland, and m. Margaret, 
dau of Griffith ap Madoc of Maelor. From them came Griffith, who m. Lysod, dau. of 
Morgan ap Ithel of Tegeingl, in N. Wales, and left a son, by name David, of Moel y Prise, 
who m. Angharad, dau. of Llewelyn ap Jevan of Cedewin, M.A. His son, David Gwyn, of 
Moel y Prise, m. Rebecca, dau. of Morgan Miles of Cabalva, co. Radnor. From them came 
Gwilym of Maescar, who m. Alice, dau. of Richard Bevan Meredith Gwilym Gunter. From 
this marriage were two sons, 

(1) Morgan of Blaensenni, m. a dau. of Llewelyn Morgan Llewelyn ap Morgan David 
Gam, and had two sons, (i) William Morgan of Senni, who m. a dau. of Lewis Havard of 
Blansenni; (2) David, m. Mary, dau. of John Philip John of Defynog, about the year 1570. 

(2) David of Maescar, who m. Agnes, dau. of Howe! Powell Morgan, and had issue two 
sons, 

H 



98 BRECONSHIRE. 

(1) PHILIP DAVID, who m. Catherine, a dau. of Thomas Ddu ap Gwilym Morgan of 
Defynog. They were both buried in the same grave at Defynog, January nth, 1695 ; he 
aged 104, she aged 100 years. They had issue as under : 

William Philip, m. Gwenllian, dau. of Lewis Morgan Goch. Philip of Maescar, m. Alice, dau. of Hugh 
Penry, vicar of Defynog. William Philips, town-clerk of Brecknock, m. Margaret, dau. of Thomas Penry of 
that town. William Philips of Brecknock, barrister-at-law, recorder of Brecknock. He m. (ist) Anne, dau. 
of John Waters, Esq., of that town; and (2ndly) Frances, widow of Thomas Williams of Taley, and dau. of 
Judge Lloyd of Crickadarn. He d. January loth, 1721, aged 58. Anne, his only dau. and heiress, m. William 
Scourfield, of the Moat, co. Pembroke. She had large possessions in Maescar, Defynog, Brecknock, Llanfry- 
nach, and Llangasty Talyllyn, with the advowson of the latter place. From her is descended J. H. Scourfield, 
Fs^., M.P. for co. Pembroke. 

(2) MORGAN, who m. a dau. of Richard Llewelyn Prichard of Llanspyddid, and had issue 
Philip Morgan, who m. Agnes, dau. of Watkin Gwyn of Cefn-y-vedw (same as Gwynne of 
Buckland}. His son, Morgan Philip of Defynog, m. Joan Llewelyn, d. 1676, leaving issue 
Philip Morgan of Defynog, who m. a dau. of David Frees of Neuadd, and had a son, Thomas 

Philip Morgan of Defynog, who m. a dau. of Watkins of Tal-y-bryn, in Llansaintfraed, 

and had issue Philip Morgan of Defynog, who m. Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas William Morgan. 
He d. January 2ist, 1815, aged 66 ; she d. January 8th, 1831, aged 81. Issue as follows : 

(1) Thomas Morgan, D.D., clerk in holy orders (as above). 

(2) David Morgan of Defynog, d. January nth, 1826, s. p. 

(3) John Morgan of Defynog, m. Gwenllian, dau. and co-heiress of Howel Powel of 
Bryntwarch. He d, January 3oth, 1837, aged 51 years; she d. April ist, 1847, aged 57 
years. They had issue 

(1) PHILIP HOWEL MORGAN, M.A., of Defynog, b. January 77th, 1816 ; ed. at Warminster School and 
Jes. Coll., Oxon. ; rector of Llanhamlach, co. Brecknock; in the Commission of the Peace for the cos. of 
Brecknock and Radnor. He m. Margaret, dau. of William Hughes of Llanfaes, Brecknock. He d. October 
27th, 1868, aged 52, and had issue, (i) Iltyd Philip Hughes Morgan, d. an infant. (2) GWENLLIAN 
ELIZABETH FANNY. (3) Edith Margaret, d. an infant. (4) Ellen Maria. 

(2) Howel Morgan, F.R.C.S., of Hengwrtucha, co. Merioneth; Deputy-Lieut, for the cos. of Merioneth 
c,nd Brecknock ; in the Commission of the Peace for the cos. of Merioneth, Brecknock, and Montgomery ; High 
Sheriff for the former co. 1863 ; he m. Anne, dau. and one of the co-heiresses of Hugh Jones of Hengwrtucha, 
co. Merioneth, and Plas Hen, co. Carnarvon. (3) David Morgan. (4) John Morgan, attorney-at-law. (5) 
Elizabeth. (6) Gwenllian. 

(4) Watkin Morgan, M.A., clerk in holy orders, m. Margaret, dau. of D. W. Powell of 
Abersenni, and had issue 

(i) Thomas, d. s. p. (2) David Watkin; m. Margaret, dau. of W. Morgan of Bolgoed and Grawen, J. P. 
for cos. Brecknock and Glamorgan. (3) Selina Elizabeth Harriet, d. unm., 1861. 

Arms: Quarterly, ist and 4th, sa., a chevron, arg., bet. 3 spear-heads, imbrued MORGAN. 2nd, sa., 
a fesse cotised, or, bet. two swords, arg. , hilts and pommels, or, that in chief pointing upwards, that in base 
downwards BRYCHAN. 3rd, arg., a bull's head caboshed, gu., bet. 3 mullets of the second HAVARD. 
Impaling FREEMAN, az. 3 lozenges, or. 

Crest : A spear-head, imbrued, on a wreath, sa. and arg. alter. 

Motto : Gwdl angau na chy wilydd, ' ' Better death than dishonour. " 



Jones of Neuadd. 

John Jones of Neuadd, living in the time of the Commonwealth, was a violent partisan 
oi Cromwell. He m. a dau. of Hugh Powel, Esq., of Cantref. The Joneses of Neuadd 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 99 

traced their pedigree to Bleddyn ap Maynarch, the Lord of Garthmadryn, and thence to 
" Prince Cradoc " (Caradog Friechfras) through Philip Jones (the first to bear this surname), 
who m. an Awbrey ; David ap Rhys of Aberllyfni, who m. a dau. of How-ell, lord of Llywel ; 
and Trahaern ap Gwgan, lord of Llangorse. Hugh," son of John Jones of Neuadd, m. a dau. 
of Lewis of Harpton ; and his son, Lewis Jones, rector of Talyllyn, m. a dau. of Ed. 
Williams, lord of that manor. 

Arms : Cradoc's, sa., three bloody spear-heads about a chevron, arg. 



Herberts of Crickhowd. 

The beginning of the Herberts of Crickhowel was with William Herbert, illegitimate son 
(as Jones, Hist. Brec., and the St. Mark's Coll. MS., say) of Sir Richard Herbert, of 
Colebrook, near Abergavenny, 2nd brother of William, ist Earl of Pembroke. William m. 
Anne, dau. of Jenkin Walbeoffe, and in part through the lands obtained by this marriage, but 
principally in the capacity of steward of Lord Herbert's large possessions in these parts, he 
came to reside at Crickhowel. His son, Watkin Herbert, Esq., m. Margaret, dau. of Morgan 
Thomas. Az. a stag salient arg. attired, unguled, and bet. the horns a coronet, or. [Watkin 
Herbert was Sheriff 1540.] 

Edward Herbert, his son, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Edward Lewis of Van, Esq. : " sa. a lion 
rampant, arg. in a bordure gabonated, or, gu." His son and heir, 

William Herbert, Esq. [of Crickhowel, Sheriff 1546], m. Mary, dau. of Dr. William 
Awbrey, LL.D. : az. a chevron between 3 eagles' heads, erased, or. Note. Herbert of 
Crughowel's Arms are bordered, vert, bezanted. William Herbert had three sons : 

1. Edward Herbert, Esq. [of Crickhowel, Sheriff 1566], m. [Anne,] dau. of John 
Jeffreys [of Abercynrig], and had a son Walter [living when St. Mark's Coll. MS. was 
written]. 

2. Sir John Herbert, Kt., 2nd son, m. . . _ 

3. Henry Herbert, 3rd son, m. a dau. of Edward Williams, of Llangattwg, and had a son 
Edward, who m. a dau. and a co-h. of Edward Games, of Buckland [living when the St. Mark's 
Coll. MS. was written]. 

So far the MS. The days of the Herberts of Crughowel were now nearly passing away : 
twice or thrice more the name appears in the list of Breconshire Sheriffs : " John Herbert " 
in 1634, and again two years running, 1640, 1641 ; and " Sir John Herbert, of Crickhowel, 
Kt.," probably the same person, in 1662, and then disappears finally from that list. Sir John 
Herbert died A.D. 1666, leaving but a dau., who m. William le Hunt, Esq., Serjeant 
at Law. 

The castellated mansion of the Herberts at Crickhowel must have been one of some 
magnificence. No part of the house now remains, but its site is ascertained by the old gate- 
way, of decorated Gothic, at the entrance to the quadrangle, which still stands uninjured, and 
goes under the appropriate name of Porthmawr the Great Gate. This beautiful archway 
is a puzzle to the passer by and to many writers of guide-books, for its expression is unde- 
niably antique, while the house to which it is now attached, and which has been baptized 
with the name of the Old Gateway, is modern, and out of character with the style. Jones 



BRECONSHIRE. 



tells us that in his time the archway was called Cwrt Garw, or more correctly, as he thought, 
Cwrt y Carw, or the Stag's Court ; but for neither the one nor the other does he give a 
reason. Porthmawr, therefore, must be a very recent name. 

The engraving, from a drawing by Birket Foster, affords a beautiful view of the Vale of 



\3b 




GATEWAY, CRICKHOWEL, BRECON. 



Crickhowel, in the direction of Brecon, with Glannsk Park, the seat of Sir Joseph R. Bailey, 
Bart., in the centre; Glanusk Villa, the seat of Mr. Hotchkis, on the left; and Gwern Vale, 
the beautiful residence of Mrs. Hardman Philips, on the right, with the Brecknockshire 
Beacons towering up to meet the clouds in the distance. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 101 

Harris of Tregunter. 

For a short space of time, the family of Harris of Tregunter occupied a position in the 
county of Brecon ; and the name, though the family has become extinct, has been handed 
down to posterity through the celebrity of one or two of its members. 

It is said that the Harrises came at first to this county from Carmarthenshire, where they 
held the rank of respectable yeomen. Their history is not traced beyond the year 1700, 
when they settled at Talgarth. They had talent and energy, with a dash of eccentricity. 
From Mr. Jones's " History " we learn that there were three brothers, whose lives were 
various, but who all obtained distinction each in his own line. Howel Harris, though the 
youngest of the three, must always form the principal figure in this group. The eldest 
brother, Joseph, obtained a situation in the Mint, where he continued for many years, but is 
known to succeeding times through certain valuable works he published on astronomical and 
mathematical science. He in. a daughter of Mr. Jones, of Tredustan. 

Thomas Harris was in trade in London, until by industry and talent in business he 
amassed a considerable fortune. He purchased Tregunter, and retired to spend there the 
remainder of his days. The old mansion of the Gunters (see Gunter) was pulled down, and 
Thomas Harris built the house now standing about the year 1750. 

Howel Harris, the youngest brother, destined for the Church, and sent with that view to 
Oxford, cut out for himself, under the influence of strong religious convictions, a course of 
life singular and beneficent, though not unmarred by some venial mistakes. The power of 
Whitefield's eloquence and seraphic character fairly carried him beyond the regulation 
boundaries of the Episcopal Church; and instead of a duly qualified parish priest, he 
became an enthusiastic wandering evangelist, and then the head of a kind of monastic 
community at Trevecca. He was a powerful preacher, an unselfish worker, a sincere 
enthusiast, the rather erratic course of whose life-stream was largely determined by the rigid 
obstructions and formalities of an age and condition of things in the Church of England 
which happily have nearly passed away. Theophilus Jones was too near the time of Howel 
Harris to do him full justice. He says, " Let us hope that he acted from conviction, and 
leave his virtues and his vices to that Tribunal,'.' &c. We have not heard of any of his " vices;" 
his virtues were known to all men. As to his acting from " conviction," an earnest, laborious, 
unvarying life, ending in no wealth or gain to himself or his family, will prove satisfactory 
evidence on this point to all who judge a " righteous judgment." 

His theory of a religious " family," with a community of goods, was doubtless erroneous, 
and in the event led to no satisfactory results. In 1752 he built the " Home" at Trevecca, 
partly with his own money and partly from the voluntary contributions of the public. Many 
sold their substance, left their avocations, and entered the " family " at Trevecca ; where their 
time was employed in frequent religious exercises, and in various kinds of field and house 
industry, the proceeds of which formed a common fund for the equal support of all. At one 
time there were above 100 inmates; and a number of families who had come from N.Wales, 
drawn by the same influence, also settled in the neighbourhood. Mr. Harris devised the 
property to trustees for the use of the community; but after his death (which occurred in 
1773) it was soon seen that the life and strength of the place had departed, and the 
institution fell into decay. Of recent years it has been converted into a college for the 



,02 BRECONSHIRE. 

education of ministers of the Calvinistic Methodist communion, a body owing its existence 
in great measure to the labours of Howel Harris. This locality is also memorable as the 
occasional home of the excellent lady, Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, who was attracted to 
the spot by the character and work of Howel Harris, rendered him aid in his labours, and at 
her house at Tredustan Court, still standing, set up a seminary for the education of young 
ministers, in which, though not without a break of continuation, the present Trevecca College 
may be said to have had its origin. 

The death of Howel Harris was the end of the Harris family. The property of Tregunter 
has passed to other connections. 

Note on Remarkable Men of Breconshire. 

Among the many men of note sprang from this county there are a few we may here commemorate. Some of 
them were members of chief families. 

Henry Vaughan, the poet, usually called " Silurist," is one of the most worthy of mention. He was of 
the Vaughan of Tre'rhvr family, being gr. grandson of William Vaughan and the Lady Frances Somerset. 
His father lived at Newton, or Scethrog, in the parish of Llansantffraed (not the Newton), where Henry and 
his brother Thomas (twins) were born in 1621. Thomas entered the Church, became Vicar of Llansantffraed, 
was of irregular life, and retired at last to his Alma Mater, Oxford, to study astrology and the philosopher's 
stone. Henry was a doctor of physic, in practice at Newton. Theophilus Jones throws out doubts about his 
poetic gifts, and deems the Olor Iscanus and another of his productions the works of Eugenius Philalethes, 
published by his brother under Henry's name, with the addition " Silurist." These, however, and others are 
the genuine fruits of Henry Vaughan's genius, wrought on his intellectual anvil at Scethrog, and are likely to 
be long appreciated by lovers of the refined contemplative poetry of the school of George Herbert. 

James Howel, the quaint and delightful author of Epistolce Ho-Eliance, Londonopolis, Dodonds Grave, 
and many other works, was b. at Cefn-bryn, Llangammarch, of which parish his father was curate, in 1594- 
He entered Jesus Coll., Oxford, and got employment in the public service, travelled in Spain, became 
secretary to Scrope, Earl of Northumberland, was appointed one of the Clerks of the Council, and subsequently 
historiographer royal, but without salary. To make an income, he was obliged to write, and Wood gives a 
list of between fifty and sixty of his publications. He d. A.D. 1666, and was buried in the Temple Church, 
London. Notwithstanding his forced application to writing, "having nothing," as Wood says, "but his wits 
to trust," he was "of an extravagant turn," and spent many years of his life in the Fleet Prison, for debt, in 
which place of security he enjoyed leisure to compose many of his best productions. His brother Thomas, also 
ed. at Oxford, became Bishop of Bristol, A.D. 1647. See further, under Howell, Llangattock. 

John Penry, "the Martyr," a brave, energetic, "irregular" young clergyman, was b. at Cefn-brith, 
Llangammarch, A.D. 1559. He was the son of Meredith Penry, a member of the ancient family of that name, 
of Llangammarch and Llwyncyntefm. In 1586 he became a student of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford ; became a 
popular preacher ; turned his attention to the moral state of Wales ; inveighed against the shortcomings of 
the Church; preaching, he said, was "almost unknown; in some places a sermon is read once in three 
months." He proposed the return to Wales of all Welsh Churchmen in England who could preach, and 
the employment of laymen to preach. A petition embodying such views was presented on his behalf to 
Parliament, which led to his apprehension and the prohibition of his book. Being after a time liberated, he 
immediately recommenced his agitation, uttering bolder language, and preaching wherever he could. In 
1593 he was finally apprehended, tried, by what Sir Thomas Phillips pronounces " a trial which disgraces the 
name of English justice," was "brought out hastily, in an afternoon, from the King's Bench Prison, in 
South wark, into St. Thomas Waterings, a place of execution on that side of the river Thames, and there hanged ! " 
Strype. He was thus deprived of life at the age of thirty-four, leaving a young widow and four children, 
daughters, to whom, "from close prison, with many tears," he addressed the touching words, "Although 
you should be brought up in never so hard a service, yet, my dear children, learn to read, that you may be 
conversant day and night in the word of the Lord. ... I have left you four Bibles, each of you one, 
being the sole and only patrimony or dowry that I have for you." (" Wales" by Sir Thomas Phillips, Kt., 
pp. 99, &c. ) Breconshire has reason to be proud of the name of Penry. 

Theophilus Evans, Vicar of Llangammarch, is a name familiar to many as that of the author of Drych y 
Prif Oesoedd (A Mirror of the Chief Epochs), a book much read in Wales in times gone by. He was the 
discoverer of the virtues of the Llanwrtyd Waters, 1732. 

Theophilus Jones, the historian of Breconshire, for many years practised in the law at Brecon. He 
is best known as having produced one of the most complete and methodical county histories in the English 
language, The History of Breconshire'z. work which much requires republication, with notes and additions 



BRECONSHIRE SHERIFFS. , 103 

bringing it down to the present time. He was grandson of Theophilus Evans named above, and is supposed 
to have inherited from him valuable materials for his history. 

Dr. Hugh Price, founder of Jesus Coll., Oxon., was born at Brecon, d. 1574. Mrs. Siddons was also born 
here 1755. 

Ethnological Note. 

Although the above details of household archaeology show a large disappearance of old 
British families, the subsidence of British blood in Breconshire, or in the town of Brecon, by 
no means follows. 

It is a well-known fact in natural history that, in admixture, the stronger race persists, and 
the weaker vanishes. The Cymry certainly appear stronger in Brecon to-day, if names are 
safe guides, than they were 400 years ago. For when the then Duke of Buckingham gave (A.D. 
1448) the new charter to the town of Brecon, the names of the burgesses then enrolled were 
almost all of the Norman or English type : Burghall, Goldsmith, Gerald, Scull, Sherbury, 
Havard, Oistres, Fourber, Porter, Wanter, Slyngarth, Gaggowe, Hazledyke, Smith, Paynott, 
Drencher, &c. True, the burgesses were, in that case, purposely selected, for it was intended 
to exclude the Welsh from the government of the town ; but it would be difficult to-day to 
find in Brecon, though its population is probably thrice as numerous as in 1448, such a 
number of foreign names of respectable citizens as was appended to that charter. Brecon 
leans towards English manners and English speech, but it seems as if natural laws were 
working so powerfully in favour of the Cymric race, that a few generations hence the ethno- 
logical characteristics of Brecon, provided no extraordinary amount of foreign elements be 
introduced, will be more Celtic than they were 600 years ago. 



SECTION VI. HIGH SHERIFFS OF BRECONSHIRE, A.D. 15311865. 

Not only is the shrievalty of a county an office of high antiquity, having existed in England 
long before theNorman Conquest, but it is also, under the sovereign, one of paramount authority 
and dignity. The special office of sheriff did not exist in Wales until the union with England, 
its functions being virtually performed up to that date by the direct jurisdiction of the princes. 

Blackstone (Commentaries, b. i., chap. 9), after showing the great antiquity of the shrievalty, 
says that at first the sheriff acted as deputy of the earl, or comes, to whom the supreme 
guardianship of the shire was committed by the king ; but that in time the earl was relieved 
of the responsibility, and the vice-comes, or sheriff, received directly from the sovereign the 
Custodiam Comitatus the custody of the county. Speaking of the sheriff's functions, he 
says, " These are either as a Judge, as the Keeper of the King's Peace, as a ministerial 
officer of the Supreme Courts of Justice, or as the King's Bailiff. As Keeper of the King's 
Peace, both by common law and special commission, he is the first man in the county, and 
superior in rank to any nobleman therein during his office." 

By 27 Henry VIII., cap. 26, A.D. 1536, Brecknockshire was constituted a county, 
" with the extension of the English laws of inheritance and other English laws to Wales." 
From that time the office of sheriff became operative in this county. The first record we 
have of a person appointed is in 1539. 

The following list, excepting a few alterations, and the succeeding list of Lord Lieutenants 



io 4 



BRECONSHIRE. 



have "been obligingly supplied by Joseph Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., of Brecon, who some time ago 
got the former printed, with notes, which are here omitted, and is expected soon to publish 
it with extensive genealogical and historical annotations. 



HENRY VIII. A.D. 

Sir William Vaughan, Kt, of Porthaml. . 1539 

[See Vaughan, Porthaml.] 

Sir Watkin Herbert, Kt., of Crickhowel . 1540 

[See sub nom.] 

Sir John Price, Kt., of the Priory, Brecon . 1541 

[SeesuAAnn. i$8.] 

Lewis G wynne, Esq., of Gwenffrwd . . i54 2 

Thomas Havard, Esq., of Cwrt Sion Young . 1543 
[This house was to the left of the wood leading from 
Brecon to Battle, and seems to have been moated, 
and a place of strength.] 

Richard Herbert, Esq. , of Aberystwyth . . 1 544 
William Awbrey, Esq., of Cantref, Regius Prof, 
of Law at Oxford, and LL. D. ; one of the 
Council for the Marches of Wales, and one 
of the Masters of Request to Queen Eliza- 
beth ....... 1545 

William Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1546 
[See sub nom] 

EDWARD VI. 

Christopher Vaughan, Esq., of Tretower . 1547 

Edward Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1548 

Thomas Havard, Esq., of Pontwilym . . 1549 

[See sub nom.~\ 

Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., of Porthaml . . 1550 

Richard Herbert, Esq. . . . . .1551 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Blaentowy . . . 1552 

Andrew Wynter, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1553 

MARY. 

William John Prosser, Esq., of Gaer . . 1554 

Thomas Havard, Esq., of Pontwilym , . 1555 
[This house, though not yet quite extinct, no more 

appears among the sheriffs of Breconshire.] 

Thomas Sellers, Esq., of Porthaml Issaf . 1556 

Richard Vaughan, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1557 

Edward Games, Esq., of Newton . . . 1558 
[See Games, Newton.] 

ELIZABETH. 

John Games, Esq., of Aberbran . . . 1559 

[See Games, Aberbr&n] 

"Lewis Gwyn, Esq., of Gwenffrwd . . 1560 

William John Prosser, Esq., of Gaer . . 1561 

W'illiam Games, Esq., of Aberbran . . 1562 

James Gomond, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1563 

Richard Price, Esq., The Priory, Brecon . 1564 

Lewis Gunter, Esq., of Chilston . . . 1565 

[See Gunter, Gilston.] 

Goward Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1566 

William Watkins, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1567 

James Gomond, Esq. [of Brecon] . . . 1568 

Wiiliam Games, Esq., of Aberbran . . 1569 



A.U. 

Richard Price, Esq. ' 1570 

[The Priory.] 
Charles Walcott, Esq., sen., of Llanfair-in- 

Builth [W. Llanfair ym Muallt] . . 1571 

John Awbrey, Esq., of Abercynrig . . 1572 

Charles Awbrey, Esq., of Cantref . . 1573 

John Games, Esq., of Newton . . . 1574 

[See Games, Newton] 

W T atkin Lloyd, Esq., of Trewern in Defynog 1575 

William Games, Esq., of Aberbran . . 1576 

Thomas Vaughan, Esq., of Peytyn Gwyn . 1577 

[Formerly theresidence and property of the Games.] 

William Watkins, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1578 

Charles Wallcott, Esq., of Llanfair-in-Builth . 1579 

[The Wallcotts came from Wallcott, Salop.] 

Sir Henry Johnes, Kt., of Abermarlais, Carm. 1580 

Hugh'Powell, Esq., of Talyllyn . . . 1581 

Thomas Frees Williams, Esq., of Ystradffin . 1582 

Sir Edward Awbrey, Kt., of Tredomen . . 1583 

Roger Vaughan, Esq., of Clyro . . . 1584 

Gregory Price, Esq., of the Priory, Brecon . 1585 

[The marriage of his daughter Margaret to Jeffrey 
Jeffreys, of Abercynrig, brought the Priory pro- 
perty to the Jeffreys.] 

John Awbrey, Esq., of Abercynrig. . . 1586 

John Games, Esq., of Newton . . , 1587 

W'illiam Watkins, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1588 

Sir Edward Awbrey 1589 

[Of Tredomen (?),see 1583.] 

William Vaughan, Esq., of Tretower . . 1590 

[See Vaughan, Tretower.] 

John Walbeoff, Esq., of Llanhamlach . . 1591 

[See Walbeoffe, Llanhamlach] 

Walter Prosser, Esq., of Trefecca . . . 1592 
Gregory Price, Esq., of the Priory, Brecon, see 

1585 1593 

Roger Vaughan, Esq., of Clyro, see 1584 . 1594 

William Watkins, Esq., of Llangorse, see 1588 1595 

John Games, Esq., of Newton . . 1596 

[See Games, Newton.} 
Richard Herbert, Esq., of Pencelli, son of Sir 

Richard Herbert, of Powys [Castle] . 1597 

Charles Walcott, Jun., Esq. .... 1598 

[Of Llanhamlach.] 

Sir Edward Awbrey, Kt., of Tredomen. . 1599 

Sir John Games, Kt., of Newton . . . 1600 

[See Games, Newton.] 

William Watkins, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1601 

Roger Williams, Esq., of Parc-ar-Irvon . . 1602 

JAMES I. 

Howel Gwyn, Esq., of Trecastle . . . 1603 

[See Gwyn, Dyjfryn.] 

John Games, Esq., of Buckland . . . 1604 

Richard Herbert, Esq. [of Pencelli? see 1597] 1605 



NOTE. Square brackets show additions now made, and the references are to names which will be found 
in the Index. 



BRECONSHIRE SHERIFFS. 



A.D. 

Lodowick Lewis, Esq., of Trevvalter . . 1606 

[In right of his wife, daughter and heiress of W. 
Watkins, succeeded to the Llangorse estate. His 
son was Sir William Lewis, of Llangorse, Bart.] 

Sir William Awbrey, Kt., of Tredomen. . 1607 

John Games, Esq., of Aberbran . . . 1608 

John Stedman, Esq., of Ystrad-y-ffin . . 1609 

Thomas Powell, Esq., of Talyllyn . . . 1610 

Rees Williams, Esq., of Defynog . . . 1611 

William Rumsey, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1612 

Sir Henry Williams, Kt., of Gwernyfed . . 1613 

[See Williams, Gwernyfed.} 

Thomas Price, Esq., of the Priory, Brecon . 1614 

Howel Gwyn, Esq., of Trecastle . . . 1615 

[See Gwyn, Dyffryn.} 

Morgan Awbrey, Esq., of Ynyscedwyn . . 1616 

[See Cough, Ynyscedwyn.} 

Edward Williams, Esq., of Llangattock. . 1617 

William Lewis, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1618 
Blanch Parry, Esq., of Llandefaelog-trer-Graig 1619 

John Williams, Esq., of Parc-ar-Irvon . . 1620 

Charles Vaughan, Esq., of Tretower . . 1621 

[See Vaughan, Tretower.} 

John Maddocks, Esq., of Lhnfrynach . . 1622 

Edward Games, Esq., of Newton . . . 1623 

[See Games, Newton.} 

CHARLES I. 

Watkin Vaughan, Esq., of Merthyr Cynog . 1624 

Richard Games, Esq., of Penderyn . . 1625 

Sir Henry Williams, Kt., of Gwernyfed. . 1626 

[See Williams, Gwemyfed.} 

John Walbeoff, Esq., of Llanhamlach . . 1627 

[See Walbeoffe, Llanhamlach.} 

Thomas Boulcott, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1628 

Thomas Gwyn, Esq., of Hay Castle . . 1629 

John Stedman, Esq., of Dolygaer . . . 1630 

John Jeffreys, Esq., of Abercynrig. . . 1631 

Howell Gwynne, Esq., of Tymawr in Buihh . 1632 

John Lewis, Esq., of Ffrwdgrech . . . 1633 

John Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1634 
Charles Vaughan, Esq., of Tretower (see 1 621) 1635 

Sir William Lewis, Bart., of Llangorse . . 1636 

David Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran. . . 1637 

[See Gwynne-Holford, Buckland.] 

Meredith Lewis, Esq., of Pennant . . . 1638 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Caebalva (Rad. ) . 1639 

Edward Lewis, Esq. , of Llangattock . . 1640 

John Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1641 

John Herbert, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1642 
Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Wernos in Crickcadarn 1643 

Howel Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran . . 1644 

[See Gwynne-Holford.} 

Howel Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran (again) . 1645 

Roger Vaughan, Esq., of Tre-philip . . 1646 

Edward Games, Esq., of Buckland . . 1647 

[Left four daughters, and name ceased.] 

Charles Walbeoff, Esq., of Llanhamlach. . 1648 

THE COMMONWEALTH OLIVER CROM- 
WELL, PROTECTOR. 

William Watkins, Esq., of Sheephouse . . 1649 

Thomas Watkins, Esq., of Llanigon . . 1650 



William Jones, Esq., of Coity, Llanfigan . 1651 

Roger Games, Esq., of Tregaer . . . 1652 
John Williams, Esq., of Cwmdu . . .1653 

Meredith Lewis, Esq., of Pennant . . 1654 
William Morgan, Esq., of Dderw . . .1655 

Thomas Powell, Esq., of Maesmawr . . 1656 

Howe Games, Esq., of Newton . . . 1657 

[See Games, Newton.} 

Thomas Gunter, Esq. , of Chilston . . . 1658 

[See Gunter of Tregunter, &c.] 
Edward, Williams, Esq., of Gwernfigin, dis- 
placed, and Lewis Jones, Esq., of Trebin- 

shwn, appointed ..... 1659 

CHARLES II. 

Edward Williams, Esq. [Gwernfigin], replaced 1660 

[This was with the Restoration.] 

Walter Vaughan, Esq., of Trebarried . . 1 66 1 

Sir John Herbert, Kt., of Crickhowel . . 1662 

[The name of Herbert does not again occur among 
Brecknockshire sheriffs. Sir John left no son. 
See Herbert, Crickhowel.} 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Caebalva . . 1663 

John Williams, Esq., of Cwmdu . . . 1664 

Edward Powell, Esq., of Maesmawr . . 1665 
Hugh Powell, Esq., of Castell Madog . .1666 

[See Powel Price, Castle Madoc.} 

John Stedman, Esq., of Doly-Gaer . . 1667 

Thomas Williams, Esq., of Abercamlais . 1 668 

[See Williams, Abercamlais.} 

James Watkins, Esq., of Tregoed . ... 1669 

[Properly Tre-coed.] 

John Gwyn, Esq., of Abercraf, in Glyn-tawe . 1670 

Rees Price, Esq., of Cilmeri .... 1671 

Thomas Bowen, Esq., of Llanywern . . 1672 

Daniel Williams, Esq., of Penpont . . 1673 

[See Williams, Penpont.} 

Lodowick Lewis, Esq., of Pennant . . 1674 

William Vaughan, Esq., of Esgair-fechan . 1675 
Howel Powel, Esq., of Pool Hall, in Crick- 

adarn ....... 1676 

Rees Penry, Esq., of Brecon .... 1677 

John Waters, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1678 

Thomas Boulcott, Esq., of Brecon. . . 1679 

John Walbeoff, Esq., of Llanhamlach . . 1680 

[See Walbeoffe, Llanhamlach.} 

Charles Jones, Esq., of Trebinshwn . . 1681 

William Bowen, Esq., of Treberfedd . . 1682 

Morgan Awbrey, Esq., of Ynyscedwyn . . 1683 

[See Gough, Ynyscedwyn} 

John Lewis, Esq., of Coedmor, Cardigan . 1684 

JAMES II. 

Morgan Watkins, Esq., of Defynog . . 1685 

Saunders Saunders, Esq., of Brecon . . 1686 

Thomas Williams, Esq., of, Talgarth . . 1687 

Edward Williams, Esq., of Ffrwdgrech , . 1688 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

John Gunter, Esq., of Trefecca . . . 1689 

William Williams, Esq., of Felin-newydd . 1690 

Samuel Pritchard, Esq., of Builth . . . 1691 



io6 



BRECONSHIRE. 



A.D. 

William Williams, Esq., of Cwmdu . .1692 

Gwynne Vaughan, Esq., of Trebarried . . 1693 

Edward Jones, Esq., of Buckland . . . 1694 

WILLIAM III. 

William Winter, Esq., of Brecon . . .1695 

Samuel Williams, Esq., of Trefithel . . 1696 

Thomas Bowen, Esq., of Llanwern . . 1697 

Howel Jones, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1698 

Sir Edward Williams, Kt., of Gwernyfed . 1699 

[See Williams, Gwernyfed.} 

Thomas Price, Esq., of Glyn. . . . 1700 
Sackville Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran, and 

Tymawr in Builth ..... 1701 
[See Gwynne-Holford, Buckland.} 

ANNE. 
Richard Stedman, Esq., of the Abbey [Strata 

Florida] 1702 

John Davies, Esq., of Cefnllys-gwyn . . 1703 

Peter Saunders, Esq., of Bristol . . . 1704 
Godfrey Harcourt, Esq. , of Dan-y-Parc, Crick- 

howel 1705 

William Price, Esq., of Cilmeri, in Builth . 1706 

Robert Rous, Esq., of Llanhamlach . . 1707 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Llangattock . . 1708 

John Jeffreys, Esq., of Sheen, in Surrey . 1709 

John St. Loe, Esq., of Defynog . . . 1710 

Anthony Morgan, Esq., of Llanbedr . . 1711 

Hugh Powell, Esq., of Castle Madoc . . 1712 

[See Powel-Price, Castle Madoc.} 

Rees Price, Esq., of Defynog . . . I7 I 3 

William Saunders, Esq., of Bristol . . 17*4 

GEORGE I. 

Richard Lewis, Esq., of Llangeney . . 1715 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Bailibrith . . 1716 
Edward Matthews, Esq., of Gileston (or 

Chilston) 1717 

Charles Penry, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1718 
Price Devereux, of Tregoyd . . . .1719 

[See Hereford, p'iscount, Tregoyd.} 

Thomas Prosser, Esq., of Porthaml . . 1720 
Richard Hughes, Esq., of Brecon . . .1721 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Tredustan. . . 1722 

Henry Rumsey, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1723 

Joshua Parry, Esq., of Llandefaelog, Tre'rgraig 1724 

Miles Stedman, Esq., of Dol-y-Gaer . . 1725 

Richard Wellington, of Hay Castle . . 1726 

Richard Portrey, Esq., of Ynyscedwyn . . 1727 

GEORGE II. 

Marmaduke Protheroe, Esq., of Builth . . 1728 
William Wynter, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1729 
Lewis Harcourt, Esq., of Dart-y-Parc, Crick- 
howel ....... 1730 

Rees Price, Esq.,ofCwmclyd, in Llanfighangel- 

bryn-Pabuan. Died during his shrievalty 1731 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Penpont . . 1732 

[See Williams, Penpont.} 
William Matthews, Esq., of Gileston (or 

Chilston) 1733 



A.D. 

Charles Vaughan, Esq., of Scethrog . -; 1734 

Evan Williams, Esq., of Rh6s, in Talgarth . 1735 

Thomas Chamberlain, Esq., of Trevecca . 1736 

Watson Powel, Esq., of Tyleglas . . . 1737 

Charles Powel, Esq., of Castle Madoc . . 1738 

[See Powel-Price, Castle Madoc.} 

Jenkin Williams, Esq., of Felin-newydd . 1739 
William Vaughan, Esq., of Tregaer . . 1740 
Jeffrey Jeffreys, Esq., of the Priory. He died 
j. /. 1768. His sister Elinor married 
Charles Pratt, created Earl Camden, 1765 1741 
Anthony Morgan, Esq., of Llanelly . . 1742 
Peter Saunders, Esq., of Pen-y-lan . . 1743 
Roderick Pryddereh, Esq., of Cilwhibart . 1744 
Edward Williams, Esq. , of Llangattock Court 1 745 
Richard Wellington, Esq. , of Hay Castle . 1 746 
Charles Harcourt, Esq., of Dan-y-Parc, Crick- 
howel . ' 1747 

David Davies, Esq., of Cwmwysc . . . 1748 

William Brydges, Esq., of Brecon. . . 1749 

John Price, Esq., of Cwmclyd . . . 1750 

Henry Rumsey, Esq., of Crickhowel . . 1751 
John Williams, Esq., of Laswern, in Llangy- 

nidr 1752 

David Williams, Esq., of Gaer . . . 1753 

John Harcourt, Esq., of Dan-y-parc .. . 1754 

Thomas Price, Esq., of Talgarth . . *755 

William Pryddereh, Esq. , of Llandefaelog-vach 1 756 

Lewis Pryce, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1 75 7 

Henry Mitchel, Esq. , of Battle . . 1 758 

Evan Hughes, Esq., of Pont-y-wal . . 1759 

John Bullock Lloyd, Esq., of Brecon . . 1760 

GEORGE III. 

Howel Gwyn, Esq., of Newton . . .1761 

John Meredith, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1762 

John Jones, Esq., of Treweren . . . 1763 
Thomas Bowen, Esq., of Tylecrwn. He died 

the same year 1764 

Owen Evans, Esq. , of Pennant . . 1 765 

David Jones, Esq., of Dan-y-crug . . . 1766 

Maurice Jarvis, Esq., of Tretower . . . 1767 

Thomas Harris, Esq. , of Tregunter . . 1 768 

[See Harris, Tregunter.} 

Thomas Powel, Esq. , of Brecon . . 1 769 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Blaenclydach . . 1770 

Marmaduke Gwynne, Esq. , of Garth . . 1771 

William Davies, Esq., ofDolcoed . . 1772 

Thomas Evans, Esq., of Pennant . . 1 7 73 

Charles Lawrence, Esq., ofLlyswen . . 1774 

William Powel, Esq., of Llanwrthyl . . 1775 

Walter Watkins, Esq., of Dan-y-graig . . 1776 

Thynne Howe Gwynne, Esq., of Buckland . 1777 

[See Gwynne-Holford, Buckland.} 

Walter Wilkins, Esq., of Cui . . . 1778 

Charles Vaughan, Esq. , of Scethrog . . 1779 

Philip Williams, Esq. , of Llangattock . . 1 780 

Lewis Williams, Esq., of Pentwyn, in Troscoed 1781 

Joshua Morgan, Esq., of Llanelly, Brec. . . 1782 

Thomas Meredith, Esq., of Brecon . . 1783 

Edward Williams, Esq., of Prisk, in Llangattock 1 784 



BRECONSHIRE SHERIFFS. 



107 



A.D. 

Walter Roberts, Esq., of Llangorse . . 1785 

David Watkins, Esq. , of Aberllech . . 1 786 

John Jones, Esq., of Llanafan fawr . . 1787 
Sir Edward Williams, of Llangoed Castle, Bt., 

second son of Sir David, third Bart. . 1788 

Jeffrey Wilkins, Esq., of Brecon . . . 1789 

Samuel Hughes, Esq., of Tregunter . . 1790 
Walter Jeffreys, Esq., of Brecon . . .1791 

William James, Esq., of Pool Hall . . 1792 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Aberannell . . . 1793 

Richard Wellington, Esq., of Hay Castle . 1794 

Henry Skrine, Esq., of Dan-y-Parc . . 1795 

P. Champion de Crespigny, Esq., of Tal-y-llyn 1796 

John Macnamara, Esq., of Llangoed Castle . 1797 

John Lloyd, Esq., ofDinas .... 1798 

[See Lloyd, Dinas.] 

Edward Loveden Loveden, Esq., of Llangorse 1799 

[See Pryse, Gogerddan.] 

Richard Gough Aubrey, Esq., of Ynyscedwyn 1800 

[See Gough, Ynyscedwyn.] 
Mathew Gwyn, Esq., of Abercraf . . .1801 

[See Gwyn, Dyffryn.] 

Joseph Sparkes, Esq., of Penywrlodd . . 1802 
Edward Kendall, Esq., of Dan-y-parc, Llan- 

gattock ....... 1803 

Penry Williams, Esq., ofPenpont . . . 1804 

[See Williams, Penpont.] 
William Greenly, Esq., of Cwmdu, and Titley, 

Herefordshire' 1805 

Osborne Yates, Esq., of Monksmill, co. 

Gloucester ...... 1806 

Sackville Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran, Carm. 1807 

Rees Williams, Esq., of Aberpergwm . . 1808 

Thomas Wood, Esq., ofGwernyfed . . 1809 

James Jones, Esq., of Llan Thomas . . 1810 

Walter Wilkins, Jun., Esq., Alexanderstone . 1811 

C. F. Crespigny, Esq., of Tal-y-llyn . . 1812 

Evan Thomas, Esq., ofLlwynmadoc . . 1813 

[See Thomas, Llwvnmadoc.] 

John Hotchkis, Esq., of Llangattock . . 1814 

Hugh Price, Esq., of Castle Madoc . . 1815 

[See Powel-Price, Castle Madoc.] 

Edward Kendal, Esq., of Dan-y-Parc . . 1816 

C. C. Clifton, Esq., of Tymawr . . . 1817 
John Wilkins, Esq., of Cui . . . .1818 

John Gwynne, Esq., of Gwernvale . . 1819 



GEORGE IV. 

Thomas Price, Esq. , of Cilmeri 
Edward Jones, Esq. , of Battle End 
John Christie, Esq., of Cwm-llwyfog 
Richard Davys, Esq., ofDolcoed, in Llanwrtyd, 

and Neuaddfawr, Carmarthenshire . . 1823 
W. A. Gott, Esq., of Penmyarth . . . 1824 
H. Allen, Esq., of Oakfield .... 1825 
E. W. Seymour, Esq., of Porthmawr . . 1826 
Capel H. Leigh, Esq., of Pontypool Park . 1827 
Fowler Price, Esq., of Ty-yn-y-coed, in Llan- 

lleonvel 1828 

John Parry de Winton, of Maesderwen, son of 

Jeffreys Wilkins, Esq. .... 1829 
William Lewis Hopkins, Esq., of Aberannell 1830 



WILLIAM IV. A.D. 
Ebenezer Fuller Maitland, Esq., of Garth . . 1831 
James Price Gwynne- Holford, Esq., of Buck- 
land, son of John Josiah Holford, of Kilgwyn 1832 
[See Givynne-Holford, Buckland.] 

William Henry West, Esq., of Glyffaes . 1833 

William Richard Stretton, of Dan-y-Parc . 1834 

Sir Edward Hamilton, Bart., ofTrebinshwn . 1835 
John Lloyd Vaughan Watkins, Esq., of Pen- 
noyre. He was M. P. for the borough, and 
Lord Lieutenant for many years 
Crawshay Bailey, Esq., of Beaufort [now of 
Llanfoist House] ..... 

VICTORIA. 

James Duncan Thompson, Esq. , of Sunny Bank 1 838 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Dinas .... 1839 

Richard Douglas Gough, Esq., of Ynyscedwyn 1840 

[See Gough, Ynyscedwyn.] 

W. Hibbs Bevan, Esq., of Beaufort . . 1841 

Howel Jones Williams, Esq., of Coity . . 1842 

Walter Maybery, Esq., of Penlan . . . 1843 

Howel Gwyn, Esq., of Abercraf . : . 1844 

[See Gwyn, Dyffryn.] 

William Williams, Esq., of Aberpergwm . 1845 

[See Williams, Aberpergwm.] 

Morgan Morgan, Esq. , of Bod wigiad . . 1846 

Rhys Davies Powel, Esq., of Graig-y-nos . 1847 

Penry Williams, Esq., ofPenpont . . . 1848 

[See Williams, Penpont.] 

William Pearce, Esq., K.H., of Ffrwdgrech . 1849 
Sir Charles M. R. Morgan, of Dderw, third 

Bart., of Tredegar ..... 1850 

[See Tredegar, Lord, Tredegar Park.] 

Robert Raikes, Esq., of Treberfedd . . 1851 

Paul Mildmay Pell, Esq., of Tymawr . . 1852 

Ditto ditto . . 1853 

John Powell, Esq., of Watton Mount, Brecon 1854 

John Williams Vaughan, Esq., of Felinnewydd 1855 

Thomas Davies, Esq., of Llangattock Park . 1856 

J. P. W. G. Holford, Esq., of Buckland . 1857 

[See Gwynne- Holford.] 
Thomas Wood, Jun., Esq., of the Lodge, 

Glasbury 1858 

John Maund, Esq. , of Tymawr . . . 1859 

John Evans, Esq., of Brecon .... 1860 
John Jestyn Williams Fredricks, Esq., of 

Talwen 1861 

David Watkins Lloyd, Esq., of Aberllech. 

See 1779 and 1786 1862 

Thomas De Winton, Esq., of Cefncantref, 

Breconshire 1863 

Sir Joseph Russell Bailey, Bart. , of Glanusk Park 1864 

Henry Gwynne Vaughan, Esq., of Esgairvechan 1865 

Thomas Fuller Maitland, Esq., of Garth. . 1866 

John Williams Morgan, Esq., of Bolgoed . 1867 
John Evan Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., of Penish- 

a'rpentre. ...... 1868 

William Powell, Esq., of Chapel House. . 1869 

Hugh Powell Price, Esq., of Castle Madoc . 1870 
Thomas John Evans, Esq., of Tymawr-yn-y- 

Glyn 1871 



loS LORD LIEUTENANTS OF BRECONSHIRE. 

SECTION VII. LORD LIEUTENANTS OF BRECONSHIRE, &c. 

A.D. l6Cd 1871. 

Carbery, Earl of (Lord Richard Vaughan of Emblin Castle), for Radnor, Brecon, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, 
Pembroke, and Cardigan ; also the towns of Carmarthen and Haverfordwest. i8th Sept. (12 Car. II.), 1660. 

Carbury ( Carbery), Earl of (Sir Richard Vaughan, Kt., Lord Vaughan of Emblyn and Molingar), for 
Anglesey, Brecknock, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Glamorgan, Merioneth, Montgomery, 
Pembroke, and Radnor ; also the towns of Carmarthen and Haverfordwest. 22nd Dec. (12 Car. II.), 1660. 

Carbery, Earl of (Richard), for Anglesey, Brecknock, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, 
Glamorgan, Merioneth, Montgomery, Pembroke, and Radnor; also the towns of Carmarthen and Haverfordwest. 
Reappointed 1 9th July (14 Car. II.), 1662. 

Worcester, Marquess of (Henry), for the cos. in N. and S. Wales and Marches, except the cos. of Salop 
and Worcester. 2Oth July (24 Car. II.), 1673. 

Beaufort, Duke of (Henry), for the cos. in N. and S. Wales and Marches ; also the towns of Haverford- 
west and Carmarthen, and the cos; of Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth, and the city of Bristol and county. 
28th March (i Jac. II.), 1685. 

Macclesfield, Earl of (Charles), for the cos. in N. and S. Wales and -Marches; also the towns of Haverford- 
west and Carmarthen, and the cos. of Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth, and the city of Bristol and county. 
22nd March (i W. and M.), 1689. 

Pembroke and Montgomery, Earl of (Thomas), for Pembroke, Carmarthen, Cardigan, Brecknock, 
Glamorgan, Monmouth, and Radnor, and the town of Haverfordwest and county, nth May (6 W. and M.), 
1694. Reappointed 22nd July ( i Anne), 1702. 

Morgan, John, Esq., of Tredegar, for Monmouth and Brecknock. 7th October (2 Geo. I.), 1715. 

Morgan, William, Esq., of Tredegar, for Monmouth and Brecknock. 2ist June (6 Geo. I.), 1720. 

Morgan, Sir William, Kt., of Tredegar, for Monmouth and Brecknock. Reappointed 26th June 
(2 Geo. II.), 1728. 

Morgan, Thomas, Esq., of Tredegar, for Monmouth and Brecknock. iSth June (5 Geo. II.), 1731. 
Reappointed 6th May (i Geo. III.), 1761, and 27th Jan. (10 Geo. III.), 1770. 

Morgan, Charles, Esq., for Brecknock. 23rd Dec. (12 Geo. III.), 1771. 

Beaufort, Duke of (Henry Somerset), for Brecknock. 8th June (27 Geo. III.), 1787. 

Beaufort, Duke of (Henry Charles), for Monmouth and Brecon. 4th Nov. (44 Geo. III.), 1803. 

Beaufort, Duke of (Henry Charles), for Gloucester, the city of Gloucester, and Bristol and county. I5th 
Sept. (50 Geo. III.), 1810. 

Beaufort, Duke of (Henry Charles), for Monmouth, Brecon, and Gloucester, the city of Gloucester, and 
Bristol and county. Reappointed 29th Dec. (i Wm. IV.), 1830. 

Williams, Penry, Esq., for Brecon. 24th Dec. (6 Wm. IV.), 1836. Reapp. nth Nov. (i Viet.), 1837.) 

Watkins, John Lloyd Vaughan, Esq., M.P., for Brecon. I7th Feb. (10 Viet.), 1847. 

Camden, The Most Hon. the Marquess of, for Brecon (28 Viet.), 1865. 

Tredegar, The Right Hon. Charles, Lord, for Brecon (29 Viet.), 1866. 



SECTION VIII. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR BRECONSHIRE, 

A.D. 1511 1871. 

We learn from Brown Willis's Notitia P arliamentaria that Henry VIII., in his first 
summons for representatives to be sent from Wales to Parliament, did not include the 
Borough, but did include the County of Brecknock. Jones, in his History of Brecknockshire, 
has not noticed this fact, and gives no member for the county under Henry, although he 
is correct in the year 1542, and the member. 



HENRY VIII. A.IX 

Edward Games, Esq., of Newton . . . 1542 

EDWARD VI. 

Roger Vaughan, Esq., of Portharnl . . 1547 

Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., of Porthaml . . 1552 



MARY AND PHILIP. A.D. 

Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., of Porthaml . . 1555 

Watkin Herbert, Esq., of Crughowel . . 1557 

ELIZABETH. 

Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., of Porthaml . . 1558 

Rowland Vaughan, Esq., of Porthaml . . 1563 



COUNTY MEMBERS. COUNTY MAGISTRATES, 1871. 



109 



Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., of Porthaml 
Thomas Games, Esq. . ... 
Thomas Games, Esq. 
Robert Knowlys, Esq., of Porthaml 
Robert Knowlys, Esq., of Porthaml 
Robert Knowlys, Esq., of Porthaml 
The same ...... 



1571 
1572 

1585 
1588 

1592 
1597 
1601 



JAMES I. 

Robert Knoll ys, Esq., of Porthaml. . . 1603 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Gwernyfed . . 1614 

Sir Henry Williams, Kt., of Gwernyfed . . 1620-3 



CHARLES I. 

Charles Vaughan, Esq. [of Tretower] 
John Price, Esq., of the Priory, Brecon, 2nd 

Parl 

Sir Henry Williams, Kt., of Gwernyfed 
William Morgan, Esq., of Dderw, 1st and 2nd 

Parl. 



1625 

1625 
1628 

1640 



CROMWELL AND THE COMMONWEALTH. 

The "Little Parliament." 7 members sum- 
moned for all Wales, localities unknown . 1653 

Henry Lord Herbert, and Edmund Jones, both 

for the county ...... 1654 

Philip Jones, one of his Highness's Council, 

and Evan Lewis, Esq. . . . . 1656 

Edmund Jones, Esq., his Highness's Att. for 

S. Wales 1658 



CHARLES II. 

Sir William Lewis, Bart., of Llangorse . 
Sir Henry Williams, Bart., of Gwernyfed 
Edward Prodgers, Esq., of Gwern Vale . 
Richard Williams, Esq. l( 

JAMES II. 

Charles, Marquess of Worcester 
Edward Jones, Esq. , of Buckland . 

WILLIAM AND MARY V . 

Sir Rowland Gwynne, Kt., of Llanehvedd 



1660 
j 1661 
5, 79, 8 1 

1685 
1690 



WILLIAM III. A.n. 

Edward Jones, Esq., of Buckland . . ) 
Sir Edward Williams, Bart., of Gwernyfed j 
Sir Rowland Gwynne, Bart., of Llanehvedd, 

1698, 1701 

ANNE. 

John Jeffreys, Esq. [of Sheen, Sur. ] . . 1 702 

Sir Edward Williams, Bart., of Gwernyfed . 1705 

The same ..... 1707, 8, ro, 13 



GEORGE I. 

The same, d. 1714 ..... 1714 

William Gwyn Vaughan, Esq., of Tre- 

barried 1714, 22 

GEORGE II. 

William Gwyn Vaughan, Esq., of Trebarried . 1727 
John Jeffreys, Esq. [of Sheen, Sur.] . 1734-41 
Thomas Morgan, Esq. .... 1747-54 

GEORGE III. 

Thomas Morgan, Esq. .... 1761-68 
Charles Morgan, Esq. . . . 1769, 74, 80, 84 
Sir Charles Gould, Kt. (cr. Bart. 1792) 1787, 90, 96, 

1802 
Thomas Wood, Esq. [of Gwernyfed] . 1808-20 



GEORGE IV. 

Thomas Wood, Esq. .... 1820-30 



WILLIAM IV. 

Thomas Wood, Esq. 



1830-7 



VICTORIA. 

Thomas Wood, Esq 1837-47 

Joseph Bailey, Esq., Glanusk Park (cr. Bart. 

1852) 1847-59 

Hon. Godfrey Charles Morgan, Tredegar 

Park 1859-71 



COUNTY MAGISTRATES FOR BRECONSHIRE IN 1871. 



Tredegar, The Rt. Hon. Charles Lord, Lord Lieu- 
tenant and Gustos Rotulorum of the County, 
Tredegar Park, Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Beaufort, The Most Noble Henry Charles Fitzroy, 
Duke of, Badminton, Gloucestershire. 

Camden, The Most Noble John Charles Pratt, 
Marquess, Wildernesse Park, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

Ashburnham, The Rt. Hon. Bertram, Earl of, Ash- 
burnham Place, Battle, Sussex. 

Hereford, The Rt. Hon. Robert, Viscount, Tregoyd, 
Hay. 



Morgan, The Hon. Godfrey Charles, M.P., Tredegar 

Park, Newport, Monmouthshire. 
Bailey, Sir Joseph Russell, Bart., M.P., Glanusk 

Park, Crickhowel. 
Hastings, Sir Thomas, R.N., Kt., Titley Court, 

Kington. 

Lucas, Henry, Esq., M.D., Glanyrafon, Crickhowel. 
Bevan, George Phillips, Esq., M.D., Llanelen, 

Abergavenny. 
Williams, John James, Esq., M.D., Marine House, 

Mumbles, Swansea. 



no 



BRECONSHIRE COUNTY MAGISTRATES, 1871. 



Allaway, William Augustus Hamilton Kinnaird, 
Graignos Castle, Neath. 

Allen, Charles, Esq. 

Allen, Frederick, Esq. 

Allen, Henry, Esq., Oakfield,-Hay. 

Armstrong, Thomas, Brecon. 

Bailey, Crawshay, jun., Maindiff Court, Abergavenny. 

Bailey, Crawshay, Llanfoist House, Abergavenny. 

Bailey, Henry, Nantyglo, Abergavenny. 

Banks, William Laurence, F.S.A., Pontywal, 
Bronllys. 

Baskerville, Mynors, jun., Clyro, Hay. 

Baskerville, Thomas Baskerville Mynors, Clyro, 
Hay. 

Bevan, Samuel. 

Bligh, Oliver Morgan, Cilmery, Builth. 

Bowen, John Mortimer, Talgarth. 

Bowler, William Anthony, of Tyley House, Essex. 

Bridgwater, Colonel William, Coitymawr, Brecon. 

Brown, Thomas, Ebbwvale, Pontypool. 

Buckley, James, Bryn-y-Caeran, Carmarthenshire. 

Budd, James Palmer, Ystalyfera, Swansea. 

Darby, Abraham, Ebbwvale, Pontypool. 

Davies, David, Maesyvaynor, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Davies, Evan Jones, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Davies, Thomas, Neuadd, Crickhowel. 

Davies, William, Penderyn, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Davys, William Campbell, Neuadd, Llandovery. 

Dew, Tomkyns, Whitney, Hay. 

De Winton, Henry, Tynycae, Brecon. 

De Winton, Thomas. 

De Winton, Walter, Maesllwch Castle, Hay. 

De Winton, William, Maesderwen, Brecon. 

Evans, David, Old Bank, Brecon. 

Evans, John, Old Bank, Brecon. 

Evans, Thomas John, Old Bank, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Falconer, Thomas, Usk. 

Fowler, John Coke, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Gabell, Arthur Richard, Cheltenham. 

Gott, William Augustus. 

Gough, Richard Douglas, Ynyscedwin, Ystradgunlais. 

Griffiths, Gething Williams, Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Gwyn, Howel, Dyffryn, Neath. 

Gwynne, Frederick Ximenes, Glangrwney House, 
Crickhowel. 

Gwynne, Sackville Frederick. 

Harries, Morgan Watkin, Bodwigiad, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Higgins, Thomas William, Hay. 

Holford, James Price William Gwynne, M.P., Buck- 
land, Brecon. 

Hotchkis, John, Glanusk Villa, Crickhowel. 

Howell, Howell Gwynne, Llanelwedd Hall, Builth. 

Hughes, David, Lion Street, Brecon. 

Hughes, Lewis, Wotton, Brecon. 

Hutchins, Edward John, 

Jayne, John, Pantybailey, Abergavenny. 

Jeffreys, John Gwyn, F.R.S. 

Jones, David Edward, Velindre. Llandovery. 

Jones, Edward, Velindre, Llandovery. 

Jones, Mordecai, Camden Villa, Brecon. 

Joseph, Joseph, F.S.A., Brecon. 



Lewis, Wyndham William, The Heath, Cardiff. 

Lindsay, Henry Gore, Cardiff. 

Llewellyn, John Dilwyn, Penllergaer. Swansea. 

Lloyd, John, Dinas, Brecon. 

Lloyd, John, jun., Huntington Court, Hereford. 

Lloyd, Penry, Llandrindod. 

Lloyd, Thomas Conway, Dinas, Brecon. 

Maitland, Thomas Fuller, Park Place, Henley-on- 

Thames, Berks. 
Maitland, William Fuller, Park Place, Henley-on- 

Thames, Berks. 

Malet, Elias Wellington, Brecon. 
Marryatt, Joseph. 

Maskelyne, Anthony Mervin Storey. 
Maskelyne, Neville Storey. 
Maund, John. 

Miles, G. W. F., Llangattock Park, Crickhowel. 
Morgan, Charles Octavius Swinnerton, M.P. 
Morgan, Howel, Hengwrtucha, Dolgelly. 
Morgan, John Williams, Bolgoed, Brecon. 
North, John, Brecon. 
Overton, George, Wotton Mount, Brecon. 
Parry, William, Noyaddfri, Crickhowel. 
Pateshall, Evan, Allensmore, Hereford. 
Powell, David Jeffreys, Court, Bronllys. 
Powell, James, Pantysgallog, Senny Bridge. 
Powell, Lancelot, Aberclydach, Abergavenny. 
Powell, William, Chapel House, Builth. 
Price, David Albuoy, Castle Madoc. 
Price, Hugh Powel, Castle Madoc, Brecon. 
Price, William, M.D., Glantwrch, Ystradgunlais. 
Pryce, John Bruce, Dyffryn, Cardiff. 
Raikes, Robert, Treberfedd, Brecon. 
Rees, William, Tonn, Llandovery. 
Roberts, Martyn John, Pendarren, Crickhowel. 
Seymour, Edward William, Porthmawr, Crickhowel. 
Sharpe, George, Glasllyn, Abergavenny. 
Stevenson, William George. 
Stretton, Charles. 
Strick, Thomas Shepherd. 
Thomas, Charles Evan, Llanafan. 
Thomas, Edward David, Wellfield House, Builth. 
Thomas, Edward David, jun., Wellfield House, Builth. 
Thomas, John Evan, F.S.A., 7, Lower Belgrave 

Place, London. 

Thomas, William Jones, Llanigon, Hay. 
Vaughan, Henry Gwynne, Cynghordy, Llandovery. 
Vaughan, James, Builth. 

Vaughan, John Williams, Felinnewydd House, Brecon. 
Vaughan, Thomas Gwynne, Cynghordy, Llandovery. 
Venables, George Stovin, Llysdinam Hall, Builth. 
Watkins, George Rice, Llwynbrain, Llandovery. 
Watt, James Watt Gibson, of Doldowlod, Rad. 
West, William Henry, Gliffaes, Crickhowel. 
Williams, David Evan, Hirwain. 
Williams, Evan, Aberyskir, Brecon. 
Williams, James, Honddu House, Mount Pleasant, 

Brecon. 

Williams, John, Old Bank, Brecon. 
Williams, Morgan Stuart, Aberpergwm, Neath. 
Williams, Penry, Penpont, Brecon. 
Williams, Penry Boleyn, Penpont, Brecon. 



BRECONSHIRE COUNTY MAGISTRATES, 1871. 



Williams, Philip Penry, Stoke House, Tenbury. 
Williams, Rees (Coroner), Pencelly Castle, Brecon. 
Williams, Thomas, Cnwchllo, Builth. 
Wood, Charles. 

Wood, Charles Alexander, The Lodge, Glasbury. 
Wood, Major-General, Littleton, Chertsey, Middle- 
sex. 
Woosnam, Richard, Builth. 

CLERKS. 
Bold, Hugh, Boughrood Castle, Llyswen, Hereford. 



Davies, Richard William Payne, Archdeacon of 

Brecon, Courtygollen. 
Davies, William. 

Griffith, Charles, Glyncelyn, Brecon. 
Griffith, David Hanmer, Cadoxton, Neath. 
Price, Rees, Saint David's, Brecon. 
Thomas, William Jones, Llanigon, Hay. 
Venables, Richard Lister, Clyro, Hay. 
Walters, Thomas, D.D., Ystradgunlais. 
Williams, David, Pewsey, Wilts. 
Williams, Garnons, Abercamlais, Brecon. 
Williams, Thomas, Dean of Llandaff. 



ADDENDUM. 



Sir John Price and the Union with England. 

In the Annals of Wales, Sir John Price, Kt, LL.D., of the " Priory," Brecon, sheriff for Brecon 1541, 
deserves very special notice. In addition to his being an eminent antiquary and defender of British history in 
answer to Polydore Virgil (1573), he was active and powerful in the highest circle of politics. He was one of 
the King's Council in the Court of the Marches, and one of the Commissioners employed by Henry VIII. to 
survey the monasteries about to be dissolved. It is said that Sir John Price, who was a great favourite at 
Court, was the actual author, as he unquestionably was the active promoter, of the "petition" to King Henry 
for a more intimate union of Wales with England. It began thus : " We, on the part of your Highness's 
subjects, inhabitants of that portion of the island which our invaders first called Wales, most humbly prostrate 
at your Highness's feet, do crave to be received and adopted into the same laws and privileges which your other 
subjects enjoy." After excusing the first obstinate resistance of the Welsh, it goes on to assert their subsequent 
loyalty to the English throne : " Therefore, and no sooner, we submitted ourselves to Edward I., a prince who 
made both many and equaller laws than any before him ; therefore we defended his son, Edward II., when not only 
the English forsook him, but ourselves might have recovered our former liberty had we desired it ; therefore we 
got victories for Edward III., and stood firm during all the dissensions of this realm to his grandchild and 
successor, Richard II.," and so on, till allusion is skilfully made to Henry VII. thus: "Adhering to the 
House of York, which we considered the better side, we conserved our devotion still to the Crown until your 
Highness's father's time, who (bearing his name and blood from us) was the more chearfully assisted by our 
predecessors in his title to the Crown which your Highness doth presently enjoy." The "petition," we need 
not say, was favourably received, the whole thing being pre-arranged. " His Highness, of the singular zeal, 
love, and favour," that he bore "towards his subjects of his said Dominion of Wales," ordained " that his said 
Country or Dominion of Wales should stand and continue for ever incorporated, united, and annexed to and 
with his Realm of England," &c. (z^tk Henry VIII., A.D. 1534.) 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



ALIEN, Henry, Esq., of Oakfield, BreconsMre. 
J. P. and D. L. for co. of Brecon ; son of 
the late Henry Allen, Esq., of The Lodge, 
Breconshire, many years Attorney-General 
of the Breconshire courts ; b. in London ; 
ed. at Oxford ; m. Sarah Anne, only dau. 
and h. of John Bullock Lloyd, Esq., of 
Caerau, Breconshire. 

Residence: Oakfield, near Hay, Breconshire. 

BAILEY, Sir Joseph Eussell, Bart., of Glan- 

TJsk Park, BreconsMre. 
Is a J. P. and D. L. for the cos. of Brecon 
and Hereford; was High Sheriff 1844 ; in 
1865 was elected M.P. for the co. of Here- 
ford, which he has represented since ; son 
of the late Joseph Bailey, Esq., once M.P. 
for the co. of Hereford, and gr. son of the 
late Sir Joseph Bailey, ist baronet, whose 
title and estates he inherited, 1858; ;., 
1 86 1, Mary Ann, dau. of Henry Lucas, 
Esq., M.D., of Glanyrafon, Crickhowel, 
and has, with other issue, a son, Joseph 
Henry Russell, b. 1864. 

Residence: Glan-Usk Park, Crickhowel. 

LINEAGE. 

This family was founded by Sir Joseph Bailey, 
ist Baronet, whose title was conferred 1852. His 
son, Joseph Bailey, Esq., whose comparatively 
early decease in 1850 was the cause of general 
regret, dying before his father, the title and estates 
devolved, on the decease of the latter, upon his gr. 
son, the present and 2nd Baronet. 
Note. The mansion of Glan-Usk Park as its name 
implies, stands on the banks of the river Usk, and is 
suiTounded by the rich and picturesque scenery for 
which the vale of Crickhowel is famed. It is an ele- 
gant and costly structure, built by the 1st Baronet. 
(See view, p. 100. ) 

BLIGH, Oliver Morgan, Esq., of Cilmery, 

BreconsMre. 

J. P. for the co. of Brecon ; on the roll for 
High Sheriff for 1872 ; is second but eldest 
surviving son of the late James Bligh, Esq., 
by Jane, dau. of Oliver Morgan, Esq., of 
Bristol; b. 1818; s. his brother 1864; s. 
to the Welsh property after his gr. uncle, 
his gr. mother's brother, Thomas Price, 
Esq., J. P. of Builth; m., 1865, Ellen, dau. 



of J. Edwards, Esq., of Clifton, and has 
issue Stanley Price Morgan. 

Note. This family was formerly for many genera- 
tions settled in Cornwall, and descends from a com- 
mon ancestor with the Earl of Darnley. 

BOWEN, Joan Mortimer, Esq., of Chance field, 
BrecossMre. 

J. P. for the co. of Brecon ; son of Evan 
Bowen, Esq., M.D., late Surgeon in the 
Royal Navy; b. at Talgarth, June i3th, 
1837; ed. at Christ's College School, 
Brecon, and the Grammar School, Aber- 
gavenny. 

Residence: Chancefield, Talgarth, Breconshire. 
Crest : A stag pierced with an arrow. 

Note. This family derives its descent from the 
Bowtns of Tyddyn, Montgomeryshire; this branch of 
the family settled at Tref Einon in the parish of Llan- 
gorse during the time of Howel Harris ; a former 
member of the family also came to Chancefield from 
Tyddyn. 

BBIDG WATER, Col. William, of Coity Mawr, 

BreconsMre. 

Lieut.-Col. commanding Royal Brecknock 
Militia, and J. P. for the cos. of Brecknock 
and Radnor ; eldest son of the late Wm. 
Bridgwater, Esq., of Broomfield, Breck- 
nockshire, by Elizabeth, third daughter of 
the late John Pugh, Esq. ; m., Oct., 1868, 
Jane Mary, relict of the late Rev. Walter 
Jones Williams, and eldest dau. of the 
late Richard Miers, of Ynyspenllwch, Gla- 
morganshire, and has issue i daughter and 
i son. 

Residences: Coity Mawr, and Broomfield Ho., 
Breconshire. 

Arms: Quarterly, ist and 4th, ar., an eagle 
displayed; on a chief, az., three fleurs de lis ; 
2nd and 3rd ar., a bull's head caboshed, between 
three mullets, or. (The latter were the Havard 
arms.) 

Crest : A lion rampant, or. 

LINEAGE. 

Originally from the Welsh border counties, this 
family has been settled in Brecknockshire for 
several generations, and is by marriage or descent 
connected with families of ancient lineage in this 
and the neighbouring counties. Jointly with that 
of Lewes, it represents, through the female line, 
the once powerful family of Havard. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



CRAWSHAY, Mrs., of Danypark, Breconshire. 

Jessy Crawshay, widow of Capt. Crawshay 
(rytli Lancers), of Danypark ; is dau. of 
the late William Crawshay, Esq., of Cy- 
farthfa Castle, Glamorganshire, and Caver- 
sham Park, Oxfordshire, who was well 
known as a great ironmaster in South 
Wales. He was Sheriff of Glamorganshire 
1828 ; d. 1867. Capt. Crawshay was the 
second son of the late George Crawshay, 
Esq., of Montague Street and Colney 
Hatch, who was brother of William Craw- 
shay, Esq., of Cyfarthfa. (For Lineage, 
see Crawshay y Cyfarthfa Castle?) Has 
issue, 

1. ALFRED CRAWSHAY. 

2. Codrington. 

3. Willoughby. 

4. Isabel. 
5- Jessy. 

Residence : Danypark, Crickhowel. 

Arms : The Crawshay Anns are a plough and 
dog, on cannon-balls. 

Motto : Perseverance. 

Note. Danypark is a sumptuous mansion, standing 
on the fertile slopes of the Usk, in a park of large extent, 
bounded on the lower side by the river, and having at the 
back a hill covered with a luxuriant wood. It is in the 
near vicinity of Llangattock Park, also famous for its 
finely grown trees. Danypark once belonged to Mr. 
Skrine, the traveller, and afterwards to Mr. Kendall ; 
but has undergone considerable improvement and en- 
largement at different times. The whole of the country 
surrounding it is park-like and beautiful. At a little 
distance in front are the eminences which terminate 
towards the south of the Talgarth mountains, and a few 
miles to the right the conical form of the Abergavenny 
" Sugar-loaf" rises to view. One mile to the left is 
Crickhowel, with the venerable ruin of its castle, and 
the spire of its ancient church, the prospect bounded 
in the extreme distance by the hills towards Brecon. 

DE WINTON, William, Esq., of Maesderwen, 
Breconshire, 

Is J. P. for the co. of Brecon, and a banker 
at Brecon ; third son of the late J. P. De 
Winton, Esq., of Maesderwen, by Charlotte 
Eliza, dau. of the Rev. W. Davies, of 
Newport Pagnel ; b. 1823; m., ist, 1852, 
Hephzibah L. Frances, dau. of Vice- 
Chancellor Shadwell ; 2nd, 1864, Mary, 
dau. of Admiral Harding, and has issue. 
Residence: Maesderwen, Brecon. 

EVANS, The EGY. John, of Crickhowel, Brecon- 
shire. 

Bachelor of Divinity, Rector of Crick- 
howel, Chaplain of the Crickhowel Union, 
and Surrogate for the diocese of St. David's; 
formerly Assistant Curate of Almondbury, 
Yorkshire ; Incumbent of Netherthong, 
Yorkshire ; Curate of Tintern ; Officiating 
Minister at W'estbury and the Bristol In- 



firmary; Curate of Goytre, Monmouthshire ; 
Vicar of Crickhowel, and Rector of Crick- 
howel. Author of " Sermon on the Char- 
tist Insurrection," "Sermon on the Death 
of the Late Duke of Beaufort," Tract on 
* Baptismal Regeneration," biographical 
and antiquarian contributions, &c. Son 
of the late Methusalem Evans, second son 
of the late Rev. Luther Evans, of Velindre, 
Carmarthenshire ; b. at a house now called 
Pensingrig, Trefach, in the parish of 
Llangeler, Carmarthenshire, on the 23rd 
of January, 1808 ; ed. at Cardigan, Car- 
marthen, and Ystradmeurig Grammar 
Schools, St. David's College, Lampeter, 
and Trinity College, Dublin ; grad. at 
St. David's College, Lampeter, B.D., 1853 ; 
m., ist, 26th Aug., 1836, Elizabeth Philipps, 
dau. of the late Thomas Smith Philipps, of 
Jeffreyston House, and Lampeter Velfrey, 
county of Pembroke, Esq. ; 2nd, July 25, 
1867, Mary, widow of late Thomas Nicolas, 
Esq., M.D., Isle of Portland, and of Spring 
Gardens, Newport, Pembr., and has issue 
by the first mar. 3 sons and 2 daus. ; by the 
second mar. 2 sons and i daughter. 

Residence: The Rectory, Crickhowel. 
Arms: Lion rampant sa., crowned with an 
antique crown on a dancette, argent. 
Crest: Lion rampant, sable, as in arms. 
Motto : Goreu bonedd y w rhinwedd. 

LINEAGE. 

The Evanses of Llangeler, co. Carmarthen, now 
represented in Brecknockshire by Rev. John Evans, 
B.D., Rector of Crickhowel, and in Monmouth- 
shire by his elder brother, the Rev. Thomas Evans 
(see Evans, Nantyderry House}, are paternally 
(through the father's mother) descended from Sir 
Walter de Havre de Grace, or Havard, a Norman 
knight, who assisted Bernard de Neuf Marche, or 
Newmarch, in the conquest of Brycheiniog, temp. 
William Rufus ; and maternally from Rhodri 
Mawr, through his son Cadell, Prince of S. Wales, 
Tewdwr Mawr, Rhydderch ap Tewdwr, "Lord 
of Derllysc and half of Dyfed," &c. 

The Havards, after sixteen generations, removed 
from Pontwilym, their lordship in Breconshire (see 
Havard, Pontwilym], to Dolhaidd, and afterwards 
to Goitre, Carmarthenshire. The family at last, 
after several generations, failed of issue male, and a 
dau., Margaret, m. Thomas Smith Philipps, Esq., 
of Jeffreyston House, co. of Pembroke (descended 
from Philipps of Cilsant), who left a dau., Eliza- 
beth Philipps ; while Margaret's great-aunt, Mary 
Havard, had m. Luther Evans, Esq. , of Llangeler, 
and left, with other issue, 

JOHN EVANS, now Rector of Crickhowel, wlio 
m. his distant relative, Elizabeth Philipps, as 
above. 

Mr. Evans's grandfather, Luther Evans, Esq., of 
Llangeler, was a man of distinguished piety, a 
sincere friend of the religious revival which took 
place in S. Wales about the close of the eighteenth 
century. According to the Lewes MS. in the 
Heralds' College, the Evans family were derived 
from Hoedliw, Lord of Iscerdin Llandyssil, ap 



1 14 



BRECONSHIRE. 



Llawr, ap Assur, ap Morudd, King of Cardigan. 

See Cambr. Journ., June, 1864. 

Note. Crickhowel Church is cruciform, built 
after the style of Llanthoni Abbey, under which it 
was, in ancient times, a collegiate church. It con- 
tains interesting monuments to the Herbert family. 
Date of the erection not known, but supposed to 
have been very early. It has a tower and spire, and is 
situate in the most beautiful part of the vale. The 
living consisted of a vicarage and a sinecure rectory. 
The present rector was presented to the vicarage by 
Lord William Somerset, the then rector, in the year 
1837. On the demise of his lordship, 1851, he was 
presented to the rectory by his Grace the late Duke of 
Beaufort, with the addition of great tithes of the lower 
part of the (sinecure) rectory of the adjoining parish 
of Cwmdu, annexed. This vicarage was then merged 
in the rectory by an Act or an Order in Council. 

GOUGE, Richard Douglas, Esq., of Tnyscedwin, 

BreGonshire. 

Is a J. P. for Breconshire and Glamorgan- 
shire; was High Sheriff for the former, 
1840; is patron of the Rectory of Ystrad- 
gynlais ; son of the Rev. Fleming Gough, 
of Ynyscedwin, and Martha his wife, dau. 
of W. Taylor, Esq., of Chelford ; b. at 
Briton Ferry, co. Glamorgan, 1800; ed. at 
Harrow School and Exeter Coll., Oxon. ; 
grad. B.A. 1829; m., 1840, Constance 
Elizabeth Dansey, dau. of R. D. Dansey, 
Esq., of Easton Court, Herefordshire, and 
has issue 5 daus. and i son. 

Heir: Fleming R. D. Aubrey Gough. 
Residence ; Ynyscedwin House, Breconshire. 

LINEAGE. 

The house of Gough, of Ynyscedwin (at first 
written Ynys Edwin, from Edwin, son of Einion, 
on of Owaia, Prince of Wales), is one of antiquity. 
This place, we learn from Jones's Hist, of Breck., 
was at an early period the patrimony of Griffith 
Gwyr, or Griffith of Gower, from one of whose 
female descendants it came to the Franklens of 
Swansea. An Awbrey of Abercynrig (see Awbrey) 
had a son who m. a dau. of Jenkin Franklen, with 
whom he had Ynyscedwin. His son sold it to his 
relation, MORGAN AWBREY, who m. one of the 
daus. of Thomas Games, of Aberbran. The male 
line again failing, the property came to an aunt, 
Catharine, who m. Richard Portrey, clerk, and 
their three sons likewise dying without issue, it 
went with their sister, Catherine, who m. William 
Gough, Esq., of Willersley. Their grandson, 
Richard Gough, took the name Awbrey in addition 
to his own name. He d. s. p. 1808, devising the 
estate to his brother, Rev. Fleming Gough, Rector 
of Ystradgynlais, who m. Miss Taylor, of Chelford, 
and was succeeded in the estate by his son, RICHARD 
DOUGLAS GOUGH, as above. 



GRIFFITH, The Rev. Charles, of Glyn-Celyn, 
Breconshire. 

Is Prebendary of Trefloden in the Cathedral 
of St David's ; Rural Dean ; Surrogate ; 



J. P. for the co. of Brecon ; Patron of the 
rectory of Talachddu, Brecon. 

Mr. Griffith is the son of the late Rev. 
Charles Griffith, Vicar of St. David's, 
Brecon, by his wife, Anna Jane, dau. of 
Archdeacon Williams of Abercamlais, 
Brecon; b. at Brecon, 1805; ed. at the 
Charter house and Christ Church Coll., 
Oxford ; grad. B.A. 1827, M.A. 1836; m. 
(ist), 1834, Elizabeth, dau. of William Gwyn, 
Esq., Neath ; lastly, 1871, Mary Selina, 
dau. of the late Admiral Warde, Squerryes 
Court, Westerham, Kent; and has issue 
by first wife, i dau., Elizabeth Anna. 

Residence: Glyn Celyn, Brecon. 
Crest: Lion sejant. 
Motto : Cryf ei Hydd. 

GWYME-HOLFORJ), Mrs., of Buckland, 
Breoonshire. 

Anna Maria Elinora Gwynne-Holford, 
widow of Col. James Price Holford, who 
assumed her name of Gwynne (d. 1846) ; is 
dau. and sole heiress of Roderick Gwynne, 
Esq , of Buckland, by his wife, Eliza Anna 
Hughes, dau. and co-h. of T. Hughes, Esq., 
of Talgarth, Breconshire; m. Col. Holford 
1830; and has with other issue (see 
Lineage) 

James Price William Gwynne-Holford, 
Esq., M.P. for Brecon; b. 1833. (See 
Gwynne-Holford Cilgwyn.) 

Residence: Buckland, Brecon. 

Arms : Quarterly; ist and 4th arg., on ground 
vert, a greyhound passant, proper, collared or, 
for HOLFORD; 2nd and 3rd sa., a fesse cotised, 
between two daggers, arg., hilled and pommelled 
of the second, for GWYNNE; an escutcheon of 
pretence in right of Mrs. Gwynne-Holford. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Gwynne from which Mrs. Gwynne- 
Holford of Buckland is descended is one of high 
antiquity, and has been represented in various of 
its prominent branches in the cos. of Brecon, Car- 
marthen, and Glamorgan, for several hundred 
years. Mrs. Gwynne-Holford derives from that 
branch of the family which was long established at 
Glanbran, in the co. of Carmarthen, where its 
first ancestor of the name of Gwyn (David Coch 
Gwyn) was found settled in the fifteenth century. 

Several MS. pedigrees of this family are in 
existence, and all in the main harmonize, although 
with variations which suggest a degree of inde- 
pendence of each other. Lewys Divnn, Deputy 
Herald of the College of Arms, visited Glanbran 
in 1596 (when the head of the family was Rowland 
Gwyn), and settled the pedigree as known at that 
time. Thenceforward the labours of Hugh Thomas, 
who made especial search into the lineage of 
Brecknockshire and other S. Wales families, and 
whose MSS. are preserved in the Harl. Collection 
in the British Museum, are our best guides down to 
his time (1705), when Howel Gwynne of Garth 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



was representative of the branch now treated 
of. 

Rhydderch ap Rhys, the common ancestor of the 
two lines of Gwyn now existing, viz., Gwyn of 
Dyffryn, co. Glam. (which see), and Gwynne- 
Holford of Buckland and Cilgwyn, was descended 
in direct line from Trahaiarn ap Einion, possessor 
of the lordship of Cwmmwd, near Talgarth, who 
lived in the twelfth century. He claimed descent 
from Brychan, king of Brecknock, Brychan Bry- 
cheiniog. 

Rhydderch ap Rhys m. Gwenllian, dau. and 
heiress of Howel ap Gruffydd of Trecastle, whose 
estates became the patrimony of their elder son, 
Thomas, ancestor of Gwyn of Dyffryn, &c., while 
David, their second son, inherited his father's lands 
of Glanbran. These two sons were the first of the 
line to be known by the name Gwyn, which, meaning 
"white," is said to have been applied to them by 
reason of the lightness of their complexion, David 
being further distinguished as Coch-Gwyn, "red- 
white," as possessing red hair. 

David Coch Gwyn m., according to Dwnn, 
Elizabeth, dau. of Morus ap Owain ap Gruffydd ap 
Nicholas of Bryn-y-beirdd, but according to Hugh 
Thomas, dau. of Morgan Bowen of Llechdenny. 
Their eldest son, Rhydderch of Glanbran, m. Jane 
(or Joan), dau. and heiress of Thomas ap Owain 
Barrett of Gelliswick, co. Pembroke. They had as 
eldest son 

David Gwyn of Glanbran, who m. Joan, dau. of 
John Games, Esq., of Aberbran, Brecon, who, 
after his death, m. Rosser Williams of Park, 1596. 
They had six children, the second son, Rees, being 
of Llwyn-howel ; the third, John, of Llanelwedd. 
Their eldest son was 

Rowland Gwyn, or Gwynn, Esq., of Glanbran, 
who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Howel ap Sion ap 
Howel of Cwm-dan-ddwr, widow of Thomas 
Lewis, Esq., of Harpton. Their son, Rhydderch 
Gwynne, Esq., of Glanbran, m. Mary, dau. of Sir 
Thomas Johns, Kt, of Abermarles, Carm. (d. 
1613). Their eldest son, Rowland, d. s. p. The 
next owner of Glanbran was 

Howel, the second son, whose wife was Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Herbert Johns, or Jones, clerk, B.D., 
second son of Sir Thomas Johns, or Jones, Kt., of 
Abermarles. Their eldest son, Rowland, remained 
at Glanbran, and their third son, Rhydderch, or 
Roderick, of Llanfair Cilgydin, Mon., m. Mary, 
dau. and heiress of Samuel Prichard of Brynioyre. 
Their son, Howel Gwynne of Brynioyre, m. Mary, 
dau. and heiress of Marmaduke Gwynne, Esq., of 
Garth (d. 1708), a Justice of the Great Sessions 
for N. Wales, and had with other issue a second 
son, 

Roderick Gwynne, Esq., who by the will of 
Sackville, his father's first cousin, of Glanbran, 
came into possession of that property, and settled 
there. He m. Anne, dau. of Howe, Lord Ched- 
worth, and had issue 

THYNNE HOWE GWYNNE, Esq., of Buckland, 
who left three sons, 

Roderick, 

Thynne Howe, 

Edward; and one dau., 

Rebecca. The eldest son, 

RODERICK GWYNNE, Esq., of Glanbran, m. 
Eliza Anne Hughes, dau. and heiress of T. Hughes, 
Esq., of Talgarth, Breconshire, and had issue 

ANNA MARIA ELINORA, sole heiress, who m. 
Col. James Price Holford (son of John Josiah 
Ilolford, Esq., of Cilgwyn, Carmarthenshire), who 
assumed her name of Gwynne, and had issue, 



1. Jane Eliza Anna Maria. 

2. Louisa Mary Ermine Elinora. 

3. JAMES PRICE WILLIAM (as above). 

4. Harriet Emma. 

5. Charles Howe Hughes. 

Noti. The subordinate branches of the Gwyn family 
once found at Llwynhowel, Garth, Ystradwallter, 
Cynghordy, &c., have all disappeared with the mar- 
riage of female representatives, and have only 
reappeared by the assumption of the name at 
Cynghordy. One of the ladies of the Garth family, 
Sarah Gwynne, became the wife of the eminent 
minister and hymnologist, Charles Wesley. They 
were m. by John Wesley at Garth, 1749- Two of 
their sons, Charles and Samuel, became eminent as 
musical composers, the former being a prodigy from 
very childhood for his skill in instrumental music, 
and the latter obtaining a European reputation for the 
highest class of compositions. He was the first to 
introduce Sebastian Bach's works into this country. 
Both were patronized by royalty, and moved in the 
highest circles of society. 



HEREFORD, Robert Devereux, Viscount (and 
a Baronet), of Tregoed, BreconsMre. 

Creation : viscountcy, by Henry VIII., 
February 2nd, 1549-50; baronetcy, by 
James I., 25th November, 1612. Is premier 
viscount of England ; J. P. and D. L. for 
cos. of Brecon and Hereford. 

Viscount Hereford is the eldest son of 
Robert Devereux, 1 5th Viscount Hereford, 
and Emma Jemima, Viscountess Hereford, 
dau. of the late George Ravenscroft, Esq.; 
b. in London, January 3rd, 1843 J e ^- at 
Eton College ; s. to title and estates on 
the death of his father, August 18, 1855 ; 
m, July 1 6th, 1863, Hon. Mary Anna 
Morgan, sixth daughter of Lord Tredegar 
(see 'Tredegar), and has issue Hon. ROBERT 
CHARLES, Muriel, Eleanor Mary, Lilian. 

Heir: His son, Robert Charles Devereux, b. 
1865. 

Residence: Tregoed, Hay, Breconshire. 

Town Address : Carlton Club. 

Arms : The Hereford coat is, arg., a fesse, gu. ; 
in chief, three torteaux. 

Crest : A talbot's head, arg. and gu., out of a 
coronet. 

Mottoes : Virtutis comes invidia ; and, Basis 
virtutum constantia. 

LINEAGE. 

This noble family is of Norman origin, 
as the adjuncts of the name indicate, the 
first of its, line in England having come 
over with William to the conquest of this 
country. His name is in the roll of Battle 
Abbey as Daveros, of which the usual early 
form was D'urus, or De Ewrus, of 
Rosmor, the personal, like the local name, 
indicating an origin unquestionably Celtic 
an origin which history claims for a large 



BRECONSHIRE. 



proportion of the Conqueror's companions ; 
for of pure " Normans " William had 
scarcely any, and he himself, as is well 
known, was more than half a Celt. 

From Walter De Ewrus, Daveros, or 
Devereux, William's companion, was de- 
scended in direct line the celebrated Walter 
Devereux, Earl of Essex. He was born in 
a castle of his grandfather's, Walter, Vis- 
count Hereford, in Carmarthenshire, his 
father being Sir Richard Devereux, and his 
mother, Dorothy, dau. of George, Earl 01 
Huntingdon. He had a brother more cele- 
brated and much more unfortunate, Robert 
Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, the servant, 
favourite, and victim of Elizabeth, who was 
executed under charge of treason 1601. 
(Criminal Trials, i.) 

The present Lord Viscount Hereford, 
the 1 6th inheriting the title, has come 
down through a long line of distinguished 
alliances with English and Welsh families, 
among whom may be mentioned Dorset, 
Walsingham, Price of Vaynor, and Glynn 
of Maesmawr, co. of Mont. 

EOLIOED, Mrs. Gwynne, of Buckland. 
(See Gwynne- Holf or d, Buckland.} 

HOVELL, Rev. George, of Llangattock, Brecon- 
shire. 

Rector of Llangattock - cum - Llangenny, 
Brecknockshire ; sometime Vicar of 
Conwyl Gaio-with-Llansawel, Carmarthen- 
shire ; Rural Dean ; author of various ser- 
mons and articles in the Welsh language ; 
b. at Penrallt-Fadog, in the co. of Carmar- 
then, 1811; ed. at St. David's College, 
Lampeter, 1836 prizeman, ist cl. 

Residence: The Rectory, Llangattock, Crick- 
howel. 

Arms: I, azure, a wolf salient, proper; 2, 
argent, a chevron, gu., between three cocks ; 3, 
ermine, charged with a chevron, gu., in chief a 
lioncel, proper ; 4, sable, a lion rampant, regard- 
ant, or ; 5, or, a lion rampant, gules ; 6, sable, a 
bend, or, between two daggers, proper, hilted, or. 

Crest: A wolf, proper. 

Motto: Senesco, non segnesco. 

GENEALOGICAL NOTE. 

This family derives its descent from Rev. Thomas 
Howell, vicar of Abernant and Conwyl Elvet, the 
father of the celebrated "James Howel, " and of the 
Right Rev. Thomas Howell, Bishop of Bristol, 1647. 
James Howel, the author of a variety of works, among 
which the best known are Epistola Ho-Eliana, was 
born in 1594. He obtained distinction, sat in Parlia- 
ment for Richmond, Yorkshire, was one of the Clerks 
of the Privy Council under Jarnes I. and Charles I., 
travelled much abroad, and embodied in his "Letters" 
a great amount of interesting information about the 
various countries of the Continent. His style is de- 



scriptive and lively ; his works, with much that is 
humorous and gossiping, contain frequent allusions 
and facts elucidative of the history of the times. He 
died in London, 1666. The Rev. George Howell, 
with due respect for the memory of so celebrated 
an ancestor, has collected nearly, if not all his known 
works. (See James Howel.) 

Note. A large stone about eight feet high stands 
on a farm belonging to the estate, called Llechsion, in 
the parish of Conwyl Elvet, in the co. of Carmarthen. 
This stone is known by the name " Carreg Hir." 

Llangattock Rectory -house was erected 1852. 

JOSEPH, Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Brecon. 

Is in the Commission of the Peace for co, 
and bor. of Brecon ; elected Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, London, i2th Jan., 
1854; was Mayor of Brecon 1861-2; is 
son of John Joseph, of Pant-y-Gwin, 
Llanddausant, co. Carmarthen, who m. 
Margaret, dau. of Thomas Williams, of 
Talsarn, in the same parish (see Lineage) ; 
b 24th Feb., 1825 ; ed. at Llandovery and 
Christ's Coll., Brecon; m., at Cilycwm 
Church, i;th March, 1846, to Elizabeth, 
dau. of John Hughes, of Cilposte, co. 
Carmarthen, and has issue one dau., 
Marianne Hughes (see Lineage). 

Residence: Brecon. 

Arms : Per chev., az. and vert ; in chief three 
garbs, in base two, chevronways or. 

Crest: A garb, or. 

Motto : Cas ni charo y wlad a'i mago. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Joseph of Llanddausant co. Car- 
marthen, has been settled in that co. since temp. 
Henry III. (See Sir Thomas Phillipps'sCarta/ar/w*" 
S. Johan. Bapt. de Caermarthen.) A branch 
removed to the hundred of Builth, co. Brecon, and 
there are several of the name now (1871) in that 
district. 

John Joseph of Pant-y-Gwin m. Jane, dau. 
of John ap William ap Jenkin, of Cilbridwen, 
Llanddausant, and Mary, his wife, only dau. of 
David Thomas, of Rhiwe, Llangadock, who also pos- 
sessed Bedwhirion, Castellcoch, Carreglwyd, Cil- 
gerthan, and Cilbridwen, Llanddausant, and an 
estate in the adjoining parish of Mothvey, in all a 
considerable extent of landed property. J ohn Joseph 
d. at Pant-y-Gwin, 3oth June, 1809, aged 64 ; Jane, 
his widow, who m. (2ndly) David Thomas, Esq., of 
Abersenny House, co. Brecon, d. 28th March, 1852, 
and left issue a son and a dau. 

William Williams, of Tyucha, eldest son of John 
ap William ap Jenkin, and brother of the above- 
named Jane, of Cilbridwen, m. Anne, dau. of Lewis 
Lewis, of Pant-howel, Llanddausant, and had issue 
two daus. (See Burke's L. Gent., Lewis, Gilvack.) 

John Joseph, b. at Pant-y-Gwin, 24th Feb., 1803; 
d. 2nd Jan., 1867 ; m. Margaret (d. 2nd Dec., 
1869, aged 62), dau. of Thomas Williams, of 
Talsarn, Llanddausant (if. 24th Jan., 1846, aged 82), 
by Gwen, dau. of David ap Harry, of Coedneuadd 
and Llwyn-piod, in the same parish (d. I4th October, 
1843, aged 70). 

Marianne Hughes, dau. and only child of Joseph 
Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., &c. ; m., at St. Mary's, 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



117 



Brecon, I4th August, 1867, to James Buckley, 
Esq., of Bryn-y-Caerau, in the Commission of the 
Peace for co. Brecon, second son of James Buckley, 
Esq., of Pen-y-fai and Castle Gorfod, co. Carmar- 
then, and has issue two sons, 

James Francis Hughes, b. at Bryn y Caerau, 
co. Carmarthen, I2th Feb., 1869. 

Joseph Henry Prichard, b. at Brecon, 29th July, 
1870. 

HUGHES OF CILPOSTE. 

John Hughes, of Cilposte (d. 4th April, 1849, 
aged 67), son of David Hughes of Bwlch-y- 
gymanfa, descended from a respectable and affluent 
family long settled in the upper part of the co. of 
Carmarthen, by Sarah, dau. of Richard Prichard, 
of the same place (see in Burke's Land. Gent., 
Prytherch of Abergole), who possessed extensive 
landed property in the parishes of Llandingat 
and Llanwrda, co. Carmarthen. He m. Mary (d. 
3rd Dec., 1861, aged 77), dau. of William Wil- 
liams, of Cilposte, by whom he had, with other 
children (the eldest being David Hughes, Esq., of 
Brecon, in the Commission of the Peace for that 
bor. and co. ), Elizabeth, the above-named wife of 
Joseph Joseph, Esq., F.S.A. 

Note. Mr. Joseph, who is a diligent collector and 
student of antiquarian literature, has a valuable library 
of scarce books and MSS. especially bearing upon the 
history and genealogy of Wales. Some of the MSS. 
are unique, and several of the printed vols. are now 
obtained with difficulty. He gathers these treasures, 
not for concealment, but for use ; and this volume 
is indebted to his documents for many of its rarest 
contents. ED. 

LLOYD, John, Esq., of Dinas, Breconshire. 
Is J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Brecknock; 
sheriff, 1839 ; author of a volume of poems ; 
son of the late John Lloyd, Esq., of Dinas, 
Brecon (d. 1818); b. 1797; m., ist, Mary 
Anne, dau. of Osborne Yates, Esq., of 
Llangattock Court ; 2nd, Frances, dau. of 
Thomas Maybery, Esq., of Brecon, and 
has issue three sons, Thomas Conway, 
Penry, and John. 

Heir: Eldest son, Thomas Conway Lloyd, a 
major in the army, b. 1830. 
Residence: Dinas, Brecon. 
Crest : A lion rampant, or. 
Motto : Pro patria mori. 

LINEAGE. 

From Elystan Glodrydd, living in the eleventh 
century, who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Einion ap 
Howel Dda, descended through Cadwgan, Lord of 
Radnor, his son, Llewelyn, Lord of Buallt (Builth), 
his son, Sytsyllt, Lord of Buallt, and ten other 
generations, Thomas Lloyd, Esq., who was Lord 
Lieut, of Brecknockshire temp. Henry VIII., and 
m. , as 2nd wife, Angharad, dau. of Morgan ap Ivan 
Lloyd. His son, Rees Lloyd, had a son, David, 
who was succeeded by Rees ap David Lloyd, who 
m. a dau. of David Howel Philip of Trerhiccert. 
John ap Rhys ap David Lloyd d. 1683, and was s. 
by his son, John Lloyd of Dinas, who m. a dau. of 
Jones of Cribarth. 

Rees Lloyd of Dinas, son of John Lloyd, m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of David Jones, Esq., of Danycrug; 
and his sister, Mary, who m. Thomas Jones, Esq., 
of Dolycoed, became ancestress to the present W. 
H. Campbell Davys, Esq., of Nenaddfawr, co. 



Carmarthen. Rees Lloyd of Dinas had issue a son 
named John, who s. him at Dinas ; sheriff of his 
co. 1798. He m. Elizabeth, dau. of Roger Wil- 
liams, Esq., and had a son, JOHN LLOYD, now of 
Dinas, as above. 

Note. The house of Dinas is a modern mansion 
situated on the right bank of the Usk a little below the 
town of Brecon. The road leading to it from the town 
indicates a place of some antiquity. 

LLOYD, John, of Huntington Court. 

Is J. P. of Breconshire ; Member of the Co. 
Finance Committee ; on the Central Com- 
mittee of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club ; Conservator of Wye and Usk, and 
Hon. Sec. of Wye and Usk Fishery Asso- 
ciation. Author of various papers on 
fisheries, plantations, natural history, and ot 
a map of Severn, Wye, and Usk fishery 
districts (Stanford) ; son of John Lloyd, 
Esq., Dinas, Brecon ; b. October 13, 1834; 
ed. at Bridgnorth Grammar School, and at 
St. John's College, Oxford ; m., February 
23, 1865, Elizabeth Anna Griffith, dau. of 
Rev. Charles Griffith, M.A., of Glyncelyn, 
co. of Brecon. 

Residence: Huntington Court, Hereford. 
Crest : Lion rampant. 
Motto : Pro patria mori. 

Note. For lineage, see Lloyd of Dinas. 

MORG-Atf, John Williams, Esq., of Bolgoed, 
Breconshire. 

Is J. P. and D.L. for Breconshire ; Captain 
in Royal Brecon Militia ; High Sheriff in 
1867 ; eldest son of William Morgan, Esq., 
of Bolgoed, and Mary, dau. of J. Dixon, 
Esq., of Ashford, Breconshire; b. at Bol- 
goed, 1834 ; ed. at Sherbourne School, 
Dorsetshire ; m. Ellen, dau. of William 
Henry Lee, Esq., of Edgbaston, Warwick- 
shire, and has issue 2 sons and 2 dau. 

Heir : William Lee Morgan. 
Residence : Bolgoed, Brecon. 

PHILIPS, Mrs. Sophia Hardman, of Gwern- 
vale, Breconshire. 

Widow of the late Hardman Philips, Esq , 
Gwernvale. Mrs. Philips was dau. of the 
Rev. Edward Lloyd, M.A., of Fairfield, and 
Perpetual Curate of Sankey, Lancashire, 
who was son of John Lloyd, Esq., of 
Glynbrochan, Montgomeryshire; was m. 
to Mr. Philips, August 14, 1821, and had 
issue 5 sons and i dau. Mr. Hardman 
Philips, b. 1785, was son of John Philips, 
Esq., of Bankhall, near Stockport, Lanca- 
shire, and descended from one branch or 
the extensive and well-known family ot 



n8 



BRECONSHIRE. 



Philips, now represented in its principal 
branches by Sir George Philips, Bart., of 
Weston House, Warwickshire, and R. N. 
Philips, Esq., M.P., of the Park, Man- 
chester. The ancestor of the Philipses 
left Wales in the reign of Edward VI., and 
settled at Heath House, Cheadle, Stafford- 
shire, which has continued to be the seat 
of one branch down to the present time. 
Mr. Philips was one of the Pioneers of the 
State of Pennsylvania, North America, 
whither he proceeded in his twenty-fifth year. 
He purchased, in 181 1, in that State, a large 
tract of forest country, celebrated for its 
timber and bituminous coal (the latter 
first discovered by the purchaser), consist- 
ing of 75,000 acres, where he founded the 
settlement of Philipsburg, called after his 
name, and since grown to a large town, 
with a thriving population. The owner, 
in 1844, sold his estates in America, and 
returned to this country. He d. at Gwern- 
vale, 1855, having devoted his time since 
his return from the States to the cause of 
education and general improvement in his 
immediate neighbourhood. 

Residence: Gwernvale, Crickhowel, Brecon- 
shire. 

A rms : Sable, a lion rampant, or, inter seven 
fleurs de lis ; a canton, ermine. 

Crest : A demi-lion rampant ducally crowned, 
holding in paw a fleur de lis. 

Motto : Simplex munditiis. 

Note. -Gwernvale, the residence of Mrs. Philips, 
commands one of the most lovely prospects in the 
Vale of Crickhowel. It is seen on the right of the 
view given in the engraving of the ancient gateway, 
the entrance to the mansion of the Herberts of Crick- 
howel. Gwernvale was first built by Dr. Samuel 
Croxall, an author of some eminence, who for a time 
resided there ; but the present mansion is of much later 
date ; it was erected by T. Everest, Esq., who pur- 
chased the place from a distant relation of Dr. Croxall. 
As kept by Mrs. Philips it is one of the most elegant 
residences in the neighbourhood. 



POWELL, Lancelot, Esq., of Aberclydacli 
House, Breconshire. 

A J. P. for the county of Brecon ; formerly 
manager of the Clydach Ironworks ; son 
of the late John Powell, Esq., of Brecon ; 
b. at Brecon ; ed. at Warminster, Wiltshire. 

Residence : Aberclydach House, Breconshire. 

Arms: Quarterly, I and 4, or, 3 cocks, gu. ; 
2, or, a chevron, gu., betw. 3 spear-heads, az., 
imbrued ; 3, or, 3 air-bottles, vert. 

Crest : A cock, gu. 

Motto : Animo non astutia. 

Note. This family derives maternally from the 
Morgans of Penderin (see Jones's Hist. Brec., sub 
tiom.). The mansion of Aberclydach is known 



to be very ancient ; was occupied by the descendants 
of Rhys Goch, and subsequently the Lewises of 
Aberclydach, now represented on the mother's side 
by Archdeacon Davies, of Courtygollen. 



PEICE, Hugh Powell, Esq., of Castle Madoo, 
BreconsMre. 

A J. P. and D. L. for Breconshire ; served 
the office of High Sheriff for that co. in 
1870 ; is the only surviving son of the late 
Hugh Price, Esq., of Castle Madoc, J. P. 
and D. L. for co. Brecon, and High 
Sheriff 1815, by Sophia, dau. of the late 
Francis Brodie, Esq. (see Lineage); b. at 
Tours, France, 1822 ; ed. at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge ; m., 1845, Mary Alicia, 
youngest dau. of the late David Thomas, 
Esq., of Wellfield, Radnorshire, and has 
issue i son and i daughter, Annabetta 
Catherine Sophia; s. in the year 1856. 

Heir: HUGH PENRY POWEL, b. 1853. 

Residence : Castle Madoc, Brecon. 

Arms: Quarterly. I, sa., a chevron, arg., 
between three spear-heads of the same, guttes de 
sang BLEDDYN AP MAENARCH ; 2, a lion ram- 
pant, regardant, gu. ELYSTAN GLODRYDD ; 
3, arg., a wyvern's head, erased, prop., holding 
a hand ensanguined RHYS GOCH ; 4, per pale, 
arg. and sa., three fleurs de lis, or AP ROGERS; 
5, gu., a chevron ermine GAYS ; 6, sa., a fesse, 
or, between two daggers of the same, pommelled 
and hilted, or, that above pointing upwards, the 
other downwards BRYCHAN. 

Crest : A wyvern's head eras"ed, as in arms. 

Motto: Gwell marw na chywilydd, "Death, 
before dishonour." 

LINEAGE. 

Bleddyn ap Maenarch (of the line of Caradog 
Freich-fras) was Lord of Brecknock, or, as then 
called, Garth-madryn, when, temp. William Rufus, 
Bernard Newmarch came to the conquest of the 
country. He m. Elinor, dau. of Tewdwr Mawr 
and sister of Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of S. Wales. 

The son of Bleddyn and Elinor, Gwgan, had, 
with other issue, Trahaern, Lord of Llangorse, who 
m. Joan, dau. of Bleddyn, Lord of Cilsant. His 
gr. gr. son was Einion Sais, and his gr. gr. gr. 
sons were Sir David Gam, who fell at Agincourt, 
and his brother, 

HOWEL ap Llywelyn, who m. Margaret, dau. of 
Gwilym Philip Thomas ap Elydr, of Llandilo-fawr 
(St. Mark's Coll. MS.). His gr. gr. son, Gwilym, 
m. Catherine, dau. of John Rhys Jenkin, of Glyn 
N&Ld, whose son Howel, "of Argoed," m., as first 
wife, Margaret, dau. of William John Havard. He 
had a son, 

THOMAS POWEL (ap Howel), who had as wife 
Sibyl, dau. of Sir William Vaughan, Kt. To them 
was, with other issue, born a son William Powel, 
of Castell Madog, whose wife was a dau. of Gruffydd 
Jeffrey, of Glyntawe. 

HUGH POWEL, their son, m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of Thomas Gwyn, of Trecastell (ob. 1624). Their 
son, William Powel, was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Hugh Powel, who was High Sheriff in 1666, 
and m. Catherine, dau. of Roger Vaughan, of 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



119 



Merthyr (ob. 1686). Charles ap Howel, his son, 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of George Gwyn, of Llanelwedd, 
and sister to Sir Rowland Gwyn, ob. 1729. 

HUGH POWEL, of Castell Madog, his eldest son 
(b. 1683, High Sheriff 1712), m. Margaret, dau. and 
h. of Walter Thomas, of Talwen-fawr; d. 1749. 
The eldest son, Charles Powel, of Castell Madoc 
(who was High Sheriff of Breconshire 1738), m. 
Catherine, dau. and h. of Hugh Penry, of Cefnbrith, 
ob. 1796. He had a son, who d. an infant; Mar- 
garet, who d. single ; and an eldest dau., Catherine, 
who survived the others and d. single, 1799, 
bringing the direct male line to an end. 

" Catherine left the principal part of her property 
to her cousin, Hugh Price, Clerk, eldest son of her 
aunt Penelope, by Roger Price, and after his death, 
to his son, Hugh Price, the present proprietor 
(1808) of Castle Madoc" (Jones}. 

HUGH PRICE, Clerk, Rector of Little Ilford and 
Rettendon, Essex, now became heir of Castle 
Madoc. He m., 1773, Sarah, dau. of John Turner, 
Esq., of King's Stanley, Gloucestershire, and had, 
with other issue, a son, 

Hugh Price, Esq., of Castle Madoc, who came 
to the estates 1803; was High Sheriff 1815 ; and 
by Sophia, dau. of the late Francis Brodie, Esq., 
Barrister-at-Law, had issue two daus. and one 
surviving son, 

HUGH POWELL, the present owner of Castle 
Madoc. 

Note. The old Castell Madoc was a fortified place, 
the mound of the keep being still visible in the 
grounds. The present mansion of Castle Madoc was 
originally built by Thomas ap Howel in the year 1588, 
and continued to be occupied by his male descendants 
until 1796, when the last Charles Powel leaving an 
only unmarried daughter, the property descended at 
her demise, as explained above, to the Rev. Hugh 
Price, M.A., of Little Ilford and Rettendon, Essex, 
the grandfather of the present proprietor. 

In the churchyard of Llandyfaelog are two stones 
of some interest by reason of their obvious antiquity. 
On one is inscribed the letters C A T V C ; the 
inscription on the other is illegible. The parish has 
a chapel called Llanfihangel Fechan, which is a 
structure displaying much taste, and recently re- 
erected. 

Charles Powel, the last of the name, was a man of 
great mark in the co. of Brecon, and had m. into a 
family whose name has been immortalized, the Penrys 
of Cefnbrith. From this family sprung John Penry, 
the martyr, b. at Cefnbrith 1559, whose zeal, as a 
young clergyman, for the religious good of his country- 
men of Wales brought him to the scaffold in 1593 
(under Elizabeth}. Of the family of Castle Madoc and 
of Charles Powel, Jones (Hist, of Breck. } speaks as 
follows : "Their characteristic for several generations 
was that of plain, unaffected country gentlemen, hos- 
pitable to strangers, neighbours, and friends, and 
charitable to the poor ; but the last Charles Powel 
was a man of more than common talent, improved by 
an intercourse and correspondence with several of the 
learned of his day, and by great reading and much 
experience during the progress of a long life." 

SHABPE, George, Esq., of Glaslyn Court, 
Breconshire. 

Is a J. P. for the co. of Brecon; served 
some years in the Sherwood Rangers, and 
more recently as Lieut, in the 3rd Brecon- 
shire Rifles ; is grandson of J. Lister, Esq , 



of Durdham Castle, Notts ; b. at Lincoln, 
March 25th, 1803; ed. at Lincoln; m., 
July 23, 1843, the only child of William 
Taylor, Esq., Bamburg Park, Licolnshire; 
s. to estates in Lincolnshire and Notts in 
1862 ; has issue 7 sons and 3 daus. 

Heir: William Taylor Sharpe, Bamburg Park, 
Lincolnshire. 

Residence: Glaslyn Court, Crickhowel. 
Arms : On a field azure, a pheon head, argent ; 
a border, or, charged with eight torexes, gules. 

Crest : An eagle's head, erased, azure, gorged 
with a ducal coronet, or, holding in its mouth 
a pheon-head, argent. 

Motto : Dum spiro spero. 

Note. Prominent members of this family in the 
time of the Stuarts were the Listers of Coleby, Lincoln- 
shire, which gave to the county several high sheriffs, 
as also members of Parliament to both the city and 
county of Lincoln. Glaslyn Court is a modern house, 
standing in a pleasant part of the Vale of Crickhowel, 
on the banks of the Usk. 

THOMAS, Mrs., of Llwyn Madog, Breconshire. 
Mrs. Clara Thomas is the widow of Henry 
Thomas, Esq., of Llwyn Madog, who was 
J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Brecon, and 
Chairman of Quarter Sessions for same 
co. ; he d, 1863. Mrs. Thomas is dau. 
and h. of the late Thomas Thomas, Esq., 
of Pencerrig, Rad. (who d. 18 ), by 
Bridget, dau. of Marmaduke Gwynne, 
Esq., of Llanelwedd Hall, Rad., and Garth, 
Brec. ; she m. Henry Thomas, Esq., of 
Llwyn Madog, 1835, and has surviving 
issue an only dau., Clara. 

Residences : Llwyn Madog, Builth, Brec. ; and 
Pencerrig, Rad. 

Arms: Arg. on a chevron indented, az., two 
wyverns, rencontrant ; on a chief az. 3 cinquefoils, 
or. 

Jones (Hist. Brec.} thinks the Llwyn Madog 
arms should be Elystan Glodrydd's. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Thomas of Llwyn-Madog 
has been seated at that place for several 
generations; and the ancestors of Mrs. 
Thomas, the family of Thomas of Llan- 
bradach, co. of Glamorgan, had long been 
possessors of that estate. 

Respecting the latter, the ancestry of 
Mrs. Thomas, now in possession of Llwyn 
Madog, we learn from a MS., once be- 
longing to Sir Isaac Heard, Clarencieux 
K. of A., and edited by Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart., that 

Thomas Bevan, of Llanbradach, gent, 
was the son of Evan Llewelyn David, and 
m. Ann, dau. to Lewis Prichard Gwyn, of 
Merthyr. [This was about A.D. 1500.] 
He had a son, 

Rees Thomas [here the name Thomas. 



BRECONSHIRE 



begins], of Llanbradach, gent., who m. 
Elizabeth, dau. to Richard Cam, of Nash, 
and had three sons ; the eldest being John 
Thomas, of Llanbradach, who m. Mary, 
dau. of Edmond Morgan, of Bedwellty, 
Esq., by whom he had several children. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, Wil- 
liam, whose wife was Joan, dau. and h. of 
Lewis Llewelyn, of Rhyd Lavar, by whom 
he had, among other issue, a son Thomas, 
who married, and had a son called Thomas 
ap Thomas, of Llanbradach. He m. 
Dorothy, dau. of Sir John Carew, Kt. 
His son and h., 

William Thomas, who lived at Llanbra- 
dach A.D. 1678, m. a dau. of Thomas 
Morgan, Esq., of Machen, and had, among 
other issue, a son named William Thomas, 
of Llanbradach. 

Lewis Thomas, gent, second son of the 
above Rees Thomas, m. a dau. of Harry 
Morgan, sen., of Penllwyn Sarth, &c. 

For the late Mr. Thomas's descent, see 
Jones, Hist. Brcc. 

THOMAS, The Rev. . Jones Thomas, of 
Ilanthomas, Breconshire. 

Is J. P. for the cos. of Brecon and Radnor, 
Vicar of Llanigan, Breconshire ; son of 
the late David Thomas, Esq., J. P. and 
D. L. for the cos. of Brecon and Radnor, 
of Wellfield, Radnorshire ; b. 1811 ; ed. at 
St. Peter's Coll., Cambr. ; grad. B.A. 1835, 
M.A. 1838; m., 1839, a dau. of Rev. John 
Jones, of Hereford, and has issue 6 sons 
and 5 daus. 

Residence : Llanthomas, Hay. 

Note. For Lineage, see Thomas, Wellfield, Radnor- 
shire. 



WATKINS, The Rev. Thomas, of Lloegyr 
Fawr, Breconshire. 

Is Rector of Llansantfraed (Llan-Sant- 
Ffraid), Breconshire, formerly Curate of 
Astley, Worcestershire ; eldest son of the 
late Thomas Watkins, Esq., of Lloegyr 
Fawr, by Elizabeth, dau. of Evan Bevan, 
Esq., of Wernfawr ; b. at Bronllys Court, 
March 18, 1805 ; ed. under the Rev. 
Thomas Phillips, D.D., Cantab. ; grad. at 
Cambridge, B.A. 1828, M.A. 1831 ; /., 
ist June, 1840, Emily, third dau. of Rev. 
James Buckingham, D.C.L., Vicar of 
Barrington, Devon (d. s. p.}; 2nd, Dec., 
1854, Charlotte Frances Bargrave, youngest 
dau. of William Bridger, Esq., of Eastry 
Court, co. of Kent, and has issue from this 



marriage a son, Thomas Chichele Bargrave, 
b. August 26, 1856, at Llansantfraed 
Rectory ; s. (along with his two brothers, 
co-heirs, since d.} on the death of his 
father to several estates in cos. of Brecon, 
Radnor, and Hereford. 

Heir: Thomas Chichele Bargrave, who is 
maternally descended from families of distinction 
in Kent, among others, from a brother of Arch- 
bishop Chichele ; from Lord Wotton, Baron 
Morley, of Boughton, Lord Lieut, of Kent, 
ambassador in time of Queen Elizabeth, and 
brother of Sir Henry Wotton, ambassador to 
Venice ; the Derings of Surrenden ; Sir Francis 
Lee, of Hawley ; the Bargraves, the Tournays, and 
Bridgers of Eastry Court (see Hasted' s Hist, of 
Kent). 

Residence: The Rectory, Llansantfraed, Brecon. 

Arms:- Az. a wolf rampant, regardant, ar. , 
langued and unguled. 

Motto : Primum tutare domum. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Watkins, in its oldest records 
" Watkyn," traditionally said to be descended 
from Tydwal Gloff, has for centuries been estab- 
lished in this co. as considerable landowners, and 
useful members of the different liberal professions. 
Thomas Watkins, grandfather of the present 
representative, was b. at Lloegyr Fawr, and m. 
Sibyl, dau. of Lewis Powell, Esq., of Maespoeth, 
and his gr. grandfather, Thomas Watkins, Esq., 
the sixth in succession of the same name at Lloegyr 
Fawr, m. Anne, dau. of Roger Thomas, Esq., 
of Logyn. 

WILLIAMS, Evan, Esq., of AberysMr, Brecon- 
shire. 

J.P. for Breconshire, appointed 1860; son 
of the late Daniel Williams, Esq., of Abery- 
skir; b. 1789; ed. at Christ's College, 
Brecon; m., 1824, Hannah, dau. of Rees 
Price, Esq., of Gaer, Breconshire ; s. on 
the death of his father, in the year 1847 ; 
had issue 2 daus., Rachel and Margaret, 
both deceased. 

Heir: His nephew, Rees Williams, Esq., of 
Pencelli Castle, J. P. of Breconshire. 
Residence: Aberyskir, near Brecon. 

Note. Aberyskir is situated close by the confluence 
of the Eskir and Usk, as the name implies, and near 
the old British fortress of Gaer, or "Benni," the 
mother of Brecon. The little church of Aberyskir, 
close to the house, has been recently restored, and 
has standing against its pine-end a sculptured stone, 
recently exhumed from the churchyard soil, which 
seems to be of great antiquity and interest, and calls 
for the attention of competent antiquarians. The 
present house was built by the present proprietor, 
Mr. Williams, in 1837, on the site of an ancient 
edifice. 

WILLIAMS, The Eev. Garnons, of Aber- 
camlais. 

Incumbent of Bettvvs Penpont, Brecon- 
shire, diocese of St. David's ; formerly 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF BRECONSHIRE. 



121 



Vicar of Llowes, in Radnorshire ; after- 
wards Vicar of Brecon ; Rural Dean ; 
J. P. for Brecon shire and Radnorshire ; 
Chairman of Brecon Board of Guardians ; 
Presid. of Breconshire Chamber of Agri- 
culture ; son of the Very Rev. Thomas Wil- 
liams, Dean of Llandaff; b. at Glangavenny, 
near Abergavenny : ed. at Bridgenorth 
School, and Oriel College, Oxford ; grad. 
B.A. 1851; ;;/., Jan. n, 1854, Catherine 
Frances Hort, dau. of Fenton Hort, Esq., 
Hardvvick House, Monmouthshire ; s. to 
the estate of Abercamlais 1861 ; has issue 
5 sons and 3 daughters. (See Lineage.") 

Heir : Arthur Garnons Williams. 

Residence : Abercamlais, near Brecon. 

Arms: The Sullen amis : arg. a chevron, gu., 
between 3 bulls' heads, sa. The full shield 
quarters the arms of PENRY, Llwyncyntefin, of 
GARNONS, and of DAVIES. 

Crest : Bull's head. 
Motto : Fide et amore. 

LINEAGE. 

The ancient and influential family of Abercamlais, 
of which that of Williams of Penpont (which see) 
is a branch, is able to trace its pedigree without 
interruption to the eleventh century, temp. William 
Rufus, when by sanction of that king, the Norman 
knight, Bernard de Neuf Marche, or Newmarch, 
made the conquest of the country now called 
Breconshire, but at that time called Brycheiniog. 
Among the companion knights of Bernard was 
one who probably had come from the neighbour- 
hood of Boulogne, for he went by the name de 
Boulogne, or Bullen, but it is uncertain whether 
his Christian name was Richard or Thomas. 
Opinion seems to incline in favour of the latter. 

Sir Thomas de Boulogne, or Bullen (from one 
branch of whose descendants Anne Boleyn, 
mother of Queen Elizabeth, derived), was rewarded 
for his services with a lordship in Talgarth. He m. 
Alice, a dau. of Walter de Bredwardine. In the 
fourth generation from Thomas, Lawrence Bullen 
broke through the rule which had hitherto been 
followed by his family, who had always inter- 
married with Norman settlers, and m. a wife "of 
the daughters of the land," viz., Margaret, dau. of 
Philip Fychan of Tyle-glas. The name Bullen was 
now dropped, and the son of Lawrence, after the 
Welsh fashion, was called 

John Lawrence ; he m. a dau. of John Gunter, 
and his son, Richard Lawrence of Talgarth, m. a 
dau. of Philip Havard of Trevithel. His son, 

Philip ap Richard, m. Jane,'dau. of Lewis Havard 
of Tredomen, and had a son, William ap Philip, of 
Llanspyddid (in whom originated the name Wil- 
liams), who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Richard ap 
leuan Meredith. His son, 

Thomas Williams (d. 1613), m. Anne, dau. of 
Thomas Stonies, Esq., of Even-jobb, Rad. His 
son, 

DANIEL WILLIAMS, clerk, Vicar of Myddfeand 
Llanspyddid, m. Sarah, dau. of John Lewis, Esq., 
of Ffrwdgrech, near Brecon, and in addition to his 
eldest son, Thomas, had two sons, John and 
Richard, who respectively became the founders of 
the branch families of Penpont and Aberbran. It 
will be seen before the end of this pedigree that the 



Aberbran branch has now become reunited to the 
paternal house of Abercamlais. 

Thomas Williams of Abercamlais, clerk, LL.B., 
m. Anne, dau. of Jeffrey Jeffreys, Esq., of Aber- 
cynrig, and had issue, 

Thomas Williams, Esq., of Abercamlais. He m. 
Esther, dau. and co-h. of Elias Owen, clerk, Vicar 
of Beguildy, d. 1700. His third son, Thomas 
Williams, clerk, m. Eliza, dau. of Hugh Penry, 
Esq., of Llwyncyntefin, and had issue, 

John Williams, Esq., of Abercamlais, who m. 
Sarah, dau. of Penry Williams, Esq. , of Penpont. 
Their son, 

John Williams of Abercamlais, clerk, Arch- 
deacon of Cardigan, m. Anne, dau. of Penry 
Williams, Esq. (the 2nd), of Penpont, and had, 
with other issue, a daughter, Martha Williams, 
who became the wife of Richard Davies, clerk, 
Archdeacon of Brecon. He left a dau., Elizabeth, 
who m. her relative, Thomas Williams, clerk, of 
Aberbran, who afterwards became, and now is, 
Dean of Llandaff. (See Williams, Llandaff.} 
The Very Rev. Thomas Williams, by his wife, 
Martha Williams, has had issue, 

i . GARNONS WILLIAMS, now of Abercamlais, 
clerk, as above. 2. Richard (d. imm.). 3. Martha, 
d. young. 4. Thomas. 5. Herbert, who m. 
Frances Catherine Dickenson. 6. Elizabeth Anne. 
7. Annabella. 8. Catherine Isabella. 

The Rev. Garnons Williams has issue as follows : 
I. Arthur Garnons. 2. Richard Davies Garnons. 
3. Aylmer Herbert Garnons. 4. Gerald Garnons. 
5. Katharine Frances Helena Garnons. 6. Anna- 
bella Mary Garnons. 7. Hugh P. B. Garnons, 
d. an infant. 8. Mark Penry Fenton Garnons. 
9. Mary Elizabeth Garnons. 

Note. The mansion of Abercamlais was erected 
about the year 1571, but has from time to time been 
considerably altered and enlarged. The hall and the 
dining-room are panelled with dark oak, and with 
the staircase do not appear to have undergone much 
alteration. The hall contains several pieces of elabo- 
rately carved old oak furniture of much interest. A 
dress supposed to have belonged to Queen Elizabeth, 
of rich silk, embroidered with gold and silver thread, 
with the letter E worked all over it, is preserved at 
Abercamlais. 

This family is in possession of four ancient houses, 
Newton, once the home of the Games (of which see 
engraving}, Aberbran, Abercamlais, and Llwyn- 
cyntefin, a full account of which may be found in 
Jones's History of Breconshire. Llwyncyntefin 
was formerly the home of the Penrys, now extinct, 
but represented by Rev. Garnons Williams. Aber- 
bran, now a farmhouse, is built in part of the materials 
of the ancient mansion ; ruins of two other old 
mansions are seen in the gardens. 

N.B. A serious printer's error occurs in the 
Abercamlais pedigree as given in Jones's Hist, of 
Brec., where, by a misplaced connecting mark, the 
descent is made to pass from Thomas Williams, Esq., 
who m. Esther, dau. of Elias Owen, clerk, through a 
dau., whereas it was through the third son, THOMAS, 
who m. Eliza, dau. of Hugh Penry, Esq., of Llwyn- 
cyntefin, by whom that estate passed to the Williams 
family. This is worth noting by members of the 
family and others. 

WILLIAMS, Penry, Esq., of Penpont, Brecon- 
sMre. 

Is J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Brecon ; 
Chairman of Q. Sessions for the same co. ; 



123 



BRECONSHIRE. 



was High Sheriff 1848; eldest son of the 
late Penry Williams, Esq., J. P., Lord 
Lieutenant of co. of Brecon, and of his 
wife Maria, dau. of Samuel Yeates, Esq., 
of Gloucestershire ; b. at Penpont, Nov. 3, 
1807 ; ed. at Westminster School and 
Christ Church, Oxford; grad. B.A. 1830; 
m., 1832, Anne, dau. of T. Downes, Esq., 
of Hereford, and has, with other issue, 
a son, Penry Boleyne Williams (see LINE- 
AGE, infra); s. to estates 1847. 

Heir: Penry Boleyne, b. 1838. 
Residence : Penpont, near Brecon. 
Crest : Bull's head. 
Motto : Fide et amore. 

LINEAGE. 

This family, like that of Abercamlais, of which 
it is a junior branch, is one of the longest estab- 
lished and most easily traced of the ancient houses 
of Breconshire, and has frequently intermarried 
with the most distinguished of them. Although 
now, and for some generations past, through al- 
liances with the Cymric race, a properly and even 
intensely Welsh family, it traces its first parentage 
to a Norman stock, and its first establishment to 
the conquest of Brycheiniog by ,the Lord Marcher, 
Bernard Newmarch. Among the knights who 
assisted Bernard in this conquest was one De 
Boulogne, or Bullen, about whose Christian name, 
if he had one for it was only about that time that 
Christian names came into use, there is some 
question as to whether it was Thomas or Richard. 
Perhaps he was called by both names. 

Sir Thomas, or Richard Bullen, or De Boulogne, 
had conferred upon him a lordship in Talgarth, and 
he m. Alice, dau. of Walter de Bredwardine. For 
four generations his descendants continued to be 
called by the name Bullen, and formed near con- 
nections with Anglo-Norman families ; but Law- 
rence Bullen broke through the custom, and m. 
a lady of the British race, Margaret, dau. 
of Philip Fychan, of Tyle-Glas ; and their son, 
after the Welsh fashion, took as his surname or 



rather, patronymic the Christian name of his 
father, and was called John Lawrence of Talgarth. 
For four more generations this intermittent system 
of name-giving was followed, until with Thomas ap 
Will/am, of Llanspyddid (who d. 1613), the name 
William-s originated, and has ever since continued 
(see full pedigree under Williams, Abercamlais'). 

Thomas had a son, Daniel, in holy orders, of 
Abercamlais, and his 2nd son, John, ;//. Margaret, 
dau. of Hugh Penry, Clerk, Vicar of Defynog, 
and their son, 

DANIEL WILLIAMS, of Abercamlais, m., as 
second wife, Sybil, dau. of George Gwyn, of Llanel- 
wedd. He built Penpont, 1660, and founded the 
Penpont branch of the family. His son, 

Penry Williams, of Penpont, m. Anne Jane 
Shepherd, and had issue a son, also called Penry, 
who, by his wife Anne, dau. of Thomas Smith, 
Esq., had a son, Philip Williams, who m., as his 
second wife, Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. of John 
Osborne, Esq., and had issue a son, 

Penry Williams, Esq., of Penpont, who m. 
Maria, dau. of Samuel Yeates, Esq. , of Gloucester- 
shire, and had issue, besides 2 daus., Maria (d. 
1811), Anne Maria, and Philip Penry, 

PENRY WILLIAMS, Esq., the present owner of 
Penpont, who m. as above, and has had issue 

Penry Boleyne, b. 1838 ; Anne Maria ; Elizabeth 
Anna ; Philip Downes (d. 1869) ; James Osborne 
(d. 1871); Fanny Catharine; Adelaide Mary; 
Blanche Emily. 

Note. Penpont is pleasantly situated in a well- 
sheltered part of the Vale of Usk, about four miles 
above Brecon. The grounds contain some fine speci- 
mens of cedar and fir. In the near neighbourhood of 
the mansion, and on the Penpont estate, is the site of 
the ancient castle of Einion Sais, ancestor of Sir 
David Gam ; but no trace of the structure now re- 
mains. Capel Bettws, tastefully restored, adjoins the 
grounds. Rhydybriw, Defynog, Aberbran, Aberyskir. 
Abercamlais, and the church of Llanspyddid, with its 
celebrated yews, with other places of historic note, 
are in this immediate locality. The Williamses of 
Penpont, Abercamlais, and Aberbran, all of one 
origin, have long occupied a leading position in the 
co. of Brecon. 



ADDENDUM. 



Of the following families information has not been obtained in time for the press : 



Bevan, Rev. W. L., Vicar of Hay. 

Davies, Ven. Archd. R. W. Payne, of Court- 

y-gollen, Crickhowel. 
Evans, David, Esq., Brecon, J. P. and D. L. 

for Breconshire. 
Evans, Thomas John, Esq., of Tymawr-yn-y- 

Glyn, High Sheriff of Breconshire 1871. 
Hotchkis, John, Esq., of Glanusk Villa, 

Crickhowel. 



Powell, William, Esq., Chapel House, Builth, 

J. P., High Sheriff for Breconshire 1870. 
Roberts, Martin John, Esq., of Penydarran 

House, Crickhowel. 
Thomas, John Evan, Esq., of Brecon, and 

Belgrave Place, London, J. P. and D. L. 

for co. of Brecon. 
West, William Henry, Esq., of Gliffaes, 

Crickhowel. 



ANNALS, &c., OF WALES, 



CARDIGANSHIRE 

(CEREDIGION). 

CARDIGANSHIRE is one of the older counties of Wales. It belongs to that group of divisions 
of the lands of the Principality which was formed under the Statutes of Rhuddlan at the 
conquest by Edward I. As compared, therefore, with such shires as Monmouth, Brecon, 
Radnor, &c., which, as counties, were the creations of Henry VIII., Cardiganshire has the 
advantage in age of about two centuries and a half. Before the conquest by Edward I. this 
part of Wales was generally ruled by a regulus, or provincial lord, acknowledging the 
superiority of one or other of the Welsh princes or kings. Generally this superior ruler 
would be the King or Prince of Dyfed (Dimetia), which, in the tripartite division of Wales 
made by Rhodri Mawr, included the three south-western counties, and was presided over, 
after Rhodri's decease, by his son Cadell, with his residence at Dinefawr. 

So abrupt and frequent, however, were the changes and disruptions of government under 
the Welsh chieftains, that it is often hard to say who, at a particular time, was the actual ruler 
of a particular region. Cadell for a time ruled the greater part of South-western Wales ; soon 
after we find Howel Dda, his son, king of all Wales, north and south ; while a little further 
on the country is broken into a variety of small princedoms, again, by and by, to be gathered 
into one under Gruffydd ap Llewelyn, and last of all under Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, who 
died in the struggle with Edward I. 

Cardiganshire bears a name borrowed from old Cymric times. " Cardigan-" is a com- 
pressed form of the ancient Welsh name Ceredigion, and the county was so called after 
Ceredig, or Caredig, a somewhat legendary king mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth. But 
be the king fabulous or real, his name, in some way or other, has become attached to this 
part of Wales, handed down to us by the olden national literature, half poetic, half historical, 
and at last has been crystallized and rendered permanent in the English designation. 

It is thus seen that in the name Cardigan, the first part, Car, has a different origin from 
that of Car or Caer in Carmarthen and Carnarvon : in the former case it is part of the 
name of a person ; in the latter it is Caer, a stronghold, or fortified place. 



SECTION I. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

This county in form is long and narrow, stretching nearly towards the north-east from the 
river Teivi to the river Dyfi, with one side lying on the Cardigan Bay, and the other on 



124 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Carmarthenshire and Radnorshire. In extreme length Cardiganshire measures about forty- 
two miles, and in average breadth about twenty, although in the north-east, where it bounds 
over the Tregaron mountains to greet its neighbour Breconshire on the Towy, its width 
extends to thirty-five miles. It contains a superficies of 675 square miles, or 432,000 acres. 
Its total population in four successive censuses is given as follows : 

Total population in 1841 68,766 

Do. 1851 70,796 

Do. 1861 72,245 

Do. 1871 73,488 

showing a small but regular increase, which has taken place mainly in the seaside towns, 
and more especially in the attractive watering-place of Aberystwyth. 

The great surface features of the county of Cardigan are not mountains, but rivers. 
These great agents, through unnumbered ages, have been at work ploughing down what at 
one time was a comparatively equable, undulating region into deep and narrow valleys in 
some cases rugged and precipitous gorges, all travelling from the hilly side towards the Bay 
of Cardigan, and in the same general direction from east to west. The largest river of the 
county, the Teivi (corruptly spelt " Tivy "), which forms the boundary of the county along 
the greater part of its inland side, travels a good distance from its source in the mountains 
above Tregaron as far as Llandyssul, in a direction nearly S.W., parallel with the distant 
sea-shore, and thence to Cardigan travels in a line nearly E. and W., parallel with the Aeron, 
the Ystwylh, and other streams. 

The courses of these rivers mark the richest land, determine the position of towns, 
villages, and, with a few exceptions, the seats of the gentry. A notable exception is the 
mansion of Havod, one of the most costly and interesting residences in the county of Car- 
digan, situated far away among the bleakest and most misty uplands, but by the art and toil 
of man, in spite of, and even by the aid of the ruggedness of nature, surrounded with scenes 
of remarkable beauty and fertility. 

Most travelling guide-books, following each other, and dispensing with an actual inspec- 
tion of the county they profess to describe, indulge in a vein of depreciation when speaking 
of the scenery of Cardiganshire. They deem it prevailingly bleak, barren, poverty-stricken, 
dismal. And in keeping with the physical aspect of the land is the condition and character 
of the people. In one hovel of only one floor, with sometimes the skeleton of a division into 
two compartments, sleep both men and cattle. None of the houses have chimneys, the 
smoke maintaining a perpetual and by degrees successful fight for exit with what is called 
the roof, and the rain proving about equally successful in its endeavour to reach the floor. 
The county of Cardigan, it is true, is not the first in Wales for improvement in farm and 
cottage dwellings, in husbandry, and in general culture, but the picture it offers when seen 
is several degrees more comely than what is frequently given in letterpress. 

Although this county might on the whole be described as not mountainous, but hilly, 
interspersed with fertile valleys, with its hilly parts more like a rolling, broken plateau than 
an even base supporting distinct hills, it nevertheless possesses some considerable eminences. 
A strip stretches on the N.E. into Montgomeryshire, as if done on purpose, in order to 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 125 

secure for Cardiganshire one of the proudest hill-tops in the south namely, Pen-llyman, the 
standard-bearing top, usually written, in helpless ignorance of etymology, but with com- 
mendable attention to euphony, " Plinlimmon," a term which carries no shadow of sense 
or reason. In times of war among the Welsh, when hill-tops were used as places of obser- 
vation and signalling, by bonfires by night and standards by day, Penllyman, standing on 
the borders between north and south two provinces nearly always fighting or preparing to 
fight each other must have been a place of importance almost equal to Cader Arthur in 
Brycheiniog, or Eryri in the north. This bald, uninteresting eminence is 2,463 feet above 
the sea level, and forms a ridge of several miles in length, running at various elevations 
north and south. From its bosom issue forth the beginnings of several noble streams ; the 
Severn and the Wye take hence their departure eastwards, diverging by degrees to fertilize 
different regions, afterwards to blend their waters together as they plunge into the Bristol 
Channel ; the Rheidol from its western spurs takes its journey swiftly southwards to 
encounter that terrific leap near the Devil's Bridge a name expressive enough of the 
dreadfulness of the place, but rather inappropriate as an exponent of its sublimity and 
beauty, and then turning sharply round, as if with a sense of having performed an intended 
exploit, wends its way with laughter and singing, amid scenes of quieter grandeur, towards 
the western sea, blending its waters lovingly with those of the Mynach, the braver though 
smaller stream which, having sprung from another side of the same mountain, has just cleared 
the loftier leap of the real Devil's Bridge. 

These twin falls of Pont-ar-Fynach and Rheidol, with their charmed surrounding scenery, 
equal anything of the kind to be found in Wales ; and the hotel accommodation on the very 
spot is equal to the requirements of the most fastidious. Neither of the falls can be compared 
to the Swiss Staubach, 800 feet in one unbroken leap, or the Reichenbach, which in a suc- 
cession of falls makes a descent of 2,000 feet; nor are they, indeed, in some respects equal 
to the long-drawn-out cataract of Aber, in Carnarvonshire ; but as a combination picture, 
formed of the various elements of precipitous rocks, yawning chasms, roaring torrents in 
mad contention, steep declivities clothed with various foliage, and all in so narrow a compass, 
and presented at once to the eye, they greatly surpass any of these. The Staubach, through 
its great height and smallness of volume, dwindles into the appearance of a white streak in 
the air, and is so soft and light that it floats like a veil, twists and almost dissipates in the 
breeze, whence the name " Staub-bach," or the aW-stream ; and the Reichenbach, though 
a truly wild and roaring torrent of great volume, has not the appreciable picturesqueness and 
beauty of the Mynach falls. 

Though in describing a spot so enchanting as this, one ought to remember that there are 
others still more enchanting, one is tempted by the fascination of the scene, in seeking to do 
justice and express the sensations of the moment, to use language somewhat exaggerating. 
The present grand is apt to be the grandest, the present beauty the most beauteous in 
creation. The Devil's Bridge scenery is not the finest, its rocks and falls are not the most 
stupendous, its hanging woods not the most gloomy and labyrinthine, nor its chasms and 
black pools the most Acherontic in the world ; and yet the place has its characteristics, and 
these are so delightful that when under their full influence you feel as if you had seen 
nothing to surpass them. Hence it is that travellers have pronounced eulogies on this spot 
that would be respectably adequate if applied to Niagara. One writes, describing the little 



126 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



stream of Mynach, " This truly Acherontic stream, which forces itself through masses of 
opposing rocks, tearing deep cavities for the deposition of its unfathomable waters, and 
thickening the misty gloom of a recess impervious to sunshine, is equalled only by the cataract 
of Narni." Then comes a sensible and truthful description : " The first fall occurs about 
fifty yards below the bridge. The river is here confined to a narrow channel by lofty, 
precipitous rocks ; and from the deep inclination of its bed is thrown with great violence 
over a rock about twenty feet in height into a black pool beneath. Scarcely has the water 
been forced from this foaming receptacle, when it is projected from another precipice of not 
less than sixty feet into a similar reservoir ; from this it hurries to a third fall of twenty feet, 
and shortly after is precipitated in an unbroken cataract full one hundred feet in perpen- 
dicular height." 

The valley of the Rheidol, for several miles below the falls, offers a continuous succession 
of beautiful scenery, but as it approaches Aberystwyth its sides become more tame, and its 
bottom more marred by the debris of floods to the overflow of which this valley is greatly 
subject after heavy rains on the moorlands and hills. It arrives at Aberystwyth like a 
traveller wearied with his journey, a painful contrast to the dancing and springing Rheidol 
of the mountain and the rocky glens above. 




GOGERDDAN : THE SEAT OF SlR PRYSE PRYSE, BART. 



In the valley of Rheidol are found several residences of the gentry, among which may be 
mentioned Glanrheidol, the seat of Thomas Bonsall, Esq. ; Fronfraith, the seat of J. G. W. 
Bonsall, Esq. ; Lovesgrove, the residence of John Evans, Esq. ; while a little to the north, in 
the fertile Vale of Clarach, lies Gogerddan, the ancient home of the distinguished family of 
Pryse, now represented by Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart. (See Pryse, Gogerddan.) 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 127 

The situation of Gogerddan is low, surrounded by venerable woods and hills of moderate 
height. The lands are carefully cultivated, in which matter the tenant farmers of the neigh- 
bourhood have a valuable example set them by Col. E. L. Pryse, of Peithyll, close by, Lord 
Lieutenant of the county, who devotes a considerable portion of his time to fanning and the 
breeding of stock. 

Between the valley of the Rheidol and that of the Dyfi, which forms the line between 
Cardiganshire and Merioneth, the aspects of the county vary considerably, offering in places 
not a few, as between Talybont and Glandyfi Castle, the seat of Mr. Jeffreys, a delightful 
alternation of cultivated fields, prosperous villages, deep and sinuous glens, and rocky 
picturesque elevations, opening, as the traveller approaches the Dyfi, into a magnificent view 
of the estuary of that river, and the wild mountains of Merioneth with their sunny crests 
and dark cavernous gullies beyond. Lodge Park, which is passed on the road near Tre'rddol, 
is a delightfully situated residence, commanding an extensive prospect of land and sea, 
surrounded by sylvan scenes and tastefully ornamented grounds. That part of the county 
which extends between this high road to Machynlleth and Penllyman mountain is wild and 
rugged, broken into deep gullies and dingles, with eminences rocky and desolate a region 
sparsely populated, but delightful to explore. Nearer the sea, along the estuary, there extends 
a marshy flat of many thousand acres, no doubt at one time in the interminable past occupied 
by the tide, but now cut into channels and dykes of miles long for drainage, and traversed by 
the Cambrian Railway, which connects Aberystwyth with Shrevysbury and the north. 

The valley of the Ystwyth is the next leading feature in the face of Cardiganshire to be 
noticed. The watershed of this river is the same mountain system as that of the Rheidol 
Though it is not from the bosom of Penllyman itself the first beginnings of the Ystwyth 
issue, they proceed from that same mountainous district which gives birth to half a dozen 
of the chief rivers of Wales and the English borders. From those wild and desolate 
regions, which would seem to have been created in vain, flow forth, in addition to the Rheido 1 , 
Severn, and Wye, the salmon and Sewin-bearing Teivi, the dashing and foaming Ystwyth, 
and a multitude of smaller streams which ultimately become their con tributaries. The 
mountains in their desolation could exist without the green and wooded vales, could drink 
the sunshine and the fertilizing mists which the ocean sends up to lave their sides ; but the * 
green and wooded vales could not live a single summer without the streams sent down 
from the mountains. 

The Ystwyth draws its first breath in a part of the range referred to which lies within the 
limits of Radnorshire. It is a tiny, but a most lively and playful thing, tortuous and audacious 
in its progress, filling the solitudes of the moorland and the wooded gullies it passes through 
with the rattle of its march, until in that classic land of Havod it receives an accession of 
several mountain rivulets of like wild temper with itself, and then bounds along with 
accelerated speed, chafing with the boulders, springing over dykes, rushing in foaming 
cascades, and by and by spreading itself out in wider volume among the green meadows and 
under the hanging woods which draw their life from the benediction it confers. Its name of 
Ystwyth pliant, elastic is probably owing to the nimbleness and dash of its course. 

Who in Wales who among the literati of England, has not heard of Havod ' 1 The 
stream of Ystwyth has brought us to its door. This is the very place. Although high up 
among the mountains, one feels here the gentle influence of the spirit of culture and art ; and 



128 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

once the name Havod sounds on the ear or flits before the eye of memory, a sense of 
reverence mingled with regretful sadness takes possession of the mind. In this county there 
is no such spot ; in romantic beauty it has scarcely an equal ; in the intense interest of its 
brief history, and the tragic nature of the eclipse under which it passed, it stands absolutely 
alone in the modern history of the Principality. 

Thomas Johnes, of Havod, the translator of Froissart and Monstrelet, the builder and 
tree-planter, has been more than half a century in his grave ; many of the groves he planted 
have been cut down, and the breath of adverse fortune has passed over the hills he loved so 
well ; but the impress of his genius and the charm of his name rest upon the spot as freshly 
and sensibly as if he were still alive. 

In 1783 this place, though long the property of an old family of the Herberts, was a 
rugged and dreary waste, when Mr. Johnes, who inherited the estate, conceived the idea 
of converting the wilderness and the solitary place into a land of pleasantness. In five years 
he had planted on mountain and hill-side, in dingles and valleys, on crags and precipices, 
not less than 2,065,000 trees, of which 1,200,000 were larch. In another year he added 
300,000 larch, 300,000 birch, and 10,000 spruce firs. He employed a multitude of labourers, 
built them comfortable cottages, made roads, and enclosed lands. Once a year a reunion of 
tenants and labourers, with their wives and children, took place at Havod, when the house 
was literally thrown open, and all who came from far or near were welcomed to the 
festive board. Schools were built for the young of the tenantry ; a surgeon was paid an annual 
stipend to attend to the ailments of the poor ; a printing establishment was set up for the 
production of costly books, for with all his building, planting, planning, and attention to 
public affairs as member of Parliament and Lord Lieutenant, Mr. Johnes found leisure to 
translate, edit, and print Froissart, Joinville, Monstrelet, Brocquiere, and other books 
which will carry his name down to a distant posterity. All this was done in the space of 
comparatively few years ; all was apparently prosperous and auspicious. It seemed as if the 
Temple of Knowledge, Peace, and Brotherhood had been opened for perpetual worship in 
these Cardigan hills. But all came to an almost sudden end ; the sumptuous mansion, with 
its costly statuary, carved work, and paintings, its splendid furniture and choice library, with 
jewels, wardrobes, and a thousand objects of art and vertu, were on the i3th of March, 1807, 
consumed by fire ! Lamentable as was the burning, some few years ago, of Wynnstay, with 
its valuable paintings and unique manuscripts, the calamity was small compared with that at 
Havod. Forty years had Mr. Johnes been employed as a collector of books and MSS., and 
the treasures he had accumulated were of great value. No catalogue of his library had ever 
been made, so that " it was consigned not only to destruction, but to oblivion." In three hours 
the havoc was completed. With the exception of the turrets on the corners, the bare walls 
only remained standing when Mr. Johnes returned from his parliamentary duties in London. 
The origin of the fire has continued a mystery. There was a fire-engine on the premises, but, 
there being none present at the time that could work it, the fearful element raged on without 
interruption, until its force was exhausted by the absence of anything more to consume. 

The property being partly insured, about ,20,000 was recovered from the offices, which 
Mr. Johnes spent in restoring the mansion. But a consuming hand had been placed upon 
his house. He had bent his bow beyond its strength. He fell into pecuniary embarrass- 
ments ; his only child, a daughter, died in 1811, Mr. Johnes himself in 1816, and his widow 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



129 



in 1833. The estate of Havod was purchased by the then Duke of Newcastle, who carried 
on the erection of the house and general improvement of the place ; but after a short time, in 
1845, disposed of the property to Sir Henry Hoghton, of Hoghton Tower, Lancashire, who, 
after completing a superb mansion at an immense cost, sold the estate to William Chambers, 
Esq., of Llanelly, who again, in turn, has sold large portions of it to different purchasers, and, 
it is said, contemplates disposing of the whole. Thus, like many other contrivances of great and 
benevolent minds, the idea which Mr. Johnes had cherished, with fondness so enthusiastic, 
of consolidating and decorating an estate of some 14,000 acres in the mountains, and making 
it the gem and pride of his county, has been totally frustrated. Hundreds of poor have lost 
employment, and the country a material source of wealth. The mystery of misfortune has 
another illustration, and the melancholy words of the despondent "Preacher" seem to be 
verified, " The wise man is as the fool ; one event happeneth to them all." 

The Ystwyth, after leaving the domain of Havod, pursues its rapid and boisterous course 
through scenes of great wildness and occasionally of surpassing beauty, until, after travelling 
some twelve or fourteen miles, it begins to glide in a more level bed through the ancient 
manor of the Earl of Lisburne, for many hundred years known in Ceredigion as Trawscoed, 
literally translated and known in English as " Crosswood." 




TRAWSCOED (CROSSWOOD) : THE SEAT OF THE EARL OF LISBURNE. 



The mansion of Trawscoed, situated in an expanded part of the Vale of Ystwyth, is 
sheltered on almost all sides by gently rising hills and luxuriant woods. The place wears 
an air of quietude and aristocratic ease, with the absence of display. The park is spacious, 
and the farm land, which Lord Lisburne himself cultivates, is kept in the highest state of 
order and productiveness. The house is an unpretending edifice of some 250 years old, 
with a spacious entrance hall of the old style, with the massive table spread, and the walls 

K 



130 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

all round covered with valuable paintings of past members of the family. Additions have 
been made to the original structure, among which is a spacious library at the back, elabo- 
rately but chastely decorated, and containing a large collection of valuable books, many of 
them in the Italian and French languages. 

On this spot have the Vaughan family resided since the year 1200, through a long series 
of ages. Like Gogerddan, the same family have continued its owners and occupiers without 
interruption from the first possession. (For pedigree, ,see Lisburne, Crosswood.} In the 
immediate neighbourhood, on the other side of the river, which is here crossed by a skeleton 
bridge amid overhanging woods, is Birchgrove, the embowered residence of the heir of the 
estate, Lord Vaughan, and usually appropriated to a cadet of the family. 

The valley of the Ystwyth, all the way from Crosswood to its discharge into the sea near 
Aberystwyth, offers a continued succession of bright and attractive views. The sides of the 
vale are often broken into ravines and gullies, whose recesses are clothed with the verdure of 
the larch and the birch, while the more barren sides and uplands are enlivened by trim 
cottages and homesteads, and every spot admitting of it is cultivated with diligent thrift. In 
this part of the valley we witness several elegant residences : Llidiarde, the seat of 
G. W. Parry, Esq. ; Castle Hill, the beautifully situated mansion of James Loxdale, Esq. ; 
Abermaide (properly and anciently AbermAd, the junction of the stream Mud with the 




NANTEOS : THE SEAT OF COL. W. T. R. POWELL. 



Ystwyth), where Lewis P. Pugh, Esq., is now (1871) erecting a sumptuous residence from 
designs by the accomplished architect, J. P. Seddon, Esq. Further' on, and to the left of the 
vale, is Ffosrhyd-galed, the seat of James Davies, Esq. ; and near the sea, Tanybu<lch> 
the property of M. L. V. Davies, Esq. 

A little over the hills to the right, embosomed in a warm depression, where several 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 131 

rivulets meet a place made by nature for a home of elegance is the mansion of Nanteos 
surrounded by hills and woodlands, and seen to advantage from the coach road. 

Whether the name of this delightful place, which means the " nightingale's dell," is the 
creation of fancy or the record of fact is not known, but the shy and fastidious songster 
could scarcely exercise her discretion better than by choosing such a locality for her 
summer home. 

The third river in topographical order, as we survey Cardiganshire from north to south, 
and by no means the least interesting, is the Aeron. This little river, which finds the end 
of its travel at Aberaeron formerly a shipbuilding, now a pretty watering-place, drains a 
considerable portion of Central Cardiganshire, having its main watershed on the eastern 
slopes of Mynyddbach, whence it travels for a time in a direction away from the sea, and 
then winds round to the right by Llangeitho and Capel Bettws, towards the Vale of Aeron 
proper, at Llanllyr. At Abermeurig^ the residence of J. E. Rogers, Esq., it receives a small 
contributor^', and at a short distance another, both coming down from the uplands and 
moors dividing these lower parts from the Vale of Teivi to the east. It then, with increased 
volume, and amid wider and more cultured scenes, passes by Llanllyr, the seat of Col. 
John Lewes ; Brynog, that of Capt. Herbert Vaughan ; and all the way to Ciliau Aeron 
and beyond is environed on either side by a well-wooded and lovely landscape. 




TY-GLYN, VALE OF AERON. 



To the right, at the village of Ciliau Aeron, the road branches off for Llanbadarn-trei 
Eglwys, close by the mansion of Tyglyn, the residence of W. J. Davies, Esq., and the 
Misses Davies. This place is of long antiquity, and by reason of old associations its features 
are maintained in their integrity, and made permanent in the engraving above, reproduced 
from a faithful water-colour drawing. 

It is not precisely known at what date this house was erected, a circumstance which 
oi itself testifies to its age; and there are reasons for believing that even in earlier times than 
its own period the site was occupied by very ancient buildings. The scenery around is 



I 3 2 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

rich and varied in the extreme, the valley, though narrow, being at the same time sufficiently 
wide to present fertile meads of some extent, garnished on the sides with shaded glades and 
hanging woods, among which are fine specimens of oak, ash, and elm. The alluvial soil is 
prolific, and the husbandry generally good ; an air of comfort and scrupulous cleanliness 
prevails among the humbler dwellings of the neighbourhood, giving to the traveller the 
impression that this valley, on a small scale, is a copy of Utopia. It is certainly true, as a 
poet has sung, 

"There golden treasures swell the plains, 

And herds and flocks are there ; 

And there the god of plenty reigns 

Triumphant through the year ; " 

but his susceptible nature may have yielded too far to the inspiration of the scene when, in a 
succeeding couplet, he declares against all lands 

" Sweet Aeron's beauties must prevail, 
For angels dwell in Aeron's vale." 

To the north the land rises into a high plateau, on which, towards the east, is planted the 
eminence of Talsarn Mountain, 1,143 f eet above the sea level. The yellow rab and slaty 
rock of the Silurian system often greets the beholder in these elevated parts, not unac- 
companied by their congenial heath and gorse. The farmer has to wage a perpetual war 
with brambles and thistles, extorting a scanty crop from a reluctant and thankless soil, and 




MONACHDY : THE SEAT OF MRS. GWYNNE. 



exciting in the mind ot the impartial passer by the hope that his rent is low and his landlord 
kindly hearted. And yet this upland country is "not without its features of comeliness. 
Here and there a diminutive stream has contrived in the progress of many ages to scoop out 
a defile which the art of man or the spontaneous bounty of nature has decorated with the 
sweet green of the fir, or the quieter hue of the oak ; and frequently on the road fences, 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



'33 



around farm buildings and cottages, the holly shows a luxuriance which is perfectly delightful, 
its red berries and deep sheeny green standing forth in bolder relief in contrast with the general 
barrenness of the region. Not far from Llanbadarn-tref-Eglwys the landscape begins to soften 
and put on its better clothing. The land slopes down towards the pretty Arth, which reaches 
the sea some two miles north of Aberaeron. We pass by Monachdy, the ancient seat of the 
Gwynnes an unassuming but elegant mansion, surrounded by some beautiful groves of fir 
and other timber. 

Returning in our survey to the Vale of Aeron, when passing Ty-glyn, already noticed, we 
leave on the left the mansion of Tymawr, now occupied by W. C. M. Abadam, Esq. (see 
Abadam). In the same neighbourhood is the village of Cilcennin, whose great house, Plas 
Cilcenin, was in the seventeenth century of considerable note, the property and residence of 
Harry Vaughan, sheriff for the county in the time of Cromwell. Near at hand are the 
barrows, probably places of ancient sepulture, called Tri-chrug Aeron, the three cairns of 
Aeron. 




LLANAERON : THE RESIDENCE OF MRS. LEWIS. 



Further down in the direction of Aberaeron the beautiful valley grows wider, and il 
possible more and more rich in its meads and luxuriant in its vegetation. In this part is 
the parish church of Llan-uwchaeron, and in its close vicinity the mansion of Llanaeron, 
situated in as choice a spot as could well be desired for the planting of a happy home. It 
stands on gently rising ground in the midst of the valley; the hill behind is clothed with thick 
masses of trees, which are seen to accompany the river as far as the sinuosities of the valley 
allow the eye to reach, and the whole aspect of the landscape on every hand is completely 
delightful. 

To a townsman, a visit to a place like the Vale of Aeron, so quiet, fragrant, and fair, 
is not so much like a journey from London to Wales as from earth to Elysium. A new 



134 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

set of emotions are awakened, the poetic side of nature receives life, and a man feels himself to 
be different as well as the scenes which surround him. It is then that the pure joy of com- 
munion with Nature in her fairer moods is felt, and while experiencing higher and more 
refined emotions than perhaps were intended to be described in Robin Hood's ballad, 

' ' In somer when the shawes be sheyn, 

And leves be large and long, 
Hit is full merye in feyne foreste 

To here the foulys song ; 
To see the dere draw to the dale 

And leve the hilles hee, 
And shadow hem in the leves grene, 

Under the grene wode tree," 

the mind is able better than in the murky and noisy city to understand the pleasures of free 
forest life, and yields assent to Longfellow's words, 

" Your voiceless lips, O flowers, are living preachers ; 

Each cup a pulpit, every leaf a book, 
Supplying to the fancy numerous teachers 
From loveliest nook. 

" 'Neath cloistered boughs each floral bell that swingeth, 

And tolls its perfume on the passing air, 
Makes Sabbath in the fields, and ever ringeth 
A call to prayer." 

The Teivi, which may be called the great boundary stream of Cardiganshire, for half its 
length has a quiet run among quiet and uninteresting scenes. Taking its rise from a small 
lake, Llyn Teifi, situated in the wild and bleak mountains to the north of Tregaron, called 
in Giraldus's time (twelfth century) the " Mountains of JEllenith," which form the watershed 
for Cardiganshire on one side, and for the Claerwen and tributaries of the Elan, in Radnor- 
shire, on the other, it passes by the celebrated abbey of Ystradflur (again to be noticed 
in our section on Antiquities), Tregaron, Llanddewi Brefi, Lampeter, first through moorland 
and morass, which present above Strata Florida and Tregaron, as wild and inhospitable a 
ountry as the imagination can well portray, and then through a valley which by degrees 
grows in fertility and beauty, until at Llandyssul it fairly plunges into the midst of scenes of 
the richest verdure, which rise at times into picturesque magnificence, and continue to delight 
the eye to the very end of the river's course below Cardigan. 

Of Llyn Teivi, the source of this river, Leland has this account: " Of all the pooles none 
stondeth in so rokky and stony soile as Tyve doth, that hath withyn hym many stonis. The 
ground al about Tyve, and a great mile towards Stratfler, is horrible with the sighte of bare 
stonis as Creg-eryri [Snowdon] mountains, &c. Llyn Tyve is in cumpase a 3 quarters of a 
mile, being 2 m. be E. from Stratfler. It is fedde fro hyer places with a little broket, and 
issueth out again by a smaulle gut. Ther is in it veri good trouttes and elys, and no other 
fisch. Tyve (river) runith from the hedde stil, almost plane West, untille he touchith within 
a 6 m. of Cuirmardin, and thense turnith towards the N." These measurements, &c., are 
the fruit of loose guessing. Of lakes in the neighbourhood of Llyn Teivi there are several, 
and like it, good for trout. The cheerless appearance of the mountain is compensated, says 
one tourist and angler, by the excellent sport the pools afford. On leaving Llyn Tc-i?'i, a walk 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



135 



of a few minutes will bring you to the top of the mountain, and at once in view of four more 
lakes, each within a few yards of the other, all containing trout. 

In the fair country a little above Lampeter, to the right of the course of the Teivi, is 
situated Derry Ormond, commanding an extensive view of mountain "and vale. In the 
neighbourhood of Lampeter are also Glandenys, the seat of William Jones, Esq. (see Jones, 
Glandenys], and Falcondale, the seat of J. Battersby Harford, Esq. (see Harford, Falcondale) ? 
with numerous other residences of less note. As will be seen under the head of " Old and 
Extinct Families," this part of the county has been long distinguished for men prominent in 
station and in public life, some of whose mansions still remain, while the very sites of others 
are undistinguishable. 




DERRY ORMOND: THE SEAT OF JOHN INGLIS JONES, ESQ. 



The town of Lampeter differs in little from other small country towns, except in the 
possession of an institution for the education of the clergy of the Established Church, open 
also for the reception of lay students, without respect to ecclesiastical relations. St. David's 
College was established some fifty years ago with the especial design of improving the 
educational tone of the Welsh clergy. For some years the Rev. Eliezer Williams had con- 
ducted a school of his own at Lampeter, of which town he was vicar, and had been sanctioned 
by the bishop of the diocese to train young men for the Church. " His plan was, after 
having for the first five years led candidates for holy orders through several of the classics, 
and through a course of general literature, to direct them to the study of theology. It was 
his special solicitude not only that they should acquire a habit of expressing their ideas upon 
paper with facility, but that they should devote a portion of their time to the study of rhetoric, 
and to a graceful and effective elocution in their native tongue." 

It was now projected to convert this school into a more formal college. In order to 
accomplish this end a fund was formed, towards which each incumbent contributed a tentli o.t 



136 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

one year's income from his benefice. As a beginning the bishop himself put down the sum 
of ;i2o, a proportionate part of the revenue of his see, and ultimately his Majesty George IV., 
the English universities, the lords of the manor, and various other benevolent persons, 
contributed with great liberality towards the undertaking. Thus was the project con- 
ceived of founding the noble institution which has since been designated St. David's College. 
Mr. Williams died in 1820. In the year 1823 the foundation stone was laid by the venerable 
Bishop (Burgess) of St. David's. (See Works of Rev. Eliezer Williams, ed. by his son, Rev. ' 
St. George A. Williams, pp 88, &c.) 

The college calendar informs us that the college was incorporated by royal charter in 
A.D. 1828, and empowered to grant upon examination the degree of Bachelor in Theology to 
certificated members having been five years in priest's orders. The institution has gone on 
progressing in usefulness, from lime to time extending its plan of study to meet the 
requirements of the age. A new charter, with further privileges, was a few years ago 
obtained, together with a large augmentation to the funds. It has now a staff of six 
professors; the Principal is the Very Rev. Llewelyn Lewellin, M.A., D.C.L., Dean of 
St. David's, and the Vice-Principal the Rev. J. J. Stewart Perowne, B.D. For many years 
the Vice- Principal was the late learned and acute Dr. Rowland Williams. 

In ancient times the Church in the see of St. David's enjoyed relatively more educational 
advantages than she does at present. A monastic seminary or college existed at St. David's. 
In later times a college flourished at Abergwili, which Henry VIII. transferred to Brecknock, 
part of whose funds came back to assist Lampeter. A great school existed for ages at 
Llanddewi Brefi, between Lampeter and Tregaron. Considering the smallness of the 
population in those days, and the almost total rudeness of the people, there is reason to 
believe that the clergy, relatively to their flocks, and the standard of intelligence surrounding 
them, were better educated than the clergy of any denomination in Wales can be said to be 
in our day. St. David's College, however, is largely instrumental in improving the tone of 
ministerial education in Wales. 

On the right bank of the Teivi, below Llanybyther, on a slope commanding a noble view 
of the Carmarthenshire hills towards Llansawel, and of the Teivi valley, is Highmead (see 
Evans, Highmead); and on the same estate is the ancient seat of Llanfechan, of late, by a 
process of supposed improvement, modified into Lanvaughan. " Llan-fechan " has a meaning, 
and, moreover, in that precise form is the venerable name by which through many genera- 
tions the home of the Lloyds maternal ancestors of the present proprietor has been known 
(see also Lloyd, Gilfachwen, and Lloyd, Waunifor), while " Lanvaughan " is both an absurdity 
and a parvenu. The Highmead estate extends to a considerable distance on both sides of the 
Teivi, which flows at the bottom of the park. The property was inherited by Major Evans after 
his great-uncle. The present mansion, which has recently been enlarged and modernized, was 
built in 1777 by his great-uncle, Major Herbert Evans, Sheriff of Cardiganshire in 1782, 
near the house of Lowmead (used by his father, John Evans, Esq., of Glantowy, as a hunting 
lodge), on part of the Llanfechan estate, which is now, like the Abernant and Rhydybont 
property, united to Highmead. The proprietor is preparing for the wealth of future genera- 
tions, as well as the ornamentation of his estate, by extensive tree-planting. Llanfechan has 
been allowed to fall into a dilapidated condition, but is to be restored. The Ogham Stone 
seen in the grounds will be further noticed under " Antiquities? 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



137 



On the same side 01 the Teivi are the mansions of Bwlchbychan, Alltyrodyn, Waunifor, 
Llanfair, and, a little beyond Llandyssil, Gilfachwen. Llandyssil, half village, half town, 




HlGHMEAD : THE SEAT OF MAJOR HERBERT D. EVANS. 

comes in the way to Newcastle Emlyn, both surrounded by delightful scenery, and both 
p artly in Cardiganshire and partly in Carmarthenshire. The castle, which was called New- 




LLANFECHAN. 



castle in Emlyn, was built, in the reign of Henry VII., by Sir Rhys ap Thomas, of Dinefawr 
(Dynevor), who made it one of his chief residences. The situation is highly picturesque and 



133 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



an -ascent to the ruin is amply repaid by the magnificent view it commands of the Teivi 
Valley below and above, with the abrupt and sportive windings of the river, and its impetuous 
rush towards the bridge. In the neighbourhood of Newcastle Emlyn are located various 
seats of the gentry, among which, on the Cardiganshire side, may be mentioned Adpar (Mr. 
Fitz- Williams) ; Aberceri (see Davies, Abercert) ; and to the interior the beautiful and ancient 
Bronwydd the mansion recently re-erected (see Lloyd, Bronwydd); Gernos, Gwernant, 
Blaenwern (see Morris, Blaenwern}, Traedyraur (see Bowen, Troed-yr-aur), Neuadd, Tyllwyd 
(see Jones- Parry, Tyllwyd}, Stradmore Hill, and Blaenpant. 

Almost more beautiful than the Vale of Teivi are the diminutive valleys and dingles of the 
Ceri on the Cardiganshire side, and the Cych on the other. The Teivi has a narrow pass in 
the neighbourhood of Llysnewydd (see Lewes, Llysnewydd) ; but the hanging woods of the 




CII.GKRRAN CASTLE. 



valley and the falls of Cenarth, where the river seems to have cut its way through the solid 
schistose rock, constitute a scene of peculiar beauty. At Cilgerran, and hence towards Car- 
digan, the Vale of Teivi reaches the highest pitch of magnificence, although in places confined 
almost to the width of the river. The rocky sides are high and precipitous, but almost 
everywhere clothed with wood. The rock is of the lower Silurian group, and is quarried for 
slate the debris being in many places thrown into the river, impeding its course and 
injuring its navigation. But neither the industry of the quarries nor the stupid selfishness 
which converts the bed of the Teivi into a refuse-pit can mar the superb grandeur of the 
sinuous and rugged channel the stream has here cut through the rock, on a lofty point of 
which is perched the fine old ruin of Cilgerran Castle, a view of which, although the castle is 
situated in Pembrokeshire, and will there be noticed at greater length, we here give in 
illustration of the scene. 

Below this part, and opposite Llungoedinore, the residence of John Vaughan. Esq., the 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 139 

valley widens, the banks become more sloping, and the river spreads out its bed to receive 
the tide. By and by it approaches the old bridge of Cardigan, washing the base of the 
ancient castle, in the grounds of which is situated the mansion of Castle Green. From 
Cardigan along the shore to Aberystwyth the features of the country display few points 
requiring remark ; the coast-line is often indented with pretty creeks and coves, with here 
and there a fine sandy beach, and the cliffs at times are grandly precipitous and lofty. The 
interior is a rolling country, often poor and bare, where the husbandman is a lean and toiling 
carl, and Nimrod principally enjoys himself. The lower Silurian rock makes in the main but 
an unproductive soil, lime is far and dear, farms are small ; the tenant cannot coin gold where 
wheat is thin, oats short, and both are driven to the wall by encroaching thistles and leaner 
weeds. The cottages are in parts simply disgraceful, proclaiming at once the ignorant 




CASTLE GREEN, CARDIGAN : SEAT OF DAVID DAVIES, ESQ. 

carelessness of the peasant and the heartlessness of the landlord. The squire's horses are 
housed in warm and aired stables, his dogs in cosy kennels, and that rightly ; but his human 
servants, who till his acres and bring him the painfully earned fruit of their toil, live in hovels 
and sleep in fetid corners. They eat food his hound and pointer would turn away from in 
disdain, and see each year end with a poverty more pinching than that of the workhouse 
inmate. There are in this county landlords as kind and liberal in the treatment of their 
tenants as any in Wales ; there is no exceptional severity or harshness ; the worst evils are 
attributable to custom rather than to personal arbitrariness. At the same time it cannot be 
denied that the fortune of the small farmer in this county is one of the most wretched on 
earth. It is impossible to witness it without pain and a feeling of concern, and an attempt 
to grapple with the difficult questions, What means can be devised to make small holdings 
profitable ? and how to avoid the threatened evil of the absorption of the small into the 
large tenancies. 

It is surprising, however, what comfort, contentment, thrift, cleanliness, virtue ; what 
manliness, independence, and intelligence prevail among a large proportion of the fanning 



140 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

population of Cardiganshire. The intellect of the country is naturally superior ; more clergy- 
men of talent and learning among all sects have arisen from the farmsteads and mechanics' 
shops of Cardiganshire than from any other county in Wales. The absence of serious crime 
is most remarkable, the mildness of what occurs making the proceedings of magistrates' 
meetings and the solemn functions of the police often well-nigh ludicrous. 

There are several pretty and thriving little ports between the Teivi and the Dyfi, besides 
Cardigan and Aberystwyth, although it must be noted that of late years most of the ports of 
Cardiganshire have suffered a diminution of trade from the competition of the railway and 
the absorption of shipbuilding by the larger ports. 

Aberporth, some eight miles from Cardigan, has a moderate trade in culm, coal, and 
limestone, has some fishing-smacks, and is resorted to in summer as a bathing-place. New 
Quay, south of Aberaeron, had a thriving port, with a rapidly increasing population, much of 
whose trade was connected with shipbuilding ; but the place has latterly ceased advancing^ 
through the causes already mentioned. Llanarth, surrounded by picturesque scenery, is in 
the vicinity of New Quay. Aberaeron is a pleasant watering-place, much frequented by 
tourists and summer visitors. 

The old county town of Cardigan, depending on a twofold source of commercial life 
an agricultural market and a seaport has a steady trade, subject to few fluctuations. It has 
enterprising merchants, and in the vicinity are several seats of the gentry. 

Aberystwyth, in population the most advancing town of Cardiganshire, competes with 
Cardigan for the possession of county privileges. As a fashionable watering-place it is 
equal to any in Wales, and surpassed for beauty and salubrity by few in the kingdom. In 
the Bellevue and Queen's, with the supplementary Lion and Talbot Hotels, it possesses 
first-class and ample accommodation for visitors ; has excellent beaches for bathing, and a 
marine promenade of great extent and attractiveness. The seats of several of the old county 
families are in the near neighbourhood. The port, the mining industry of the interior, and 
the railway, co-operate to animate its commercial operations. It has also a good agricultural 
and general market. What it wants is winter life. 

The proposal to establish in Aberystwyth a university college for Wales would, if 
successful, materially add to the prosperity of this beautiful town. It is now some years 
since an earnest effort was made to accomplish this object. Through the labour of one 
individual only, a large sum of money was collected, and a much larger sum promised ; a 
superb building just erected for another purpose, but more suitable fora college, was purchased 
for ;io,ooo, and a third of the money paid in 1867, leaving, after paying all expenses, a 
sufficient amount subscribed to pay the whole of the purchase sum. But from some 
unexplained reason, there the work has stopped. No further payment has been made for the 
building, and no progress made towards establishing the much-desired institution. The 
country, which once expected so much benefit from this proposal, has naturally received a 
cruel shock of disappointment, and the town of Aberystwyth seems to have grown 
indifferent even to its own good. The matter has been managed by a committee ; but the 
Government ought to come to the rescue of a project so noble from private and incompetent 
hands, and give- the Principality a collegiate institution worthy of the times, and of the loyalty 
of the Welsh people. Unless this is done, there is now the utmost certainty of a total col- 
lapse and a shameful failure. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 141 



SECTION II. GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

The county of Cardigan is entirely included in the great field of the lower Silurian strata, 
cognate with the materials of the mountains of North Wales, and displaying in many parts 
the slaty cleavage of the Llanberis, Festiniog, and Bethesda districts. But while this group 
of strata in the north has been forced up into enormous ridges and mountains, exhibiting a 
fearfully jagged and tortured surface, the same rock in Cardiganshire has lain quietly in its 
bed, scarcely feeling, except in faint vibrations, the heaving forces which have tossed its 
neighbours to such heights, and which seem to have got exhausted as they approached 
Cardiganshire in the effort to lift up to their present elevation the masses of Penllyman 
(Plinlimmon) and the Tregaron hills. The rocks on the coast exhibit curvatures, and signs 
of compression and expansion, with certain faults and dippings, which tell plainly enough 
that some disturbance has taken place ; the undulating surface does in some instances the 
same ; but as a rule such irregularities may equally be accounted for by a supposed unequal 
denudation by water action. 

The stern monopoly maintained by the Silurian group in Cardiganshire tells powerfully 
against the agriculturist, for that group totally and without compromise excludes the limestone. 
In Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire its monopoly was broken by fiat of some great con- 
vulsion, which lifted up the surface so far as to take the carboniferous limestone out of reach 
of the flood which swept it away clean from the face of Cardiganshire, leaving not a square 
foot of it behind. Hence the caravans of small carts and waggons which in years gone by 
used to make their long and weary journeys through days and nights from all parts of this 
county to any point in the sister counties that would yield them the comfort of lime. The 
railway now performs the service more expeditiously and cheaply, bringing back by steam 
what unnumbered ages ago had been stolen by water. 

The Silurian also forbids the use of coal. Not an inch of coal is contained in the whole 
of Cardiganshire. It has been told that certain poetic amateurs in mining, with the aid of a 
Merlin's wand, have gone out when the dew was upon the grass, and have suddenly stopped 
at places beneath which they oracularly declared coal to be lying. Such deeds have doubt- 
less an air of the sublime about them ; in pretension they carry a tinge of the supernatural, 
and it is well that it should be so, for in nature there existed nothing to correspond with and 
justify the vaticination. Geology has beneficently come to the aid of all who wish to seek 
for coal, and tells them where coal is possible, and, as God has built the earth, where it is 
impossible. In Cardiganshire the search is utterly hopeless, for there is no coal in the lower 
Silurian or upper Cambrian formation, or anywhere below them. 

This formation is also almost destitute of organic remains. In its earlier judgments 
geology pronounced these rocks to be entirely without a sign of a living thing having had 
existence when they were deposited. But later researches have corrected this mistake. 
Not to say that the microscope is supposed to have made out the forms of minute 'infusoria 
in a rock so early as the Laurentian of Canada, which is earlier than any part of Cardigan- 



142 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

shire, it is satisfactorily proved that the rocks of the lower Cambrian (Longmynd group), 
which are older than the Cardiganshire beds, contain at least two species of once living 
creatures, the Arenicolites sparsus and the Arenicolites didymus. In the Llandeilo group, which 
is identical with the Cardiganshire rocks, hosts of graptolites and other animal remains are 
found ; and it is said by Professor Ramsay that this formation in North Wales obtains the 
enormous thickness of 3,300 feet, a mass of deposit at sea bottom which must have taken an 
enormous space of time to form. 

Mineralogy. The more valuable readings of the geological record in Cardiganshire are 
mineralogical ; and these refer to lead, copper, and sulphate of zinc ores. These treasures 
are mainly grouped around the rivers Ystwyth and Rheidol, and the hilly or mountainous 
parts northward of the latter. The working of these mines does not belong to recent time 
simply. It is known that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries they were extensively 
and profitably worked, although afterwards they fell off and were almost suspended. About 
200 years ago, Sir Hugh Middleton, that enterprising Welshman who, by the introduction of 
the New River, brought a greater blessing to London than any man ever did, drew the 
immense sums he lavished upon this work of benevolence from the lead mines of Cardigan- 
shire principally those situated in the lands of Gogerddan ; and it has been said that a 
subsequent proprietor, Mr. Bushel, clothed the troops of Charles L, and advanced to that 
king a sum in cash of ^40,000, out of the same source, in recognition of which service he 
was authorized to open a private mint, which for a time he actually kept in operation at 
Aberystwyth Castle. The Lisburne and Goginan, with other mines, are now in full opera- 
tion, the quantity and quality of the ore being most encouraging. The export value of the 
lead ore shipped from the port of Aberystwyth is said to exceed ^400,000 per annum. 



SECTION III. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

i. Early Period. 

The earlier annals of Cardiganshire, like several of the other districts of Wales, are 
involved in so much obscurity, that the cautious historian often prefers silence to speech 
respecting them. The county, as already intimated, derived its name from Ceredig, a 
prince supposed to have lived in the fifth century (the son of Cunedda Wledig, a king in the 
lowlands of Scotland), whose mother was a Welsh princess, and who claimed in her right the 
status of ruler in these parts. The story goes, in Towel's " History," that this Cunedda 
Wledig, or Cunedda the Ruler-General, had twelve sons ; and that when the Picts and Irish 
were ravaging S. Wales especially the parts now called Cardiganshire he sent them over 
to expel the strangers and take possession of the land in his name. This they effected ; one 
took the government of one part, and another of another. Ceredig having possessed himself 
of this district, the region was thenceforward called Ceredigion, after his name. 

Whether all these, and a thousand other things related in the half-legendary early Welsh 
records, be facts or not, is quite uncertain, but that the country was from a distant period 
called Ceredigion, and is still so called in the Welsh language, is beyond doubt, although 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 143 

upon so barren a fact by itself no conclusion of value ran be based. But whether Ceredig 
was a real prince, or a myth, signifies but little; his name in any case represents a power that 
had existence. If he was not the ruler in these parts, it is inevitable to believe that some 
one else was ruler, unless it can be shown either that the country had no inhabitants, or that, 
having inhabitants, it dispensed with all rule ; both improbable and absurd suppositions. 
Nothing is therefore lost to history by allowing that there is substantial truth in the tradition 
that Ceredig was a man, whose name in time came to be attached to the country he 
governed. That these parts were populated much earlier than the time assigned to Ceredig 
is proved by the early foundation of churches, and by the formation of roads and stations by 
the Romans, who had left the island before Ceredig is said to have been born, and who were 
too economical of resources to make an appearance of conquering a country which had no 
population that could pay tribute. 

We have no more respectable early chronicle than the Annales Cambria, and here it is 
recorded that in the year 616 "Ceredig died." The space between this date and the 
departure of the Romans from Britain, circa A.D. 418, was brief; and as the Romans in all 
probability allowed the ancient form of government and the titles of the native princes to 
continue throughout the greater part of Wales, on condition of tribute payment, it is quite 
conceivable that, apart from entanglements from native broils and Pictish incursions, the 
recognised heads of clans had ruled in Ceredigion with little interruption, although no record 
of their names has come down to us. The same conclusion is reasonable in a higher degree 
as it regards the times subsequent to Ceredig. A long series of princes must have followed 
him, of whom we know little or nothing, before historic light dawns upon Ceredigion when 
Rhodri the Great became, by inheritance and marriage, King of all Wales, A.D. 843. 



2. From Rhodri the Great to William Ritfus. 

At Rhodri's death, as is well known, his kingdom was divided between his three sons. 
Cadell, king of the South, with his residence at Dinefawr, included Ceredigion in his 
dominion. The cupidity of Cadell, however, leading him to invade the territory of his 
brother Merfyn, in Powys, the third brother, Anarawd, ruler of Gwynedd, or N. Wales 
proper, acting as umpire by injunction of his father's will, visited Ceredigion with fire and 
sword, sadly ravaging the whole district as far as the Vale of Towy (Ann. Cambr., A.D. 894). 
Cadell died A.D. 900. After this time a change took place in the rule of Ceredigion, the 
country being no longer, as it would seem, a part of a S. Wales kingdom, but a kind of 
separate lordship, held by a modified feudal tenure, recognising the Saxon king as lord 
paramount, and the princes of S. Wales as superiors. It seems clear that the princes of 
Wales, both North and South, had been compelled by this time, without losing the position 
of rulers over their own people, to recognise the king of Lloegyr, sometimes called the King 
of London, as supreme lord. In the laws of Howel Dda (son of Cadell) there are plain 
indications of such a state of things. These laws mention tribute paid to the Anglo-Saxon 
kings, give directions as to the mode of equalizing the burden, encouraging rather than 
dissuading subjection, probably with the view of profiting from the alliance more than from 
contentedness with its terms. Howel the Good, in A.D. 922, was one of the Welsh princes 



144 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

who went to meet King Edward (son of Alfred the Great) at Tamworth, and, as the Saxon 
Chronicle says, " sought to him to be their lord." This testimony refers mainly to the princes 
of North Wales ; but a few years after, the same chronicle, speaking of Athelstane's 
conquests, says, " And he ruled all the kings who were in this island, first Howel, King of 
the West Welsh, . . . Owen, King of the Monmouth people," &c. In fact, under 
Athelstane little but the name of independence was left to the Welsh princes. They ruled 
their own people, and were themselves under feudal subjection to the English king. This 
was the state of things in Cardiganshire in the later days of Howel the Good, who, in 
a manner consistent with the local rule of other chiefs, had become King of all Wales. 

Howel died in A.D. 948 ; disorganizations follow, and the lordship of Ceredigion becomes 
a sufferer. If we had faith in lolo MSS., there is a story contained in them relating to 
Ceredigion, which might be quoted with much satisfaction. " Gwaethvoed, Lord of Cibwyr 
and Caredigion," lolo's paper says, "lived in the time of King Edgar, who summoned the 
Welsh prince to Chester, to row his barge on the river Dee. Gwaethvoed replied that he 
could not row, and that if he could he would not, unless it were to save some one's life. 
Edgar sent a second and more peremptory command, but the lord of Cibwyr deigned no 
answer, until, the messenger begging most humbly for some word to carry back to his master, 
he said, 

" Fear him who fears not death." 

Struck with his courage, Edgar went to him, and giving him his hand with great kindness, 
entreated him to become his friend and relation ; and so it was." There was a Gwaethfoed, 
Lord of Ceredigion, some hundred years after this, when there was no Edgar a king in 
England ; and we should therefore be better satisfied if lolo had given some confirmation of 
the story besides the mysterious shreds of MS. he was so much in the habit of discovering. 

In A.D. 952, Brut y Tywysogion informs us, Ceredigion was devastated by the sons of 
Idwal that Idwal Foel, son of Anarawd, whom Athelstane, the English king, first deposed 
and then restored, with the remark that " it was greater to make a king than to be one " 
who were engaged in warfare against the sons of Howel. In A.D. 986, Meredydd ap Owain 
ap Howel Dda, who was ruler of Powys, invaded and usurped Ceredigion ; and a few years 
later was himself invaded by a combined force of English and Welsh under Owain ap 
Einion, his nephew, and the English leader, Edelisus, who ravaged Dyfed and Ceredigion, 
Gower and Cydweli (Annal. Cambr., sub ann.). He was also harassed by the Danes, 
who were hovering like vultures over Britain, foreseeing the hour when it would fall their 
prey, and pouncing now and then on the Welsh coasts to fill their hollow ships with pro- 
vision. In A.D. 989 they plundered Llanbadarn (Aberystwyth not yet being born), Llan- 
rhystyd, St. David's, and other places. Two years after this, Edwyn, the lawful lord of 
Ceredigion, managed, by help of English and Danes, to oust Meredydd, and assume the 
government. How long Edwyn enjoyed his seat we know not ; where it was, whether at 
Llanbadarn or Cardigan, we know not; but in A.D. 1039, Hywel ap Edwyn being ruler of 
Ceredigion, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Sitsyllt comes down from North Wales with over- 
whelming forces, burns Llanbadarn-fawr, carries all before him as far as Pembroke and 
Carmarthen; and, in short, in A.D. 1044 compels all South Wales to acknowledge his 
supremacy. Hywel refused at first to give in without a struggle. He mustered his followers 



THE NORMANS. 145 

at Pencader, but was defeated with great loss a part of his loss being his wife, who was 
captured by the envious Gruffydd, and became his spouse. 

It was the hard destiny of Ceredigion through all this dismal time to be devastated and 
plundered ; the inhabitants seemed to be made as refuse, to be consumed for the diversion 
of war-loving princes ; and the produce of field and forest was eaten up by hungry Danes, 
Irish, and English. Since Rhodri and Howel the Good, no strong government, no steady 
protective force, seemed to exist ; but one weak and unscrupulous petty lord sought the 
mastery over another ; while all had probably a presentiment that the days of Cambrian 
independence were nearly numbered. One more turn the wheel of fortune takes for 
Ceredigion, a turn which changes the hues of the scene, and completely introduces a new 
phase of civilization, and a new and foreign government. 

3. The Normans. 

The Normans had now been masters of England some twenty years or more. In fact, 
the changes, the struggles, the blood-baptisms which had been witnessed in England during 
the last 150 years were infinitely ^more severe and astounding than those which had occurred 
in Wales, constantly as this country was stained with blood and lying in ashes. The Saxon 
kingdom had fallen before the Danes, and the Danes and Saxons together had been crushed 
by the Normans. The Normans now came into Wales. William Rufus set on foot the 
system of Lords Marchers' conquest. Considering himself the owner of all the land, he gave 
authority to any adventurer knight who liked the enterprise, to seize any obnoxious district 
in the king's name, and possess it as a lordship of his own. Fitzhamon had just seized 
upon Glamorgan, Bernard Newmarch upon Brecknockshire, and now Roger de Montgomery 
does homage for Cardigan along with Powys, proceeds at once to take possession by force, 
and effects his object. The Annales Cambr. have this ominous insertion under A.D. 1091, 
" About the Kalends of July the [French Normans] for the first time held Dyfed and 
Ceredigion, built castles therein, and from thence possessed themselves of all the land of 
the Britons." The Britons, however, do not yield without a struggle. When William is 
absent in Normandy, fighting his brother Robert, the Welsh, as the Annal. Cambr. say, cast 
off the yoke of the French, and destroyed all their castles in Dyfed and Ceredigion two 
strong places, Pembroke and Rhicors, alone excepted. The entry for the following year 
(A.D. 1093) is, that " Dyfed, Ceredigion, and Ystrad-Tywi remain desolate " an entry which, 
in few words, conveys abundant meaning. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle opens the curtain 
more widely under A.D. 1094 : " The Welsh gathered themselves together, made war upon 
the French in Wales, or in the neighbouring parts where they had been deprived of their 
lands, and they stormed many fortresses and castles, and slew the men. Afterwards their 
numbers increased so much that they divided themselves into many bodies ; Hugo, Earl of 
Shropshire, fought with one division, and put it to flight ; nevertheless the others abstained 
not, during the whole year, from committing every outrage in their power." They had the 
audacity to keep if they could their own. 

The powerful and popular Gruffydd ap Cynan was the plague of the Normans in the North; 
and Rhys ap Tewdwr, whose fall at the battle of Gaer, near Brecon, was a serious blow to the 
patriots, was th hero of the South. Even before the contest with the Normans which led to 

i, 



146 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

this disastrous event had begun, the strength of the national cause in South Wales had been 
greatly weakened by the rebellious proceedings of Madog, Cadwgan, and Rhyrid, sons of 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, in concert with Jestyn ap Gwrgant of Morgan wg, a traitorous helper of 
the Norman Lords Marchers in South Wales. Rhys had met his opponents at Llechryd, and 
routed them with great loss, Madog and Rhyrid being amongst the slain. Cadwgan escaped, 
and fled the country. This was about A.D. 1089, two years before the death of Rhys ap 
Tewdwr and the conquest of Brycheiniog by the Lord Marcher Bernard Newmarch 
Cadwgan, however, was soon back, for we find him chosen by the South Welsh as one of 
their leaders. William Rufus now resolved upon effectually subduing Wales, and with this 
view, A.D. 1097, led into it a great army, swearing at the same time, if Florence of Worcester is 
to be believed, that he would slay every male in the country. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
tells us that William remained in Wales " from midsummer till near August, to his great loss 
in men, horses, and many other things;" and William of Malmesbury testifies that "frequently 
in Wales fortune was unfavourable to William ; the rugged character of the country and -bad 
weather assisted the rebellion of the Welsh, and impeded the king's valour." The truth is 
that the patriots had adopted tactics which confounded Rufus's generals. They avoided a 
pitched battle ; harassed the army's flanks by sudden skirmishes ; shot their arrows from 
thickets and rocks ; lay in wait in narrow defiles and at the fords of rivers, and wherever 
they could take in detail the Normans' heavy men-at-arms, and without much peril to them- 
selves, decimated the invaders. 

Nothing very special was done against Ceredigion for some years, until Henry I. was 
instigated to resume hostilities. The Welsh had joined with De Belesme, Earl of Arundel 
and Shrewsbury, in his insurrection against the king, under the leadership chiefly of Cadwgan 
ap Bleddyn, already mentioned, and his brother lorwerth ; but lorwerth changed his colours 
when Henry outbid De Belesme in promises, and joined the royal cause; while Cadwgan, 
through this convenient suppleness of his brother, managed to obtain so much favour as to 
receive the lordship of Ceredigion and part of Powys. But Owain ap Cadwgan's rashness 
soon brought his father into new trouble. He wanted to bless the lordship of Ceredigion 
with the presence, as his wife, of a princess as notorious for her beauty as for her loose 
morals, JVesf, once the concubine of Henry I., but now, unhappily for O wain's peace, wife of 
Gerald de Windsor, who had just built for himself a castle at Pembroke. Owain managed to 
introduce himself and a few companions into De Windsor's castle, set fire 'to it, and in the 
confusion seized the princess, and carried her away to his stronghold in Ceredigion. Nest 
seems to have borne the treatment with equanimity. But Owain and his father Cadwgan 
lost influence among their countrymen by this step ; their castle was attacked by a great 
force ; but they managed to escape, Cadwgan returning to his country of Powys. The storm 
having passed, Cadwgan, by paying a sum of money and proving his own personal innocence 
of the outrage on Nest, was allowed to return to Ceredigion and resume his lordship. His 
son Owain, having come forth from his concealment, became the head of a troop of banditti, 
who, in Meirionydd, Ceredigion, and other parts, robbed, and burnt, and committed all 
manner of excesses. Henry, unjustly, laid the blame of these proceedings on Cadwgan, the 
father, and under the guise of a fit of anger, but possibly in pursuance of a pre-determined 
plan, forbade him any more to hold the lordship of Ceredigion, and gave it to the Norman 
Gilbert Fitz Richard, or Strongbow. 



THE NORMANS. THE "LORD RHYS." 14? 

This took place in A.D. 1109 or i no, just forty-four years after the Norman Conquest. 
The gift of the lands of Cardigan to a Norman knight meant a licence from the King of 
England to enter, and conquer, and make good his footing if he could. That such a thing 
was possible proves how helpless disunion and mutual jealousies had made the Welsh princes 
and people. Henry rendered aid to Gilbert in his effort to establish himself in Ceredigion, 
and in the end he succeeded. To establish his power, Strongbow built the Castle of 
Aberystwyth and the Castle of Cilgerran. This was possibly not the first castle built on 
Aberystwyth Point, but it was the first fortress of great strength erected there. Nor was it 
the castle whose ruins are -now visible, and of which an illustration will be given further on ; 
for the Strongbow fortress was demolished, or at least burnt, by Owen Gwynedd; and another 
built on the same site was also razed to the ground by its then possessor, Maelgwyn (see 
Aberystwyth Castle). 

After about four years of a kind of rule over Cardiganshire, or rather, such parts of it as 
his castles overawed for it would be absurd to consider the matter in any other light, 
Gilbert Strongbow was called to account for his presence at Aberystwyth by a peremptory 
chieftain of the old house of Tewdwr. This was none other than Gruffydd, the son of Rhys 
ap Tewdwr of Dinefawr, who had been invited by the people of Ceredigion, in A.D. 1114, to 
become their ruler in spite of the Norman. Gruffydd consented. His sword had drunk deep 
into Norman blood. Giraldus de Barri, who passed through Cardiganshire in A.D. 1188, 
records one of his victories : " We proceeded on our journey from Cilgarran towards Font- 
Stephen [Lampeter], leaving Cruc Mawr, i. e., the great mound near Aberteifi, on our left 
hand. On this spot, Gruffydd, son of Rhys ap Theodor, soon after the death of King Henry I., 
by a furious onset gained a signal victory against the English army, which, by the murder of 
the eminent Richard de Clare [Lord of Cardigan], near Abergavenny [see p. 74], had lost 
its leader and chief. A tumulus is to be seen on the summit of the above hill, and the 
inhabitants affirm that it will adapt itself to persons of all stature, and that if any armour is 
left there entire in the evening, it will be found, according to vulgar tradition, broken to 
pieces in the morning." (Itin., chap, iii.) 

In this instance, however, his good fortune forsook him, and Strongbow proved victor 
after a severely contested battle. The men of the North now tried their hand. In A.D. 1135, 
the brave Owain Gwynedd and his brother Cadwaladr, sons of the illustrious Gruffydd ap 
Cynan, overran the country with a powerful force of men and horse, and made the Normans 
tremble : at Cardigan they gained a decisive victory over the combined forces of Normans, 
English, and Flemings those Flemings whom Henry I. had settled in Pembrokeshire to be 
a kind of counterpoise to the Welsh, when more than 3,000 of the foreigners were left dead 
on the field. Cadwaladr remained as ruler of Cardiganshire, defying the Norman usurpers. 
His brother Owain led an army more than once to his assistance, his visit in A.D. 1142 
involving the burning of Aberystwyth Castle, and doubtless by that process the expulsion of 
the Lord Marcher. Cadwaladr was still Lord of Ceredigion when, in A.D. 1148, he built the 
Castle of Llanrhystyd, which has no memorial of it left, but is supposed to have stood near 
Moelifor, a farmhouse representing a place that was once a mansion of importance, the 
possession and residence of the Gwyns of Moelifor. 

It would appear that for the time the Normans had been cowed ; the spirit of the men of 
Ceredigion was too stubborn to be either subdued or pacified, and the result was that 



148 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Henry II. in A.D. 1171 used his prerogative as lord paramount by giving the territory of 
Ceredigion to Rhys, the illustrious " Lord Rhys," who had for many years plagued and foiled 
the Normans and the English had done homage and rebelled, and again done homage, but 
ever adhered like a true Briton to the cause of his harassed and gradually sinking country. 
Rhys resided chiefly at his castle at Cardigan (built in 1157 by Roger, Earl of Clare, one of the 
Marchers, and once destroyed by Rhys),* and maintained the style of a king. He was destined 
to be the last prince of South Wales, and he surrounded his position with as much splendour 
and eclat as if he had foreseen the fact, and meant to render it the last honours without stint. 
In A.D. 1177 he held at Christmas, in this castle, a magnificent feast, when several hundred 
guests, Normans, English, and others, were present. To entertain them Rhys had collected 
all the bards of Wales together, who held a friendly contest, answering each other in rhyme. 
When Archbishop Baldwin and Giraldus passed through the country preaching the Crusades, 
the Lord Rhys gave them hospitality at Aberteifi Castle, and, as Giraldus says, "with a 
liberality peculiarly praiseworthy in so illustrious a prince," accompanied them throughout 
Cardiganshire, as far as the river Dyfi, on their way to North Wales. 

The Lord Rhys kept at his post as Lord of Cardigan and "Chief Justice of South Wales" 
as long as he lived. His death, which occurred in A.D. 1196, called forth the bitter lamen- 
tations of the Welsh people, for they could foresee that perilous times were again approaching. 
Higden's Polychronicon contains an impassioned lament, which we suspect is simply a trans- 
lation of some Welsh bard's elegy : 

" O blysse of batayle, chylde of chyvalry, defence of countree, worshipp of arrnes, arme of strength, hand 
of largenesse, eye of reson ; brygtnesse of honeste ! berynge in breste Hectour's prowesse, Achilles's sharpnesse, 
Nestour's sobernesse, Tydeus's hardinesse, Sampson's strengthe, Euryalus's swyftnesse, Ulyxe's fare speche, 
Solomon's wysdome, Ajax's hardynesse ; O clothynge of naked ! the hungrye's mete ! fulfyllynge all mene's 
boone that him wolde ought bydde ! O fayre in speche, felowe in servyce, honeste in dede and sobre in worde> 
gladde in semblaunt and love in face, godlye to everle man and rightfulle to all ! The noble dyademe of 
fayrenesse of Wales is now fallen ! That is Rhys is deed ! All Wales gronyth, Rhys is deed ! The name is 
not loste ; but blysse passyth, the blysse of Wales passyth, Rhys is deed worshyppe of the worlde goeth awaye. 
The enemye is here for Rhys is not here ! Now Wales helpeth not itselfe ; Rhys is deed and take awaye ! 
But his noble soule is not deed, for it is alway newe in the worlde wyde. This place holdyth grete worshipp 
yf the byrth is beholde. Of [it] men axe what is the ende : it is ashes and powder. Here he is hydde ; but 
he is unhylled [revealed], for name duryth evermore, and suffryth not the noble duke to be hydde of speche. 
His prowesse passed his maners ; his wytte passed his prowesse ; his fayre speche passed his wytte ; his good 
thewes passed his fayre speche ! " 

On the death of the Lord Rhys, his son Gruffydd, A.D. 1196, succeeded to the lordship of 
Cardigan ; but disputes almost immediately arose between him and his disinherited brother, 
Maelgwyn, who seized his territories, threw him into prison, and after his release maintained 
an almost continual warfare with him, to the great injury of the country, till Gruffydd was 
released by death in A.D. 1201. The castles of Cardigan, Aberystwyth, and Cilgerran were 
strongholds at this time belonging to Ceredigion. The state of the county once more led 
the princes of the North to interfere, and in A.D. 1207 we find Maelgwyn, now in sole 
possession of Ceredigion despite the will of the inhabitants, burning his own castles of 
Aberystwyth and Ystrad Meurig, lest they should fall into the hands of Llewelyn ap 
lorwerth, the northern prince. Llewelyn, however, advanced to the heart of the country, 
and having a liking for the sons of the late Gruffydd, Rhys and Owain, more than for 
Maelgwyn, here built the castle of Aberystwyth, and made it over to them. King 
* A.D. 1164, when Cadifor ap Dinawal led the atteck. 



THE TWO LLEWELYNS. 149 

John favoured Maelgwyn, who had sworn fealty to him, and compelled the sons of 
Gruffydd to quit Aberystwyth Castle.now strengthened and garrisoned for the king. 

But neither King John nor Maelgwyn, nor both together, could keep Llewelyn ap 
lorwerth out of Cardiganshire. John was not strong, for he was in opposition to his barons, 
and Maelgwyn had not the love of the inhabitants ; while Llewelyn, rightly styled " the 
Great," was energetic and popular. When he took the town and castle of Cardigan, and 
the castle of Cilgerran, from the Normans, " the Welsh, full of joy, returned to their homes, 
while the French, everywhere sad and driven out, like terrified birds, were scattered hither 
and thither" (Annal. Cambr.}. He effectually beat down the power of the Lords Marchers 
in these parts, and seemed fairly on the road to the effective deliverance of his country. 
We therefore find him in A.D. 1238 summoning the Welsh lords, and all barons of whatever 
nationality, to meet him at Ystradflur, to acknowledge him as their rightful prince and lord 
in Wales. This was done ; fealty was sworn to Llewelyn, and homage was done to his son 
David, whom he named as his successor, and Lord of Cardigan. Llewelyn died two years 
after this, and David, who was ousted from Cardigan Castle by Gilbert Marshall, Earl of 
Pembroke, died in A.D. 1246, leaving no issue. 

The time came round for another and still greater Llewelyn, the son of Gruffydd, and 
grandson of Llewelyn the Great, to enter and take possession of Cardiganshire. This took 
place in 1270. He was recognised by charter, granted by the English king, as Prince of 
Wales, and authorized to receive the homage of the inferior lords and princes in Wales. In 
this capacity his son Madog did homage to him for Cardigan, becoming thereby Lord of 
Cardigan. Llewelyn, however, was engaged in the mighty and impossible enterprise of 
wresting his country, not only from the Norman Lords Marchers, but from the House of 
Plantagenet, now represented on the English throne by Edward I. A not uninterested 
" bard," Llygad Gwr, sang him on to certain victory, in terms which recall the now cele- 
brated passage in a recent French manifesto " not a foot of our soil, not a stone of our 

fortresses," 

" Dragon of Arvon, of resistless might, 
With all thy noble well-trained battle steeds, 
The Saxon shall not tear one foot of land 
From thee." 

Wales, by the madness of internecine warfare, had reduced itself to weakness ; the power of 
England was daily growing and consolidating, and Edward was a man of greater tact, as well 
as commander of larger means than Llewelyn. What the end must be was therefore clear. 

In A.D. 1277 Edward took possession of the castle of Aberystwyth, and placed a powerful 
garrison there. The affecting story of the fall of Llewelyn is well known, and does not 
specially belong to this district. (See Llewelyn ap Gntfydd.) Another bard soon utters 

the lament, 

' ' Frequent, as once at Camlan, now is heard 
The voice of woe, and frequent flow the tears ; 
The stay of Wales is fallen. . . . 
Do ye not see how ocean spoils the land ? . . . 
Does not the end of all things now draw near ? " 

In A.D. 1282 Edward united Wales to England by the Statutes of Rhuddlan, and con- 
stituted Ceredigion into a county, by name Cardigan, along with its sister counties of 
Carmarthen and Merioneth. To settle affairs and conciliate, the inhabitants, he made a 



150 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

progress through the county, whose history from that time to the present constitutes a part 
of the general history of the empire. 

The old chronicles are sparing of allusions and of statistics. Most of the great 
conflicts, earlier and later, which affected the fortunes of Cardiganshire, are given without 
names of places. Rhys ap Tewdwr defeated the sons of Bleddyn, A.D. 1087, at the battle 
of Llechryd; Howel ap Edwin was defeated at Llanbadarn by Gruffydd, A.D. 1038. 

From these few details, which have necessarily been confined to principal events, we see 
that Cardiganshire has not been an obscure and insignificant part of Wales amid the stirring 
scenes of its eventful history. Its situation midway between North and South made it not 
unfrequently a convenient trysting-place for patriots, a rendezvous for marauding hordes, and 
a battle-field for foes. The very evenness of its surface led challenging armies to seek it 
to test their strength. Its soil has been abundantly saturated with blood. It has not 
a dingle or a cave to which fugitives from disastrous conflicts have not resorted for conceal- 
ment, or a hill which has not been a camp or place of observation by day, and fire- 
signalling by night. Now one of the quietest and least noticed of even Welsh counties, 
sought for by strangers only for the wealth of its mines, the salubrity of its watering-places, 
or the comeliness of its valleys, it was at one time the scene where Normans, Saxons, 
Flemings, and Welsh held tournaments, made pilgrimages, signed treaties, built castles, 
fought decisive battles. No district of Wales has had more masters of different nationalities, 
and yet no district has preserved a purer British breed, or a simpler British character. To 
an apparent change it was continually subject, and yet it possesses to-day more families who 
have held their own through all vicissitudes, and can trace their descent to patriots who 
fought the Norman and the Saxon, than perhaps three other counties in Wales could each 
produce. This will appear from Old and Extinct Families, and the list of County Families 
hereafter given. 

What the state of the roads would be in Cardiganshire when Edward I. made his progress 
of pacification it is impossible to say; but, judging from what we know of subsequent times, 
it must have been truly primitive, to say the least of it. After Edward had been dead nearly 
two hundred years, another king, or kingly man on his way to the throne, the Tudor Earl of 
Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., passed from Milford to Bosworth Field through Cardigan- 
shire (staying one night at Dafydd ap Evan's house at Llandyssilio Gogo), and at that time 
there were no ways that could be called roads, in the modern sense of the word, from 
Cardigan to Newcastle Emlyn, or from the same place to Aberystwyth. The whole country 
was unenclosed except here and there a patch; whole districts were covered by gorse and 
tangled brushwood a spontaneous and probably primeval forest. Cardiganshire was not a 
whit more rude than the Yorkshire or Lancashire of that day ; but as compared with itself at 
the present time, with its good highways neatly fenced, and every brooklet bridged over, it 
was in appearance and in practice an all but impassable land. The roads were tracks ; the 
rivers were passed by fords ; the bogs and morasses were made to bear the packhorse and 
the waggon by being covered with branches of trees and rushes. So armies managed to 
march, and kings made their progress. 

Even at a much later time than Henry VII. the roads of this county were still to 



ANTIQUITIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 151 

be made. At present, from Cardigan to Newcastle Emlyn and Lampeter, and from 
Lampeter to Aberaeron, as well as from Aberystwyth to Devil's Bridge and on to Rhayader, 
the public highways are like the streets of a city; but in Charles II. 's time, only two hundred 
years ago, on all those distances there was not found a half-mile of hedge or quickset. 
There was no bridge to cross the Rheidol at Llanbadarn, nor a single bridge between 
Lampeter and Aberystwyth except Aberaeron, nor more than one (at Rhyd Owen) between 
Cardigan and Lampeter. The country about Llanwnnen, Llanwenog, and nearly as far as 
Lampeter, was unbroken pasture-land, and tradition says that it was infested with bands of 
robbers (hence the term of reproach " Lladron Llanwenog ") as late as the seventeenth 
century. Much of it was in possession of the primitive forest. Old Ogilby, who travelled 
from Carmarthen to Aberystwyth about A.D. 1670, says, "The Tivy, Kerry, Dittor, Avon 
[meaning Aeron], Westwith, and Ridal, are the principal rivers crost over ; the road to Car- 
digan being boggy and mountainous, to Llanbeder something better, thence to Aberystwyth 
bad again, and not affording any accommodation except at Carmarthen, Cardigan, Llanbeder, 
and Aberystwyth, the roads between these places scarcely admitting of the least refreshment 
to travellers." 

From Aberystwyth to Machynlleth the land was equally unenclosed, and the roads equally 
bad. The country around Gogerddan was wooded and naturally productive, and at Tre'rddol, 
" Sir Richard Pryse's park," now Lodge Park, was walled all round ; but with that exception 
the road made its way through an open and wild region, half jungle, half pasture-land, 'with 
plots here and there for corn ; the important potato was not yet cultivated, except perhaps as 
a great rarity in the gardens of Gogerddan and Trawscoed ; and the cattle were kept from 
trespassing by watching, or by the confining rope. 



SECTION IV. ANTIQUITIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Those who trust to Camden for an account of the ancient remains which this or any 
other of the counties of Wales may possess will be misled. Neither Camden himself nor 
even Edward Lhwyd (who made additions to the Britannia), although a native of this county, 
has noticed half the important monuments of past ages which it contains. The .Britannia, 
in its account of Wales, is throughout most imperfect a fact accounted for in Yorke's Royal 
Tribes by the tradition that Camden " came no farther into Wales than Corwen, where he 
was taken as an English spy, and insulted by the people." This cannot be literally true, for 
he frequently in his Cardiganshire article speaks of his personal inspection of places and 
objects; but his visit was obviously a short and hasty one, and he might, without much loss 
to the public, have spared himself the little trouble he took. As far as Camden's abstinence 
from labour as regards Welsh antiquities is concerned, it is intelligible, for he was in his day 
one of that anti-Celtic school which in our time is represented by Mr. E. A. Freeman and 
his fraternity, whose delight it is to throw discredit upon all Welsh sources of Welsh history, 
and minimize to the utmost the past and present importance of the Celtic race in this island. 
Wales as a field of labour, therefore, was not congenial to his mind. Lewis Morris, the 
excellent antiquarian, who lived and died in Cardiganshire (buried at Llanbadarn-fawr), was 



152 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

p2rhaps too severe on Camden when saying that in the Britannia "the memory of the ancient 
inhabitants is endeavoured to be darkened, and their names obscured, and every shadow of 
occasion is taken to revile them and their writers, and noble actions in war," &c. (Ib., p. 103.) 
It is true that while Wales is prolific in antiquities, both pre-historic and later, if judged from 
the pages of Britannia it contains but a paltry few. At the same time it must in justice 
be remembered that Camden, to compensate for his own uncongeniality to the subject, 
sought the assistance of Edward Lhwyd, the most learned Welsh antiquarian and linguist of 
that day, who was also a native of this very county of Cardigan (born near Llanfihangel- 
geneu'r-Glyn), to supplement the articles on the Welsh counties. The result of their com- 
bined labour, however, is most inadequate and unsatisfactory. Meyrick's History of 'Cardigan- 
shire, to those who possess it, largely makes up the deficiency. The chief antiquities only 
can be here mentioned. 



i . Pre-historic. 

In different parts of this county there exist important traces of that early people who 
erected the cromlech and circle, and heaped up the sepulchral barrow. The well-known Bedd 
Taliesin near Tre'rddol is perhaps the most important of the cistfaen class of remains in these 
parts. Though called " Taliesin's Grave," no proof beyond the name exists that the ancient 
bard Taliesin was buried there. The place, however, is a pre-historic sepulchre, and one of 
a distinguished kind, where a mound of earth is surrounded by a double circle of megaliths, 
with its centre occupied by a cist, whose covering stone has been moved from its place. The 
Penbryn stone in the same neighbourhood is mentioned by Lhwyd, in Camden, as bearing 
an inscription he could not decipher. Whatever it memorializes belongs to the later Roman 
period. 

The wild country between Tregaron and Lampeter is rich in pre-historic remains. In the 
parish of Cellan, near Lampeter, are several tumuli which have not been opened, and several 
megaliths, among which is a maenhir sixteen feet high, mentioned by Lhwyd as standing 
on the confines of the parish and the dividing line between this county and Carmarthenshire. 
It is known as Hir-faen Gwyddog. Not far was Maen y prenvol, which he " had not seen." 
Llech Cynon, in this parish, is a megalith of large proportions, resting upon a tumulus, but not 
a proper cromlech. In the same parish is Bedd y forwyn, " the Virgin's Grave," and several 
other similar places of sepulture of like antiquity, which Meyrick opened, and found to 
contain ashes and calcined bones. Not far is the great stone called Byrfaen. There are 
two tumuli near Llanfechan, one of them between the road and the Teivi ; and on the 
Crannell at Castell-du is another ; but it may be doubted whether these were places of sepul- 
ture ; perhaps they were posts of observation and defence. 

A very important tumulus was opened some years ago at Wcrfilbroolt, Llangrannog, 
and found to contain a great number of sepulchral urns with ashes, but no record was kept 
of any flint instruments, or other objects, to throw light upon the primitive people who had 
formed the barrow. There are other carnedds in this locality still remaining unexplored. 
Three tumuli, on an eminence called Tri-chrug, are well known in the neighbourhood of 
Cilcenin. 



PRE-HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES: CROMLECHS, CAMPS. 153 

A fine cromlech, called Llech yr Ast (Lhwyd, in Camden\ is found near Llangoedmore 
Cardigan, whose capstone, with one side on the ground, measures about ten feet in length. 
Other " Druidic " remains, including a portion of a circle, are in the near neighbourhood. Of 
the megaliths near Neuadd, Lhwyd says, " Meinibirion, near Neuadh, the seat of the 
worshipful David Parry, Esq., not many years since High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire, are 
perhaps some remaining pillars of such a circular stone monument, though much larger, 
as that described in Caer-mardhinshire by the name of Meini Gu>yr;" and of 
other stones he adds, " Meini Cyvrivol, or the numerary stones, near the same place, 
seem to be also the remains of some such barbarous monument. They are nineteen 
stones lying on the ground confusedly, and are therefore called Meini Cyvrivol by the 
vulgar, who cannot easily number them, of which two only seem to have been pitched 
on end." 

" Llech y Gawres (the Giantess's Stone)," he continues, " a monument also well known 
in this neighbourhood, seems much more worthy our observation, being an exceeding vast 
stone placed on four other very large pillars or supporters, about the height of five or six feet, 
besides which four there are two others pitched on end under the topstone, but much lower, 
so that they bear no part of the weight. There are also three stones, two large ones, and 
behind those a lesser, lying on the ground at each end of this monument ; and at some 
distance another rude stone, which has probably some reference to it. This Llech y Gawres 
stands on such a small bank or rising, in a plain open field, as the five stones near the 
circular monument called Rolrich Stones, in Oxfordshire." When these monuments were 
erected all the island was one " open field." This seems to be the best preserved cromlech 
in the county of Cardigan. On the whole, taking the megaliths and unopened barrows 
which lie scattered about the wolds and vales of this county into consideration, there seems 
to be here room for much careful scientific research. It is to be hoped that some of the 
savans of the district versed in pre-historic antiquity will take the matter up, and unfold to 
us the mysteries of the stone and bronze ages, now possibly enshrined in these venerable 
piles. The old British age has been largely brought to light by Canon Greenwell on the 
wolds of Yorkshire ; why should it not be illustrated with equal care in the still British 
region of Cardiganshire ? 

As to the British caers and camps, it is always difficult to say which are pre-historic 
and which are of later date the Cymry having brought down their pre-Roman mode 
of warfare, in many of its elements, to post-Roman times. A good many of the numerous 
British camps of this county are unquestionably very ancient ; but, as in other cases, the 
most ancient are the least noticed, being the most effaced by time, or disguised by recent 
alteration. The " Gaer" near Blaenporth, looks too well preserved for an unaltered British 
camp or stronghold of the pre-Roman period. Pen Dinas, near Aberystwyth, was an early 
and a late British camp : from the nature of the position it may be well presumed that from 
the first beginnings of warfare in that part Pen Dinas would be selected as a place of strength. 
It is said that Castell Nadolig, on the road from Aberaeron to Aberystwyth, was an early 
British camp and caer ; and it cannot be doubted that it was utilized in the wars of the 
Middle Ages both by Britons and invaders: in some records its original erection is attributed 
to Gilbert de Clare. The fortress called Yr Hen Gaer, near Bow Street, has an ancient look? 
and seems to claim relation to the early Cymric warriors. The dyke, of some miles long, 



154 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

near Tregaron, called Cwys-ych-bannog " the humped ox's furrow," is not a caer, nor 
a camp entrenchment, but a long ridge, raised by great labour, doubtless for protection ; 
and is of so great an age as to be effectually shrouded in impenetrable mystery. No one 
pretends to know its origin or to have heard of its use. 

The parish of Cellan, near Lampeter, with a large share of other antiquities, such as 
tumuli, megaliths, and graves, has also its Caer Morys, and another near at hand on the farm 
of Glanffrwd. Dinas Ceri, on the river Ceri, and overlooking its pretty valley, is a British 
camp or entrenched place, which at one time must have been a position of some importance. 



2. Historic Antiquities. 

Of the civil antiquities of this class the military fortresses are the most important ; and 
the inscribed stones, the Roman roads and stations, with the various objects at different times 
found upon them, into the details of which it is impossible to enter, are the earliest in point 
of time. 

The Roman road called in Welsh Sarn Helen, leading from Carmarthen (Maridunum) 
to Machynlleth and Segontium, near Carnarvon, and called Via Occidentalis the Western 
Road, passed near Pencader, crossed the Teivi into what is now Cardiganshire, near 
Lampeter, and continued in a straight line on the west of the river to the chief station in these 
parts at Llanio, called by the Romans Loventium, where they had extensive buildings and 
an important military depot. The ground around gives to the agriculturist frequent proof, 
in the shape of fragments of Roman bricks and pottery, that the station in this locality was 
of considerable extent ; and it is easy for the imagination to picture the scene of martial 
display and activity, the crowd of legionaries, the trains of impedimenta, as well as the 
frequent arrivals of native tribute-payers, which sixteen hundred years ago enlivened this 
spot, now so quiet and commonplace in the whole of its expression. The road is still 
discernible in many places, and is as likely to be trodden by the fortieth generation after us 
as it is by us, the fortieth generation after the last of the cohort of the second legion which, 
from an inscription on a stone in a wall of the place, Cohors Secundce Augusta, we gather 
was once stationed here had taken his departure. From Loventium the road proceeded by 
Llanbadarn for Pennal, across the Dyfi, whence it probably proceeded by Tommen-y-mur, 
Trawsfynydd, the Heriri Mons of Richard of Cirencester, to Segontium by one branch, and 
to Conovium, near Con way, by another. 

Of inscribed stones there are only a few in Cardiganshire, and these for the most part are 
imperfect and scarcely intelligible. In the church wall, "above the chancel door," at 
Llanddewi-Brevi, Camden found the stone which contained this imperfect inscription, " HIC 
IACET IDNERT FILIVS . . . QVI OCCISVS FVIT PROPTER P . . . SANCTI." 
By the church door he found another " old inscription," which seemed to " consist wholly of 
abbreviations," whose purport he would " not pretend to explain." At Llanio Camden 
found two inscribed stones, with rumour of others which had been "applied to some uses" 
most probably road-making or wall-building, the two most common " uses " to which such 
monuments were doomed. One he read CAII ARTII MANIBUS (or perhaps MEMORIAE) 
ENNIUS PRIMUS ; and conjectured that in the last word Primus was seen the origin of 



HISTORIC ANTIQUITIES : INSCRIPTIONS. 155 

the name Brefi applied to the Church, the Latin Primus, first, being rendered in Welsh by 
Prif a somewhat far-fetched conjecture. 

Lhvvyd, in his additions to Camden, turning from cromlechs and uninscribed megaliths, 
which he denominates " barbarous monuments," to " something that was later and more 
civilized," unfortunately presents of this higher class of things only one in the whole county 
of Cardigan. He found " a large, rude stone in Penbryn parish, not far from the church," 
which had stood " not long since in a small heap of stones close by the place where it now 
lies on the ground." The stone, he adds, "is as hard as marble, and the letters large and 
very fair, and deeper inscribed than ordinary ; but what they signify I fear must be left to 
the reader's conjecture." The inscription, "CORBALENCIIACIT ORDOVS," has nothing- 
very "civilized " in its look ; nor could Lhwyd more than conjecture, and " at first venture," 
to read it Cor Balencii jacit Ordous, and " to interpret it," The heart of Valentius of North 
Wales lies here, " supposing that such a person might have been slain in battel." Ordous, 
he thought, was not very remote from Ordovicus, North- Wallian ; but he was "not satisfied 
with this notion of it " himself, and he was quite right in not expecting " that others should 
acquiesce in it." 

At this time, perhaps, the Ogham stone, now standing near Llanfechan, the finest 
inscribed stone in Cardiganshire, had not been discovered ; at least, neither Camden nor 
Lhwyd had any knowledge of it. An old building called Capel Whyl was pulled down 
some time ago the year is not mentioned, when in the foundations, a few feet below the 
surface, this stone was found embedded. It is carefully preserved and valued by Major 
Evans, who has himself sketched it in the view of Llanfechan which appears on p. 137. 
This stone is also " as hard as marble," and " its letters large and very fair." The sense is 
also clear ; and to make it doubly certain the same inscription is nearly literally repeated on 
the edge of the stone in Ogham characters, which in Major Evans's sketch are given with 
perfect accuracy, and are nearly as faithfully imitated by the engraver. The stone has received 
some attention, but is deserving of more, as perhaps the most perfect Ogham stone in Wales. 
The inscription in Roman characters is TRENACATVS 1C IACIT FILIVS MAGLAGNI 
"Here lies Trenacatus, the son of Maglagnus;" while the Ogham inscription has only the 
first word, with the termination lo for us. Of Trenacatus or his father Maglagnus we know 
no more than this stone deigns to tell. Maglagnus may, after the manner of etymologists, 
be fancied to mean Maelgwyn, by which name that formidable son of the Lord Rhys is 
known, who in A.D. 1186 captured Tenby Castle, and " like a lion hunting slew all the Flan- 
drysians (Flemings) who came against him ;" but who will ever imagine an equivalent for 
Trenacatus, the son ? Will some " bard " say it means Rhun, the son of another Maelgwyn, 
(Gwynedd), who lived in the sixth century ? 

This Ogham stone stands about nine feet above ground. The inscription is as sharp as 
if cut in the present century. The Ogham characters on the margin are perfect, and not a 
chip seems to have been struck off to injure them. The stone is regular in form, but shows 
no sign, if we remember rightly, of having been shaped by art. It is solid as well as hard 
probably an " altered " Llandeilo rock, and will endure, if not wilfully destroyed, as long 
as it has endured. 

The Ogham alphabet had not been discovered in Camden and Lhwyd's days. The cha- 
racters would therefore by them be deemed mere fanciful and meaningless indentations. 



156 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Though perhaps coeval with the Christian era, it cannot be called pre -historic ; most of its 
monuments betray some Christian features ; many are found in burial-grounds or in connec- 
tion with monastic buildings, are inscribed with crosses, bear the names of saints, show a 
knowledge of Latin, and, as in the present instance, are a repetition of Latin words. Ogham 
stones are found in Celtic, and not, except rarely, in Teutonic countries. The alphabet is 
no doubt a mysterious one, and intended to be such ; it is not uniform, but presents varieties 
which perplex the most skilful interpreters. But all varieties agree in making a straight line, 
often the edge of the stone, the basis of the writing, the characters forming short straight 
lines, either at right angles or obliquely. 

Besides this Llanfechan monument Wales is known at present to contain six other Ogham 
stones, a very fine one at St. Dogmael's, Pembrokeshire, once a gate-post, afterwards a bridge 
over a brook, then a part of a wall, rescued by accident, and broken in the passage from 
obscurity to distinction (see St. Dogmael's) ; two in Breconshire the Turpilian stone near 
Crickhowel, and the Trallong stone; the Kenfig stone and the Loughor stone, both in Gla- 
morganshire ; and lastly the Fardell stone, now in the British Museum. 




ABERYSTWYTH CASTLE (from a photo, by Bedford]. 



Among the castles of Cardiganshire that of Aberystwyth is probably the most ancient and 
the most important. Both the castle and the headland on which it stands have alike been in 
process of disappearing for many ages, and what remains is but a fraction of what once 
existed The schistose rock of this promontory is soft and of irregular consistency, and is 
entirely exposed to the full action of a sea which in rough weather rushes on the cliffs 
with tremendous force and grandeur, clinging to the jagged projections, and tearing them 
from their roots, often in ponderous masses. Within the memory of men still living the area 
of the castle grounds has sensibly diminished, and this beautiful watering-place is gradually 



ABERYSTWYTH CASTLE. 157 

being robbed of one of its chiefest attractions. A castle existed at Aberystwyth in all pro- 
bability long before the Norman Conquest, but the first castle we have a clear account of 
was built about A.D. 1 109, by Gilbert de Clare, the Norman, to whom Henry I. gave the lands 
of Caxlwgan ap Bleddyn, as already shown. That castle, however, is not the castle which 
now presents itself in a fragmentary state at Aberystwyth. 

Gilbert de Clare's fortress was destined to frequent attack and repeated change of pos- 
sessors. Owain Gwynedd burned it in A.D. 1142. The Norman Lord Marcher was dis- 
possessed, and Maelgwyn, the son of Rhys ap Tewdwr, was its lord when Llewelyn ap 
lorwerth, prince of North Wales, overwhelmed Cardiganshire in A.D. 1208. Maelgwyn 
destroyed this castle and that of Ystrad Meurig rather than that they should fall into the 
hands of Llewelyn, but the latter deliberately rebuilt the castle of Aberystwyth, and gave it 
to Rhys and Owen, grandsons of Rhys ap Tewdwr, whose rights Maelgwyn had usurped. 
King John, as lord paramount, now interfered, took possession of the castle, enlarged, 
strengthened, and garrisoned it, with the view of making it a standing menace to the 
turbulent people of Ceredigion. 

Matters for a time got somewhat settled, but the spirit of liberty was abroad; the conflict 
of the barons with John ended favourably to the popular cause, and raised to a higher pitch 
the indignation of the Welsh against the tyranny of the Marchers. Once more a mighty 
effort was made to expel the lords of the castles from Cardiganshire : 

" The peasant leaves his plough a-field, 

The reaper leaves his hook, 
And from his hand the shepherd-boy 
Lets fall the pastoral crook. 

" All rush to [Llewelyn's] standard, 

And on Liberty they call ; 
They cannot brook to bear the yoke 
When threatened by the Gaul. 

" Has the audacious Frank, forsooth, 

Subdued these seas and lands. ? 
Shall he a bloodless victory have ? 
No, not while we have hands." 

The consequence was that Llewelyn ap lorwerth, when Henry III. was king of England, 
obtained the ascendency in Cardiganshire (as well as throughout South Wales), and installed 
his son David as lord of the district. In 1270 Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, now the paramount 
lord of Ceredigion, held Aberystwyth Castle ; but in A.D. 127 7 'Ed ward I. was making head 
against Llewelyn ; peace was for a time agreed upon, but the conditions involved the 
possession by the English king of Aberystwyth Castle, which he rebuilt and strongly fortified. 
Most likely the ruins which we now gaze upon are the remains of Edward's fortress. Owen 
Glyndwr took it in 1404, and Cromwell demolished it with cannon planted on Pendinas 
Hill in A.D. 1647. The last service this stronghold rendered was as a mint, when Charles I. 
empowered Mr. Bushel, proprietor of the neighbouring lead mines, and whose wealth had 
been serviceable to the straitened monarch, to issue silver coin made from the ores of the 
county. 

The castle of Cardigan, which also saw many vicissitudes, was founded at a later date 



158 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

than that of Aberystwyth, and was not at first the work of a Lord Marcher. What now 
remains of it is very insignificant. The mansion and grounds of David Davies, Esq., stand on 
the site which it occupied, and parts of lower passages and vaults form the cellars of the house, 
while some portions of the walls are visible at the back, as well as at the lower part of the 
grounds fronting the river. This fortress was first built by " the Lord Rhys," prince of 
South Wales, to protect his dominions against the incursions of the North Welsh. Almost 
immediately the Normans made their appearance, Roger, Earl of Clare, obtaining permission 
of Henry I. to seize such lands in Wales as he could conquer, selected Cardigan as the 
point of attack, succeeded in the attempt, and on the site of the Lord Rhys's stronghold 
built a Norman castle; this was in A.D. 1157. The following year, however, Rhys obtained 
the mastery over the earl, and possessed the castle. In A.D. 1159, Rhys, "trusting more in 
arms than in the gift of a king, burned the castles which the French had built in Ceredigion." 
(Annal. Cambr.) Next year he dealt the same measure to the castles " throughout Dyfed." 
In A.D. 1165, King Henry having made a great display of force against Rhys, and returned 
" without doing aught," Rhys once more took the castle of Aberteivi " Cardigan " was a 
name not yet in use, which must in the meantime have been lost to him, and, as one 
authority says, levelled it to the ground. But if this was so, he afterwards rebuilt it before 
A.D. 1177, for in that year, at Christmas, Prince Rhys held a most magnificent feast in this 
castle of Aberteivi, which is recorded in the Welsh Chronicle, and eleven years later he was 
still in possession of the place, and entertained in it with princely liberality Archbishop 
Baldwin, of Canterbury, and Giraldus De Barri, on their tour through Wales preaching the 
Crusades. 

"The archbishop," says Giraldus (///.), "having celebrated mass early in the morning, 
before the high altar of the church of St. David's, and enjoined to the archdeacon (Giraldus 
himself) the office of preaching to the people, hastened through Cemmes to meet Prince 
Rhys at Aberteivi. . . . We slept that night in the monastery of St. Dogmael's, where, 
as well as next day at Aberteivi, we were handsomely entertained by Prince Rhys. On the 
Cemmes side of the river [Teivi], not far from the bridge, the people of the neighbourhood 
being assembled together, and Rhys and his two sons, Maelgwyn and Grufiydd, being present, 
the word of the Lord was persuasively preached, both by the archbishop and the archdeacon, 
and many were induced to take the cross." This was a veritable " open-air meeting" a kind 
of " Methodist assembly " of the twelfth century, where prince and people freely mingled in the 
throng. It is no wonder that the Lord Rhys was popular. " Near the head of the bridge," 
adds Giraldus, " where the sermons were delivered, the people immediately marked out a site 
for a chapel, on a verdant plain, as a memorial of so great an event." The chapel doubtless 
was built, and it has also disappeared, but showing the wonderful tenacity of local names 
" near the end of the bridge " there is a " verdant plain " which is still called "Park y 
Capell' 1 After entertaining them, he accompanied the preachers all through Ceredigion on 
their way to North Wales. 

After the death of the Lord Rhys (whose chief seat, we must remember, was Dinefawr), 
his son Grufiydd held Cardigan Castle ; but a feud occurring between him and his brother 
Maelgwyn, the latter succeeded in taking possession of the place, and after a time, unable 
to cope with the difficulties surrounding him, disposed of it to the Normans. We have seen 
Llewelyn ap lorwerth (the Great) taking possession of Aberystwyth Castle ; he also took 



ANTIQUITIES : CARDIGAN CASTLE, ETC. 159 



Cardigan, as well as several other strongholds. It again passed, after a few years, into the 
hands of the French, in the person of Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, who kept possession 
till A.D. 1230, when a grandson of the Lord Rhys, another Maelgwyn, took and destroyed 
it, and cruelly maltreated the inhabitants of Cardigan. Once more the Normans entered 
Cardigan and rebuilt the castle ; but the former magnificence of the place never reappeared. 
The power of the Lords Marchers was now waning in Dyfed. The time came for the 
House of Plantagenet to cast its net over Wales; in A.D. 1254 various lordships and castles 
in North and South Wales were "given" to young Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., 
and amongst them was the castle of Aberteivi. In the civil wars it was held by the Royalist 
party, but was compelled to yield to the Parliament's forces, and soon after was dismantled. 
It has fallen into such a state of ruin that it is with difficulty any part of it can now be 
discovered ; but out of death springs up life, the site, as already intimated, is now occupied 
by a gentleman's genteel residence. 

"The sound of revelry, the clash of arms, 
With the old frowning towers, have passed away: 
Now here is peace." 

The remaining castles of Cardiganshire are not invested with the same interest as those 
of Cardigan and Aberystwy th. * That of Newcastle Emlyn occupies a site which was beyond 
doubt a British caer from the time when men first began the mischief of warfare in those 
parts : it is a position that would inevitably commend itself for selection. But we have no 
history of it before the time when Sir Rhys ap Thomas of Dinefawr, temp. Henry VII., built 
the New-Castle there a name which clearly implies the existence of an old castle in the 
place called Emlyn. The castle of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, being a castellated mansion more 
than a warlike fortress, was not likely to be the scene of great events. No history is given 
of a Norman settlement in this place. 

The old stronghold of Plas Crug, near Aberystwyth, stands next in celebrity among the 
fortresses of Cardiganshire. Of its first builder we -have no account. The site is a likely 
one for an early British caer. Possibly this was the " Castle of Llanbadarn-Fawr" which is 
sometimes mentioned in the transactions of the time of the Llewelyns and the Plantagenet 
princes. The appellation Plas would intimate that it was a kind of mansion, castellated and 
moated most probably, rather than a fortress. It is said to have been occupied by 
Llewelyn ap lorwerth when he made his victorious progress through Cardiganshire. It 
was taken in later times by Owen Glyndwr. The castle which Edmund, brother of 
Edward I., was said to be fortifying at Llanbadarn-Fawr while Edward was seeking 
to hem in Llewelyn ap Gruffydd in the Snowdonian district, was probably this very 
place. 

The remaining ruined castles are those of Aberaeron, Llanrhystyd, Llanfihangel-geneu'r- 
Glyn, and Ystrad-Meurig, none of which are associated with striking historical events, but 
all of which beyond question had a story, which if written would make us thankful that the 
age of castle-building as means for the brutal strong to crush the weak is for ever past. 

* Aberystwyth appears in one place in the Annaks Cambria (A.D. 1165) to be called Aber Rheidol a 
far more appropriate name, for the place is situated at the confluence of the Rheidol and the tide, while the real 
aber of Ystwyth is at a considerable distance. There is reason to believe that this must have been the original 
name of the site before any town was built. 



160 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Their names, and the hoary fragments of them which remain, are invested with a poetic 
fascination ; but they are better dead than living : 

"Never did dead things better seem." 

They are mere stumps of the teeth of barbarism, telling us to what savage grinding the 
inhabitants of Ceredigion for two hundred years were submitted. We turn with relief to a 
better class of agency, happily at the same time at work. The Christian Church has left 
memorials of a benigner presence, working its way, with whatever errors and imperfections, 
not towards death, but towards a higher life. 



Ecclesiastical A ntiquities. 

Cardiganshire can boast of several important centres of early ecclesiastical life, among 
which the church of Llanbadarn-Fawr necessarily takes first rank both in point of antiquity 
and dignity. The accounts we have of Padarn, the founder of a Christian congregation at 
this place in the fifth or sixth century, are meagre and somewhat indistinct, slightly tinged 
moreover with a hue of superstition. He became, it would seem, bishop, in the then sense 
of the term, of the church he had gathered, and by reason of the holiness and zeal of 
his life obtained an influence over the Christian fraternities around to a considerable 
distance. Of Llanbadarn, Mr. Williams, in his Ecclesiastical Antiquities, says, " Very little is 
known of this bishopric, and the last notice we have of it in the Bruts is under the year 720, 
when it is recorded that many of its churches were ravaged by the Saxons." The character 
of the " bishop " may be perhaps not incorrectly judged of from the language of the Triad(\g) : 
" The three blessed visitors of the Isle of Britain [the Triads always mean by the " Isle of 
Britain," Wales], Dewi, Padarn, and Teilo. They were so called because they went as 
guests to the houses of the noble, the plebeian, the native, and the stranger, without 
accepting either fee or reward, or victuals or drink, but what they did was to teach the faith 
in Christ to every one without pay or thanks." Padarn (St. Paternus) was not literally a 
Welshman, but a Breton. Usher says, "The sanctity of St. Dubricius (Dyfrig) and St. David 
drew into Britain from foreign parts St. Paternus, a devout young man, about the year 516, 
together with 847 monks who accompanied him." The number of monks is quite 
improbable out of proportion with the dimensions of the Church in this district, and also 
of the then undeveloped monastic system. Padarn, however, went on working, spreading 
the Christian element among the Welsh of Ceredigion and parts adjacent, and fairly and for 
good impressed his name and character on the national mind. He afterwards returned to 
his native Brittany. 

It is impossible to know when the present church of Llanbadarn-Fawr in all its parts 
was built. There are fragments of older date than others. It has been subject, like the 
people who worshipped in it, to many changes has been burnt by fire, plundered, 
demolished, rebuilt, times beyond our knowledge. The Danes destroyed it two or three 
times at least. The style of the chief part of the architecture of the present church is that of 
the early part of the thirteenth century, " but the structure has evidently been nearly rebuilt 
at a subsequent date after extensive injuries suffered through fire or from violence : the same 



ANTIQUITIES: LLANBADARN CHURCH. 



161 



design was, however, adhered to, and many of the older details preserved and re-used. The 
difficulty of ascertaining the original character of the church under such circumstances is 
rendered less by a comparison with other contemporary buildings in the Principality, such 
as the priory and Christ Church at Brecknock, Ewenny Abbey. All exhibit these general 
characteristics extreme simplicityin the external features, combined with an admirable degree 
of finish in the masonry, and a comparative refinement and richness of detail in the interior. 
Llanbadarn Church, though one of the simplest, yields to none of these in point of the 
execution of those details that are evidently original, while it is surpassed by few in dignity of 
scale and proportion; its beautiful southern doorway, however, alone remains to show what the 
internal features may have been, which are now replaced by work of an entirely different and 
ruder class, as, for instance, the arches supporting the tower. The windows, though but 
simple lancet-sh|ped openings with chamfered edges, have dressings of the best description. 
The tower, which is evidently of a later date, as it has many older worked stones built into 
it, has unfortunately none of the usual weatherings to show the original pitch of the roofs. 
The present roofs, of indifferent characters, are comparatively modern." 

This description is taken from the report of the architect, J. P. Seddon, Esq., of London, 
under' whose superintendence the old church is now in process of restoration. Mr. 
Seddon's ability and intimate knowledge of Gothic architecture in all its stages of develop- 




LLANBADARN-FAWR CHURCH. 

ment, both in England and Wales, and on the Continent, are well known, and have been put 
to a satisfactory test in the restoration of Llandaff Cathedral (see Llandaff Cathedral} and 
other ecclesiastical structures in the Principality ; and it is a happy thing that the restoration 
of so venerable an edifice as the church of Llanbadam-Fawr has been entrusted into such 
competent hands. Our drawing shows the church as it will be when the work now in 
progress has been completed. 

M 



163 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

The state of this church's affairs in the twelfth century, when Giraldus Cambrensis visited 
it, was anything but satisfactory. Roman corruption and worldly abuses seemed to run a 
race. The zealous archdeacon speaks plainly : " Having rested that night at Llanpadarn- 
Fawr, or the church of Paternus the Great, we attracted many persons to the service of 
Christ on the following morning. It is remarkable that this church, like many others in Wales 
and Ireland, has a lay abbot; for a bad custom has prevailed among the clergy of appointing 
the most powerful people of a parish stewards, or rather, patrons of their churches; who in 
process of time, from a desire of gain, have usurped the whole right, appropriating to their 
own use the possession of all the lands, leaving only to the clergy the altars with their tenths 
and oblations, and assigning even these to their sons and relations in the Church. Such 
defenders, or rather destroyers of the Church, have caused themselves to be called abbots, 
and presumed to attribute to themselves a title, as well as estates, to which they have no 
just claim. Thus we found the church of Llanpadarn without a head; a certain old man, 
waxen old in iniquity, whose name was Eden Oen [Owen], son of Gwaithwoed, being abbot, 
and his sons officiating at the altar." 

Giraldus was determined not to spare the rod. He further adds, " In the reign of King 
Henry I., when the authority of the English prevailed in Wales, the monastery of St. Peter 
at Gloucester held quiet possession of this church ; but after his death, the English being 
driven out, the monks were expelled from their cloisters, and their places supplied by the 
same violent intrusion of clergy and laity which had formerly been practised." He then 
after his manner gives a story in point. " It happened in the reign of King Stephen, who 
succeeded Henry I., that a knight born in Armorican Britain [Brittany], having travelled 
through many parts of the world, from a desire of seeing different cities and the manners of 
their inhabitants, came by chance to Llanpadarn. On a certain feast-day, when both clergy 
and people were waiting for the arrival of the abbot to celebrate mass, he perceived a body 
of young men, armed according to the custom of their country, approaching towards the 
church ; and on inquiring which of them was the abbot, they pointed out to him a man 
walking foremost, with a long spear in his hand. Gazing on him with amazement, he asked 
' if the abbot had not another habit, or a different staff from that which he now carried.' 
On their answering ' No ! ' he replied, ' I have seen indeed and heard this day a wonderful 
novelty;' and from that hour he returned home and finished his labours and researches." 
Then Giraldus finishes his castigation, implying at the last much more than he says. " This 
wicked people boast that a certain bishop of their church for it formerly was a cathedral 
was murdered by their predecessors, and on this account chiefly they ground their claims 
of right and profession. No public complaint having been made against their conduct, we 
have thought it more prudent to pass over, for the present, by hiding the enormities of this 
wicked race than exasperate them by a further relation " (Itin., v.). If this is "hiding," what 
must the " further relation " have been ! Our archdeacon was a strong party man, not over- 
favourable towards the management of the Welsh Church in his days, thwarted in his 
candidature for the see of St. David's, and possibly had met with opposition from this 
" wicked people " at Llanbadarn. 

The old abbey of Ystrad Fflur, Strada Florida, situated up high in the Tregaron 
Mountains, was for four hundred years a place of immense influence in Cardiganshire and all 
South Wales. On three sides it was surrounded by high and barren hills, on the other by 



ANTIQUITIES : STRATA FLORIDA ABBEY. 163 

the Vale of Teivi, where the stream began to quiet itself after a rough conflict with the stony 
declivities of the mountains. It was well chosen as a place of retreat from the world, 
if retreat of that kind were desirable. Leland (circa A.D. 1535), in his quaint way, has 
drawn the picture thus : " Strateflere is set round about with montanes not far distant except 
on the West parte, where Diffrin Tyve is. Many hilles thereabout hath bene well woddid, 
as evidently by old rotes apperith, but now in them is almost no wode. The causes be these : 
first, the woode cut down was never copisid, and this hath bene a great cause of destruction 
of woode through Wales. Secondly, after cuttinge down of woodes, the gottys hath so 
bytten the young spring that it never grew but lyke shrubbes. Thirddely, men for the 
monys destroyed the great woddis that thei should not harborow theves." 

The abbey of Ystrad Fflur was first of all founded, A.D. 1164, by "the Lord Rhys," of 
Dinefawr, at a little distance from the present site, and near the stream Fflur^ which early foun- 
dation is still commemorated by an old building called yr hen Fynachlog, the old monastery. 
When Giraldus Cambrensis and Archbishop Baldwin visited Ystrad Fflur ^ in company with the 
Lord Rhys, it was this earlier monastery that they witnessed. It was here also that Llewelyn 
received the fealty of the lords and barons of Wales. When, in A.D. 1294, according to Dug- 
dale, the great monastery was built, two miles distant, near the Teivi, the name of the little 
rivulet Fflur accompanied it, and has thus been made memorable. The stream of the Teivi 
running close by seems to have derived a sanctity from the monastery, for the bridge which 
has replaced an ancient ford across it, about two miles below, is called Pont-rhyd-fendigaid 
the bridge of the blessed ford. This monastery in the mountains was for ages the deposi- 
tory of historic records, and vied for the learning of its inmates with the abbey of Aber- 
conway in the north. It has been reasonably conjectured, from the frequent notices in the 
Annales Cambrics to the affairs of Cardiganshire (Ceredigion), that this most valuable 
chronicle of Welsh history was composed by the monks of Ystrad Fflur. The monastery itself 
and its affairs are frequently mentioned. Thus Owain, son of Gruffydd, dies there A.D. 1235 ; 
all the princes of Wales swear fealty to David, son of Llewelyn the Great, there, A.D. 1238; 
Rhys, son of Maelgwyn, dies and is buried there, " near his sister, with much lamentation," 
A.D. 1255; Margaret, wife of Owain ap Meredydd, is buried there, "near her brother," 
A.D. 1255 ; David ap Howel of Arwystli, " vir nobilis," is buried there with much wailing, 
" cum magno planctu," A.D. 1258 ; and at last comes the record of an event which probably led 
to the transference of the monastery to the new site, " 1286, combustio domorum apud 
Stratam Floridam," the burning of dwellings at Strata Florida. Seven years after this, 
according to Dugdale, the new monastery on the Teivi was erected. Against the theory, 
however, that Annales Cambrics was a chronicle of Strata Florida must be mentioned the 
significant fact that although the journey of Baldwin through South Wales is mentioned, no 
reference whatever is made to his visit to the abbey, although we have the testimony of 
Giraldus Cambrensis that they both passed the night there : "A sermon having been preached 
on the following morning at Pont Stephen [Lampeter] by the archbishop and archdeacon, 
and also by two abbots of the Cistercian order, John of Albadomus [Ty-Gwyn-ar-Daf, 
or Whitland Abbey] and Sisillus of Stratflur [making four sermons in one morning !], who 
faithfully attended us in these parts and as far as North Wales, many persons were induced 
to take the cross. We proceeded to Stratflur, where we passed the night" (Itin., iv.). 

The abbey of Strata Florida was a structure of large dimensions, surrounded by 



164 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



cemetery so extensive as to prove that the spot was sought from far and wide as a resting- 
place for the dead. The Lord Rhys had given it also an extensive mountain territory. 
Leland, who visited the abbey in the year 1535 or thereabouts, describes the cemetery, 
church, and lands thus : " Al the montaine ground bytwixt the rivers Alen and Stratefleere 
longeth to Stratefleere, and is almoste for wilde pastures and breding grounde, in so much 
that everi there about puttith in bestes, as many as they will, without paiyng of mony. . . 
. . The church of Stratefleere is larg, side ilid and crosse ilid. By is a larg cloyster : the 
ffatri and infirmatori be now mere mines. The coemeteri, wherein the counteri about doth 
buri, is very larg and meanly waulled with stone ; in it be 39 great hue trees ; the base court 
or camp before the abbay is veri faire and larg." 

Of this great mountain home of knowledge, religious meditation, Cistercian Mariolatry, 
there now remains but the merest fragment. The lofty buttressed walls, pierced with many 
a lancet window of the Early English Gothic, the great tower which rose at the intersection 
of the transept for Leland tells us that the church was " side ilid and crosse ilid," with 
interior of arch and screen and altar, a colossal creation, decked out with many odd conceits 
and curious work of patient art, 

' ' Gargoyled with greyhounds, and with many lions 
Made of fine gold, with divers sundry dragons," 




DOOR OF ABBEY OF YSTRAD FFLUR. 



have crumbled and disappeared. The solemn procession and song of tonsured priests, the 
mimicry of the heavenly choir by urchins of the hills hastily draped in white, and the fervid 
chant of the Cistercian fraternity, blending with the deep and thrilling tones of the organ 
and sweetest voices of chilldren, 

" Ave, Regina crelorum ! 
Ave, Domina angelorum ! " 

have long ago passed away. Generations many, of the gentlest and best, the bravest and 
strongest of the Ceredigion households, lie in dust around, princes, princesses, lords of 
manors and castles, warriors once terrible in battle, and the poorest of the poor, without dis- 
tinction or memorial, as equal as grains of sand, as unknown as if they had never been. How 
impressively quiet is their rest amid the mountain solitudes ! 



ANTIQUITIES : LLANDDEWI-BREFI. 165 

All that remains of the abbey is this solitary arch of Norman design. The land on 
which the abbey stood, and much of the country around, belongs to the estate of Colonel 
Powell of Nanteos. 

The old church of Llandde wi-Brevi is also an historical and " storied" place. Not long 
after the departure of the last Roman from Llanio (Loventiuni) close by, or about the year 
519 (Usher, however, gives 474 or 475), there came to the spot where n ow stand sLlanddewi- 
Brevi Church a man whose name will never perish as long as there are records in Wales. 
This man was Dafydd or Dewi, usually called St. David. One of the less commendable 
peculiarities of Cardiganshire in all ages has been a spirit of denial. An acute logical 
intellect with a somewhat dyspeptic stomach are not unseldom met with in those parts, and 
they move in instances not a few on the road to Socinianism and Pelagianism. These 
denying spirits flourished in Ceredigion in the time of Dewi to such an extent that a synod 
was called of the bishops and abbots, princes, priests, and others, from all Cymru to oppose 
the evil. Some say there were 118 bishops such as bishops then were, many abbots, &c., 
present. Many speeches, of course, were delivered, but the heretics were not convinced 
nor abashed. Whereupon Pawl Hen, one of the bishops, earnestly entreated that " the 
holy, discreet, and eloquent Dewi" might be summoned from his monastic seclusion. 
Dewi after much persuasion came, and delivered a " worthy sermon," whereupon, as he was 
preaching, a great miracle took place ; for, as Giraldus informs us, the ground on which he 
stood mounted up into a hillock, and the consequence was that through the wonderful 
occurrence, combined with the cogency of the arguments, the heretics were completely 
silenced, and Pelagianism fell. Dyfrig now resigned the archbishopric of Mynyw, or Rhos, 
and David was unanimously chosen his successor. On the hillock thus preternaturally 
formed was erected the church of \Jox\-ddewi. 

The erection of this church, if tradition is to be wholly credited, was also accompanied 
by miraculous signs ; for of two oxen employed in hauling stones for the sacred building, 
the load being heavy and the road uphill, one fell down dead in the effort to drag it on, 
whereupon the other bellowed out nine times, and the hill which formed the obstacle parted 
in the midst, so that the single ox was able to draw the load to the site of the church. The 
Welsh word for bellowing is brefi, and some, such as " bards," have held that the victorious 
bellowing of the ox gave occasion to the name whereby the church was, eventually called 
Llanddewi-^rg/f; of which opinion the best that can be said is, 

" Of talys and tryfulles many man tellys, 
Sume ben trewe and sume ben ellis." 

It is impossible to say what was the origin of the name; the conjecture in Camden that 
it came from primus, chief, foremost, in Welsh prif, as applied to Dewi, to whom, now 
canonized, it was dedicated, may be as reasonable as any. It is the common opinion that 
the church was built about the year 1187, but this is not the opinion of the most competent 
to judge. The structure is Gothic, the plan being a cross with nave and side aisle. Though 
situated in a distant part, near the moors and mountains, it is a large and handsome 
building, surpassed by few in the county ; on account of its distinguished early associations, 
it was doubtless a place of great concourse for devotees and pilgrims while the Roman 
Church bore sway in the land ; but it has fallen on times wherein the people around affect 



166 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

chapels more than churches, and there is about it therefore an air of comparative desolation. 
Sir R. C. Hoare, whose account is rather highly coloured, says, " The church which was the 
scene of this miracle is situated on a gentle eminence, backed by high mountains, and 
surrounded by the most miserable hovels I ever beheld. Though a large and spacious 
building, it corresponds with the village in misery and desolation." (Notes on Giraldus's 
Itin.) Whoever the owner of the soil at Llanddewi-brefi may be, it is difficult to conceive 
that he could allow so historic a spot to be marred by such " miserable hovels " as the 
abodes of his tenants. 

This place had once a college of some distinction. Of the nature of this institution not 
much is known, except that it was a kind of monastic seminary. 

Although Giraldus and Archbishop Baldwin made no stay at Llanddexvi-brefi, they made 
a considerable detour in order to visit a spot so celebrated on their way from Ystrad Fflur 
to Llanbadarn. With what veneration did Giraldus, who believed every whit of the 
tradition respecting Dewi's preaching, and the signs which accompanied it, gaze at that 
swelling in the ground on which the church is built ! He could see it in imagination rising 
from the level plain as holy David was preaching ; and having crossed themselves devoutly, 
he and his superior, with the Lord Rhys, passed reverently on to take their night's rest at 
Llanbadarn-fawr. The present church was not then standing; the spot was probably 
occupied by some smaller church or chapel. It may be observed, as showing the zeal of 
these great ecclesiastics in the cause of religion and the Crusades, that no day was allowed 
to escape without preaching. Where there was a church they preached in the church ; 
where occasion called for a " sermon," and no church was near, they preached in the open 
air. At Cardigan their service was in the open air. And on this very morning of their 
visit to Llanddewi-brefi they had held a sermon on the high road, their audience being only 
a handful but a handful it was important to win. Giraldus gives the account thus : 

" On the following morning [leaving Ystrad Fflur Abbey], having on our right the lofty 
mountains of Moruge, which in Welsh are called Ellennith, we were met near the side of a 
wood by Cyneuric, son of Rhys [the Lord Rhys], accompanied by a body of light armed 
youths. This young man was of a fair complexion, with curled hair, tall and handsome ; 
clothed only, according to the custom of his country, with a thin cloak and under garment ; 
his legs and feet, regardless of thorns and thistles, were left bare : a man not adorned by art. 
but nature ; bearing in his presence an innate, not an acquired dignity of manners. A 
sermon having been preached to these three young men, GrufTydd, Malgwyn, and Cyneuric 
[they were not very "young," for Maelgwyn was the prince who two years before (1186) 
took Tenby, and " like a lion hunting, slew all the Flandrysians who came against him "], in 
the presence of their father, Prince Rhys, and the brothers debating about taking the cross, 
at length Malgwyn strictly promised that he would accompany the archbishop to the king's 
court, and would obey the king's and archbishop's counsel unless prevented by them. From 
thence we passed through Llanddewi-brefi, &c." Both Church and State are here shown to be 
very different from what they are at present ! 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 167 



SECTION V. OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Though behind some other counties of Wales with respect to distinguished households 
which have become quite extinct, or have disappeared, Cardiganshire has scarcely a district 
which did not at one time contain families of note and distinction which no longer exist. 
Time, of course, is impartial towards men and families of all ranks. Advantages of birth and 
culture, of fixed possessions, and motives to a continued succession, which in the continuity 
of houses might be expected to operate powerfully against the devastations of death and 
time, seern in fact to play but an unimportant part. The poor have no pedigrees. They 
only derive, they would say, from Adam. But it may be questioned whether, if the past in 
the fortunes of the humbler class in Cardiganshire a county remarkable for the genuineness 
of its Cymric blood could be seen, family persistency has not been quite as great among 
the poor as among the rich. 

In one respect the effect of the Lords Marchers' settlements in Cardiganshire has been 
very different from the same in Breconshire. We have seen in the latter county the children 
and children's children through many generations of the Norman knights still upon the soil, 
forming important households, possessing large estates, intermarrying eventually with the 
Welsh, and becoming part of the people. Such were the Burghills, the Walbeoffes, the 
Awbreys, the Bullens, &c. But in Cardiganshire nothing of the kind is visible. The Norman 
lords of Cardigan and Aberystwyth, the De Clares, left not a trace behind them except 
frowning fortresses and a desolate land. There were a few inferior lords, as Walter Espec, 
of Geneu'r-glyn, who, with two solitary exceptions, had no continuance in the county ; not a 
family in Cardiganshire is known to have acknowledged their name, or boasted of their 
kinship. The exceptions are those of the Mortimers a family of high respectability, who 
held a prominent place in the county of Cardigan for many generations, but appears to be 
now almost if not quite extinct, and the Clements of Caron and Coedmor. 

The gentes of Cardiganshire are in the main those of Cadifor ap Dinawal, of Elystan 
Glodrydd, and of Gwaithfoed, Lord of Cardigan ; but the preponderance of the clan of Cadifor 
the distinguished captor of Cardigan Castle, is most remarkable. The great bulk of the old 
gentry of the county claimed him as their ancestor, and many of their representatives are 
still there. Not to mention here surviving households, the prominent houses of Llanbedr, 
Llanllyr, Castell-Howel, Maesyfelin, Alltyrodyn, Ffoesybkiddiaid, Wern-newydd, Noyadd- 
trefawr, Dolwlph, Modi/or, Ffoes-esgob, Llanfechan, Rhiwarthen, mostly going by the name of 
Lloyd, all derive from him; those of Abermad (Lloyd), Llanfair-dydoge, Foel-allt, Llanbadarn 
Odwyn, &c., from Gwaithfoed, Lord of Cardigan ; and those of Gernos, Cilgwyn, Nanteos 
(/ones'), &c., from Elystan Glodrydd, Lord of Ferlex, or Fferyllwg, beyond the Wye. The old 
families of Crynfryn and Llwyn-Dafydd traced to Selyf, Lord of Dyfed. The list of sheriffs 
for the county of Cardigan, hereafter given, will show the names of many of these families. 

The distinguished man, Cadifor ap Dinawal, whose energy of character is probably re- 
flected in the wide prevalence and local influence of his descendants, immortalized his name 
by storming Cardigan Castle, and taking it from the Norman De Clare and the Flemings 
about the year 1165, after King Henry's ineffectual expedition into Wales to overawe the 
Lord Rhys. (See p. 148.) The castle on this occasion was destroyed ; and for Cadivor's 



1 68 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

exploit, his master, the Lord Rhys, under the English king lord paramount in South Wales, 
gave him, it is said, the coat of arms in which his descendants have ever since gloried, 
"Sa., a spear-head imbrued, inter 3 scaling-ladders, arg., on a chief gu. a castle triple- 
towered of the second," a coat, as Meyrick observes, rather too well blazoned for the 
heraldry of that day, but which in the main elements of scaling-ladders and spear-head may 
well enough be believed to have been adopted, the chief and tinctures being the additions 
of later times, as heraldry was scientifically developed. The arms, however, are historic, and 
the descendants of Cadifor are entitled to their use. 

The chief sources of information respecting these families are Dwnn's Heraldic Visit, of 
Wales, temp. Eliz. ; the Dale Castle MS., edited by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. ; and the 
MSS. of St. Mark's College, Chelsea, and the Cascob transcript of the Gilfach MS., all of which 
have been collated. A carefully written paper contributed to the Archaologia Cambrensis by 
the Rev. W. Edmunds, Head Master of the Lampeter Grammar School, on some old families 
in the neighbourhood of Lampeter, has been consulted. 

Stedmans of Strata Florida. 

The name Stedman has long disappeared from Cardiganshire, and the " Abbey " of Strata 
Florida, which the family occupied, has long mouldered out of sight ; but for a series of 
generations this family held a position of the first rank in the county, and intermarried with 
the Vaughans of Trawsgoed (see Lisburne, Crosswood), Pryse of Gogerddan, Gwyrine of 
Glanbran, &c. They were, as the name indicates, of English descent, having long been 
settled in Staffordshire, and came to Cardiganshire through the marriage of one of their sons 
with a lady of Ystrad-fflur. 

The origin of the Stedman family has somewhat of a romantic air about it. " Galearbus " 
<we are told in the Dale Castle MS.}, " a duke of Arabia, was, through the tyranny of the 
king of the country, banished thence, and coming with his son Stedman and daughter 
Clarissa towards the Holy Land, dyed ere he arrived there ; but his son came to Jerusalem, 
and being a gallant person, was by King Richard I. of England very much esteemed. He 
was made Knight of the Sepulchre. He had for arms a cross fleury, vert, in a field or. 
He came over to England, Anno Dni. 1191, and had given him in marriage by the said king 
[kings gave wives to their knights in those days] Joan, daughter and heiress to Sir John 
Tadsal, or Tatshal, Kt., brother to Robert, Lord Tatshal." There is so much of the Teutonic 
about the name " Stedman " that one naturally wonders if an Arabian duke ever gave it to 
his son. And even if Cceur de Lion had the privilege of giving him a name as well as a 
wife, a Norman name would be rather more likely to have been selected by the Plantagenet 
than a Saxon. But the man is known to us as Stedman. The quaint Lewys Dwnn puts the 
matter in this form : " Y Syr John Ysteidmon yna oedd vab y Dawk Arabia, henw y Dawk 
oedd Galabia." He then in half a page manages to spell the name Stedman in six different 
ways, but the facts on comparison with the former authority are substantially the same. 

In the tenth generation from the Arabian Stedman, or Ysteidmon, the representative of 
the family (son, however, of the second son) comes from Staffordshire to Ystrad-fflur, 
marries there Anne, according to the Dale Castle MS., natural daughter [this not noticed by 
Dwnri] of William Phillips of Pentre Pare, son of Sir Thomas Phillips of Picton, Kt. Six 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 169 

generations live and die at Strata Florida ; there are two Johns, two Jameses, and two 
Richards, and marriages with the families of Gogerddan, Trawsgoed, Rhiwsaeson, Mont- 
Glanbran, &c. The last James Stedman was living in 1703. The last Richard Stedman, as 
added to the Dale Castle MS. in a later hand, " married Anne, second daughter of William 
Powel of Nanteos, Esq. He left no issue, but was prevailed on to disinherit his sister's 
issue, and to give his estate to his wife's brother and his heirs." So Strata Florida came to 
Nanteos. This was the end of the Stedmans of Ystrad-fflur. 

Mortimers of Coedmor and Genedr-glyn. 

This family is worthy of special notice as being, so far as known to the writer, the only 
remains of the Norman race in Cardiganshire after the expulsion of the Lords Marchers. 
Roger Mortymer, or De Mortuo-mari, succeeded to the lordship of Geneu'r-glyn after the 
first lord, Walter Espec, who built the castle. In a copy in the St. Mark's College MS., of 
the " Inspeximus of a Deed from King Edward y e ist to Roger Mortymer of Gene'r-Glyn, 
and y e exchange between Llew. Mortymer, son to y e said Roger, and Jeffrey Clement for 
Coedmor," now lying before us, " Edwardus, Dei gratia rex Anglorum, dominus Hibernias, 
dux Aquitaniae," &c., makes known to archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, counts, barons, 
&c., that he has given and confirmed to his dear and faithful Roger de Mortuo-mari the land of 
Gene'r-glyn, which extends between " Redhyr and Ribulum, which is called Gogarthan, and 
from Gogarthan to Abercandover, and from Abercandover to Helegen-wendith, and from 
that to Thlebenaut, and from Thlebenaut to the sea, and from the sea to Clery, and thence 
to the stream called Rhydypenne and Red-castell, along the road to Redhir," &c. Then 
Leolinus de Mortuo-mari, son of Roger, gives, and is authorized to give to Galfridus Clement 
of Coedmor the lands of Gene'r-glyn in exchange for those of Coedmor, &c., all rights and 
duties of service to the king as suzerain and paramount lord being, of course, carefully secured. 
This instrument was made at Westminster in the eleventh year of Edward's reign, or A.D. 1283, 
the year of issue of the Statutes of Rhuddlan ; Dwnn and Meyrick are therefore in error when 
they say that Geneu'r-glyn was purchased from Owen Mortimer. 

Of Roger de Mortimer, Dwnn says, " Yr Mortimer yma yn Gymraed a elwid, y m6r- 
marw," this Mortimer was called in Welsh the " Dead Sea; " and adds, " And it was he 
who received from his father the lordship of Genau'r-glyn and Lower Coedmor as his portion. 
He married Sives, daughter of Sir John Ysgidmor (Scudamore) of Llan-gain, Kt." 

The above Llewelyn Mortimer's wife was Angharad, daughter and heiress of Meredydd 
Hir (the tall) ap Rhys ap Meredydd ap Owain of Cemmes, Esq. 

His grandson Owain, said by Dwnn in error (unless the above deed be incorrectly given) 
to be the vendor of the lordship of Geneu'r-glyn, married Angharad, daughter of Rhys ap 
Davydd ap Thomas ap David of Wernant. 

The head of this family when Dwnn made his visitation, A.D. 1588, was John Mortimer 
(died 1596), and from him the Deputy Herald received ten shillings : " Reseved off Jo. 
Mortym r TOS." At that time the Mortimers bore quart., i, gu., two lions rampant, or, 
armed and langued, az.; 2, the coat of Tewdwr, for Meredydd Hir of Cemmes. Crest: A 
lion salient, arg., upon a wreath, or and gu., as Dwnn says, " Heb ddyfrans yn y byd," 
without difference. Motto: Kowir i Dduw a dyn, true to God and man. 



i?o CARDIGANSHIRE. 

But this was not the end of the Mortimers. John, the last mentioned (sheriff of Cardi- 
ganshire A.D. 1577), married Eva, daughter of Lewis ap Davydd ap Meredydd of Abernant- 
bychan. His son Richard married Catherine, daughter of Rowland Meyrick, Bishop of 
Bangor; and his son Rowland married Cecil, daughter of James ap Lewis of Abernant- 
bychan (his cousin). This Rowland quitted the old domain of Coedmor, exchanging it with 
his brother-in-law, Sir John Lewis, Kt., for Castell Llwyd, near Langharne. Coedmor, after 
a time, passed by marriage of an heiress to the Lloyds. 

Here the Mortimers disappear. They were a branch of the Mortimers of Wigmore, 
Herefordshire, Earls of March, &c., who derived from Ranulph de Mortuo-mari, a knight in 
the train of William the Conqueror. 



Lloyds of Castell-HoweL 

Cadifor ap Dinawal, already described as the gallant captor of Cardigan Castle, and son- 
in-law of the Lord Rhys of Dinefawr, was for his bravery rewarded with extensive lands in 
Cardiganshire. He was Lord of Castell-Howel and Gilfachwen. In the eighth generation 
from Cadifor, Lord of Castell-Howel, Llewelyn ap Dafydd ap Llewelyn ap Gwilym Llwyd, 
the first to bear this name, by his wife Marged, daughter of Thomas ap Watkin of Llanarth, 
had four sons, who all became founders of great families. Their names were David, Gwion, 
Hugh, and John. 

Gwion became head of the Lloyds of Llanfechan. 

Hugh founded the house of Llanllyr and Maesyfelin. 

John founded the branch of Gwern-maccwy , &c. 

DAVID LLWYD, the eldest son, the fifth to bear the name Llwyd, continued on the paternal 
estate of Castell-Howel, situated, according to Meyrick (note on Dwnn, i., 227), in the Valley 
of Clettwr, near Llandyssil, and called by that name by Hywel, son of Owain Gwynedd, who 
fortified it in the year 1150. David Llwyd, or Lloyd, was, if Merrick be correct, sent to 
Parliament from Cardiganshire in the year 1536. He married, i, Leiky (Lucy), daughter of 
Jenkyn Llwyd of Llwyn-Dafydd ; 2, Gwenllian, daughter of Howel John, or Sion, of Llansawel. 
His son David was of Castell-Howel, but his progeny ended in a " Sir " or Rev. David ap 
David Lloyd, vicar of Llandyssil. His second son, Rhys, settled at Alltyrodyn. Thomas, 
the third son, had a grandson, George, who was called of Castell-Howel, but this is the last 
we hear of that branch. Its line passed with the second son from the old home to Alltyrodyn. 
Arms: Those of Cadifor ap Dinawal. 



Lloyd of Alltyrodyn. 

Tracing through the last from Cadifor ap Dinawal, Rhys Lloyd, of Alltyrodyn, son of 
David ap Llewelyn Lloyd, of Castell-Howel, the " first member for Cardiganshire," married 
Maud, daughter of Rhydderch ap Dafydd, of Pantstrymon. 

His son was David ap Rhys Lloyd, of Alltyrodyn, whose wife was Mary, daughter of 
Evan ap Evan Howel, of Ffos-yr-escob. His grandson, David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn 
(whose father was Evan), was sheriff of Cardiganshire in 1667 "a strict adherent of 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 171 

Charles I. ; " married Mary, daughter of Henry Price, of Abergorlech ; his only brother was 
Richard Lloyd, of Caio. David's eldest son, Evan, was sheriff of Cardiganshire in 1685. 
His great-grandson, David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn, married Elizabeth, daughter of Herbert 
Evans, Esq., of Highmead, and had with other issue a second son, John Lloyd, of Alltyrodyn. 
John Lloyd m. Elizabeth, only child of Philip Lloyd, Esq., of Heolddu, and had issue 
a sole surviving daughter, with whom the name of Lloyd of this branch terminated by her 
marriage in 1825 with John Lloyd-Davies, Esq., of Blaendyffryn, High Sheriff 1845 ; M.P. 
for Cardigan 1855 7, who was also descended from the Castell-Howel Lloyds. The issue 
of this union of two branches of the Castell-Howel House was an only son, Arthur Lloyd- 
Davies. He d. 1852, and is succeeded in the Alltyrodyn and Blaendyffryn estates by his 
son, John Davies-Lloyd, Esq., b. 1850. 
Arms : Those of Cadifor ap Dinawal. 



Lloyd of Llanfechan. 

It has been shown above (see Lloyd, Castell-Howel) that Gwion, second son of Llewelyn 
ap Dafydd of Castell-Howel, was founder of the House of Lloyds of Llanfechan. For 
further details of the descent of this branch, see Evans, Highmead; Lloyd, Gilfachwen; 
and Lloyd, Waunifor. Gwion Lloyd was living in the year 1566 ; the fourth from him at 
Llanfechan was Jenkin Lloyd, whose name is inscribed on a bell at Llanwenog Church 
under date 1667. His son David d. s. /., left his estate by will, dated 1711, to his 
nephew, and in tail to his cousins, children of his uncles Edmond and Griffith Lloyd. 
Edmond was of Aberduar and Rhydybont ; his line terminated in a daughter Elizabeth, who 
married John Evans, Esq., great-great-grandfather of the present Major Evans, of Highmead, 
who in consequence of this marriage and the above will now inherits the estates of Llanfechan, 
Aberduar, and Rhydybont. 

Arms : Those of Cadifor ap Dinawal. 



Lloyd of Llanllyr, 

Descended from Cadifor ap Dinawal, Llewelyn Llwyd, in the eighth generation, of Castell- 
Howel, had a third son, Hugh Llwyd, who settled at Llanllyr, in the Vale of Aeron. He was 
High Sheriff of his county in the year 1567. Morgan, the eldest son, of Llanllyr, m. 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Lewys ap Henry ap Gwilym, &c., of Gwyddno; was 
sheriff for the county four times 1576, 1584, 1594, 1599. From him sprang the Houses of 
Wernfylig and Ffoeshelyg. Two of his brothers were men of culture and mark ; Griffith, 
D.C.L., being Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, Professor of Civil Law, also for a short 
time M.P. for Cardiganshire. The other, Thomas, a clergyman, was treasurer of the St. David's 
Cathedral, where he was buried 1612. He m., as Dwnn informs us, Frances, sister of 
Marmaduke Middleton, Bishop of St. David's. 

Morgan Lloyd of Llanllyr had a son, Thomas, also of Llanllyr, Sheriff of Cardiganshire 
1647 m. Lettice, dau. of Sir Richard Pryse, of Gogerthan, and had a son, Morgan, 
who d. 1613, and a dau. Bridget, sole heiress, who m. Richard, Earl of Carbery. The name 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Lloyd of Llanllyr here ceases ; and the descent of the family is in the line of the second son, 
Thomas, above mentioned, the treasurer of St. David's, continued in his son, Sir Marmaduke 
Lloyd, of Maesyfelin (see next article). 



Lloyds of Maesyfelin. 

The distinction of the "clan Lloyd" of Cardiganshire rose to its highest pitch in 
connection with Maesyfelin, called in English, by literal rendering, " Millfield." 

Marmaduke Lloyd (afterwards Sir Marmaduke), son of Thomas Lloyd, Esq., treasurer of 
St. David's Cathedral, settled at Maesyfelin, close by Lampeter, a place which during the 
residence there of this family arose to great celebrity, but of which at present there remains not 
one stone upon another. (See Edmunds, Old Families, pp. 20, 21.) Marmaduke was brought 
up to the law; was of the Middle Temple; became one of the judges on the Brecon 
Circuit, Recorder of Brecon, and was made a knight. He m. Mary, daughter of John Gwyn 
Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida. He would appear to be a man of high character as well as 
ability, for he was on intimate terms with " Vicar Prichard," of Llandovery, Censor of Morals, 
and zealous promoter of pure religion. A letter from him to the vicar (who was Chancellor 
of St. David's), dated from " Ludlowe Castell, the 21 of Marche, 1626," and signed 
' ' Marmaduke Lloyde," is full of the quips and punning and classical quotation so fashion- 
able in those days, as an extract or two will show : 

" Woorthy Mr. Chauncellor I received a letter from you this terme, in aunswere whereof (si scribam 
c arpes, si non scribam triumphabis : at scribam) I will write an aunswere, if but to lett you knowe how often I 
reade it (iterum atque iteru. ) affectinge the sweete style and wonderinge at the intention of the penman; 
when I was a scholler, I wondered at those Epistles of Tully, the famous orator of Rome, at Seneca's Epistles, 
at rare Manuscripts, but to this letter and Epistle of yours, I must plainly say, they are base rudiments, even 
the very fragments of learninge : so doe you admirably in one way (movere) perswade, and another way like a 
true divine (monere) admonishe a Judge so gravely, that every letter thereof shall be to me a praecept leaste 
I err (in via pedum, aut in via morum) ; I must confesse amonge all the (species) of men none have more 
neede of direction than judges, who doe (portare onera reipublicas) and amonge that honorable fraternity, none 
needs wise direction more than myselfe, a yonge judge ; and without good direction, I may be, like Bartimeus, 
blinde, or like Mephiboshethe lame ... a hevy burden is layde upon me, I finde it rather to be (onus) 
than (honos), God grant I may discharge my duty in my place, &c. . . . for goodness, which becomes all 
men, and especially a judge, I must say with good Augustine, ' Boni si quid habeo, a Deo sumpsi, non a me 
prsesumpsi, nee in eo quod adhuc non dona vit, incredulus, nee in eo quod jam donavit, ingratus,' &c. . . . 
My kind salutation to yor self and yor hopeful son, &c." 

His son was Sir Francis Lloyd, Kt, of Maesyfelin, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber 
to Charles II. He m., ist, Margaret Mary, daughter of John, Earl of Carbery, of Golden 
Grove ; and 2nd, Bridget, a daughter of Mr. Leigh of Carmarthen, " by whom he had had, 
during his first wife's lifetime," two sons, Lucius and Charles. He, like his father, was a 
strong supporter of the Royal cause against the Parliament. In the Cambrian Register, i., 164, 
is a curious paper, of the Royalist secret service type, " A true account of the character and 
deportment for these eighteen years past of the principal gentry within the counties of Car- 
marthen, Pembroke, and Cardigan, in South Wales," written in the time of Charles II., in 
which Sir Francis Lloyd is described as " a lover of monarchy, which drew him from the 
Long Parliament about 1643 ; paid a fine at Goldsmiths' Hall; seems to love his private 
ease above the publique affayres of his country." He, however, being evidently a man after 
the mind of Charles II., got promotion, and was made a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 173 

The next master of Maesyfelin was Charles, above-named, who was made a baronet, and 
became M.P. fpr his county. By his second wife, Frances, daughter of Sir Francis Corn- 
wallis, Kt., of Abermarles, Carmarthen, he had with other issue two sons, Charles and Lucius 
Christianus, who in succession inherited the title and estates. -The latter married Anne, 
daughter of Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell, Lampeter. (Another place of renown, now a 
desolate ruin.) Sir Lucius died s. p. A.D. 1750, and the Millfield property, by a will of Sir 
Lucius, passed to his wife's family of Peterwell. It seems that he had entered into a compact 
with his wife's brother, John Lloyd of Peterwell, that the longer liver should be the other's heir. 
Not long after this Sir Lucius died, and the will took effect. Maesyfelin mansion was now 
neglected ; Peterwell was adorned at its expense ; time did the rest. After the lapse of only 
a hundred years, there was no trace of the great house where Sir Marmaduke, the judge, and 
Sir Francis, the Gentleman of the Bedchamber, each in his way, and in very different ways, 
had held state and circumstance. 

This was the end of the Lloyds of Maesyfelin. The crjurch of Lampeter contains several 
elaborate monuments of this family the only glory which now survives to it. 



A Legend of Maesyfelin. 

The rapid decadence of this leading Cardiganshire family, and ruin which has consigned 
their mansion to a swift oblivion, together with the popular deference to whatever has fallen 
from "Vicar Prichard," have led to a wide belief that Maesyfelin has perished by a judgment 
from heaven. The letter, just quoted, from the "yonge judge," Sir Marmaduke Lloyd, to 
the excellent and revered " vicar " and chancellor, enjoins a " kind salutation to your hopeful 
son." This hopeful son was "Samuel bach" dear little Samuel, to whom the old, fond 
father-bard had addressed many a loving monitory verse when childhood's dewy freshness 
was upon him. When he had grown to manhood, he was, as might be expected, a frequent 
guest at the house of his father's friend, Judge Marmaduke Lloyd, of Maesyfelin. But what 
can have occurred to make the saintly old man pour forth such a malediction as this on the 
house and substance of his friend ? 

" Melldith Duw ar Maesyfelin, 
Ar bob carreg, dan bob gwreiddyn, 
Am daflu blodeu tref Llanddyfri, 
Ar ei ben i Deifi 'i foddi." 

(The curse of God on Maesyfelin fall, 
On root of every tree, on stone of every wall, 
Because the flower of fair Llandovery town 
Was headlong cast in Teivi's flood to drown. ) 

Words of fearful force and import, which rung through the hearts of the peasantry like 
the voice of doom, until Maesyfelin came to be pictured in the popular imagination as a 
bandit's castle, or cave of an ogre for Llyfry Ficer, " the Vicar's Book " (the volume of 
religious poetry in which the words appeared), was in every village and almost every house, 
and next to the Bible, the book held in highest estimation. 

The tradition is that Samuel, the vicar of Llandovery's son, was not merely on familiar 



174 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

terms with the family of Maesyfelin, but that he frequented the house for some purpose of 
prohibited or illicit love, and that either in a brawl inside the house (which stood near the 
Teivi), or on his way home in the night across the mountains, he was brutally murdered and 
cast into the river, where his body was found. How much of this tradition is the creation of 
fancy, and thus legendary, it is hard to say. That the young man was the idol of his father's 
heart ; that he lost his life in the neighbourhood of Lampeter ; and that these denunciatory 
lines are in Llyfry Ficer, are known facts ; but that Maesyfelin had any hand in the foul deed 
is liable to question. Still, it is remarkable that from the lips of Vicar Prichard such words 
should escape with reference to the abode of Sir Marmaduke Lloyd. 

But lo ! Maesyfelin begins to crumble and decay. First dissipation and profligacy 
succeed under Sir Francis to the order and gravity which we suppose existed under Sir 
Marmaduke, the judge and the religious man. Every change in the succession seems to 
weaken the House. In a few generations decrepitude issues in death, the last of the line 
dies, and the lands pass to others. The very mansion looks desolate, grows hoary from 
neglect, and perishes. The carved work from doorway and window, from mantelpiece and 
balustrade, is taken out and borne away ; the roof is rotten and falls in, and anon no mansion 
of Maesyfelin is to be seen ; and all the Lloyds are in their owements in the church of 
Llanbedr-pont-Stephan. Can the popular imagination fail to see in all this the effects of the 
vicar's malediction ? 



Evans of Peterwell. 

Peterwell, or Ffynon-Bedr, close to the town of Lampeter, had been rising into note 
for some generations before its absorption of Maesyfelin, as above detailed, put it at once on 
the apex of local distinction. From this time forward for the space of fifty or sixty years it 
held the place of leader and arbiter in local affairs. But Peterwell also has been laid in 
the dust. 

David Evans of Llechwedd-deri, Llanwnnen, was of the sept of the Lloyds of Castell-Howel, 
deriving through " Sir " Lewis or Rev. Lewis Llwyd, of Llangammarch, who, according to 
the Dale Castle MS., was second son of Gwilym Llwyd of Castell-Howel, sixth in descent 
from Cadifor ap Dinawal (see under Castell-Howel}. How Llwyd became changed to Evans 
is explainable under the recurring and intermittent system of Welsh name giving. David 
Evan, or Evans, was surnamed after his father, Jeuan Goch's Christian name. He bought 
Peterwell, and built a house. The old energy of the Lloyds lives under the new name 
Evans ; but while in most cases the Lloyds were strong supporters of " Church and King," 
this family of Evans of Peterwell, their kinsmen, came out as stout partisans of the Parlia- 
ment and Commonwealth. 

David Evans was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Evans, who was a man of temper 
and mark. In the 1661 document, already cited, giving a gauge for political purposes 
of the chief gentry of these parts, Thomas Evans is spoken of thus : " Thomas Evans, 
passionately violent in anything; first a Covenanter, then an eager advocate for the negative 
oath ; afterwards most impetuous against a single person, especially the family of his now 
Majesty ; an active captain of horse, and his son David of foote under the late Committee of 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 175 

Safety ; passing an oath upon others for their fidelity to the said Committee ; endeavouring 
to incite men, about the beginning of April last, to take arms against General Monke ; 
impatient without an office, and tyrannical in it." 

His son David, here named as a " captain of foote," was his second son. He was a 
zealous friend of Cromwell's " root and branch " reformation in Church and State, and had 
married a dau. of the ancient house of Herberts of Havod Ychtryd, a family which ultimately 
merged by marriage into that of Johnes of Havod, which see. Thomas's eldest son, according 
to Rees of CascoUs transcript of Morgan Lewis's MS. (originally written 1696), was 

Daniel' Evans ; who is described as an "attorney agent and secretary to Oliver 
Cromwell in Wales." He amassed great wealth during the Commonwealth, and m. Mary, 
daughter of Morgan Herbert of Havod Ychtryd, Sheriff of Cardiganshire 1691 ; ob. 22nd 
August, 1696. Daniel had no son. He had several daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
m. Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Foelallt, near Strata Florida (of the line of Lloyds of Llanfair- 
clydoge, and therefore of the stock of Gwaethfoed, Lord of Ceredigion), and as co-heiress took 
as her share the estate of Peterwell and Llechwedd-deri. This is the end of the house of 
Evans of Peterwell. 



Lloyds of Pderwell. 

Walter Lloyd, of Foelallt (as above), by his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel 
Evans, came into possession of Peterwell, and removed thither to live. He was in political 
creed the reverse of the Evans family, being a Royalist of the straitest sort ; a lawyer by 
education, made " attorney-general," as it was then called, of the three counties of Cardigan, 
Carmarthen, and Pembroke; and M.P. for Cardigan county 1734 1741. He had a large 
family, among whom we need only mention his two sons, John and Herbert (afterwards Sir 
Herbert), and Anne, the wife of Sir Lucius Christianus Lloyd, of Maesyfelin. (See Maesy- 
felin.') He died A.D. 1747, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, who m. a 
daughter of Sir Isaac le Hoop, and is said to have received with her a large fortune. He 
succeeded to the estate of Maesyfelin about the same time, as already noted. His death 
took place A.D. 1755, and as he left no issue, his large estates mostly fell to his brother 
Herbert. 

Sir Herbert Lloyd, of Peterwell, who was made a baronet 1763, took a second wife, 
Anne, daughter of William Powell, Esq., of Nanteos, and widow of Richard Stedman, Esq., 
of Strata Florida. He was M.P. for the Cardigan boroughs 1761 1768, and died in the 
year 1769. Mr. Edmunds tells us that he is still much spoken of in the neighbourhood of 
Lampeter. " He was buried at night with great pomp ; the road from the mansion to the 
parish church was lighted with torches." He seems to have been a man of great force of 
character, imperious and tyrannical in disposition, and not incapable of commendable deeds. 
" Notwithstanding his great territorial possessions he got into debt and difficulties, and was 
obliged to raise a mortgage on his estates. In his dealings with his creditors his whip was 
often brought into requisition ; and woe to the bailiff that was entrusted to carry a writ to 
Peterwell ! for the poor fellow might have to swallow it at once, on the spot, without any ado." 
He died without issue, and with him in the male line the Lloyds of Llanfair and Peterwell 



176 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

became extinct. He bequeathed his mortgaged estates to his nephew, John Adams, of 
Whitland. J. H. Battersby Harford, Esq., is now owner of the site and lands of 
Peterwell. 



Gruffydd of Mynydd-Hywel. 

Earlier than most of the above, though now less known, was the house of Thomas 
Gruffydd, of Llanbedr, or Mynydd-Hywel, who held sway as " Lord of Llanbedr-pont- 
Estevan" when Lewys Dwnn made his visitation of that part in the year 1591. It was 
rocked in the same cradle with all the Lloyds of whom we have been speaking. Thomas 
Gruffydd, " Lord of Lampeter, St. dear's, and Aberaeron, Justice of the Peace and of the 
quorum," was descended, to judge of his coat of arms as given by Dwnn, from many distin- 
guished lines of ancestry ; for his coat had thirteen quarterings, including the arms of Cadifor 
ap Dinawal, Elystan, Gwaithfoed, and Llewelyn ap Gruffydd. But there was obviously an 
effort made here at armorial display, and gleanings were brought in from imaginary fields, for 
Rhodri Mawr is made to contribute a shield (long before heraldry was born) ; his son, 
Tudwal Gloff, brings another, and his descendant Cadifor yet another. 

Derived from Cadifor ap Dinawal, Thomas Gruffydd of Mynydd-Hywel's line of descent 
branched off from the main trunk at the same time with that of the Lloyds of Castell-Howel 
and Llanllyr, already detailed, viz., with leuan ap Dafydd ap Llewelyn, tenth in degree from 
Cadifor, while the others sprang from leuan's brother, Llewelyn ap Dafydd ap Llewelyn. 

Thomas Gruffydd (or ap Gruffydd), of Mynydd-Hywel, being a great-grandson of Dafydd 
ap Llewelyn, was therefore a near relation of David Llwyd the first of Castell-Howel, above 
noticed, who was his grandson, and both were perhaps contemporaries. 

Mynydd-Hywel has left no trace of itself to satisfy the eye of the curious ; but it appears 
that the house was situated very near Maesyfelin, in close proximity to what was then the 
village of Llanbedr-pont-Stephen, nor does it appear improbable that the two places belonged 
to Thomas Gruffydd. For the full pedigree see Dwnifs Her. Visit, of Wales, i., 65, and 
Meyrick's Hist, of Cardiganshire. The family of Thomas Gruffydd (Llwyd) of Mynydd- 
Hywel soon failed in issue male ; his great-grandson, Francis Lloyd, being the last of the 
line. The name Francis was one of the family designations with the Lloyds of Maesyfelin 
in subsequent times, and it is just possible that it was this Francis who devised the place to his 
relative, Sir Marmaduke Lloyd, who would, judging from the degrees of descent in the two 
lines, be his contemporary. 



Givyn of Moelifor. 

Moel-Ifor was an ancient mansion, situated on a pleasant slope near Llanrhystyd. It 
was rebuilt, it is said, in the reign of Elizabeth by Jenkyn Gwyn, father of " Jeuan Gwyn of 
Moel-Ifor ; " but having decayed, it was taken down nearly ninety years ago. A farmhouse 
now stands on or near the site. Llanrhystyd Castle stood on the opposite side of the little 
valley of the Wirrai. 

From three separate and independent pedigrees of this family, inspected and collated, we 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 177 

learn, notwithstanding some omissions and redundancies, that eighth in descent from Cadifor 
ap Dinawal the intervening names are all given in the pedigrees rwas Rhys Ddu, whose 
wife was Gwerfil, daughter of Jeuan ap Einion ap Gruffydd of Eifionydd. His gr. 
grandson was Rhys Gwyn, so called from the colour of his hair and complexion, who married 
Lleucu. Her father's name is given by Dwnn as simply Gruffydd ; but from the Dale 
Castle MS. we learn that he was Gruffydd Philip ap Thomas ap Hovvel ap Thomas Fychan. 
Rhys Gwyn's grandson, who had issue, was 

Jeuan Gwyn ap Siancyn, of Moel-Ifor. He is the first mentioned as "of Moel-Ifor," 
and he was there, according to the account in D\vnn's Her. Visit. , in the year 1609. He 
married Siwan, daughter and sole heiress of David Lloyd, of Llanrhystyd, and had a son, 
Jeuan Gwyn Fychan, whose wife was daughter and heiress of Hugh David ap Harri (Parry), 
of Cwmtydu, " grandchild of Lewis, third son of Llewelyn Lloyd, of Castell-Howel." 

There were born of this marriage several children. The eldest son, Daniel Gwyn, d. 
s. p., and made over Llanina estate to his half-brother, Edward Jones of Llanina. A daughter, 
Elizabeth, m. Thomas Evans of Peterwell ; and the second son, John Gwyn, /., and 
had issue Jeuan Gwyn, whose first wife was Elizabeth, his cousin, daughter of Thomas 
Evans of Peterwell. She d. s. p., and he m., and, Elizabeth, daughter of John Lewis of 
Cwmawen. They had two daughters, Magdalen and Bridget, who m. two brothers, John and 
Richard, eldest and second sons of John Philips of Dolhaidd. The former had an only 
daughter, who d. unmarried ; and the latter an only child, Jane, who m. Erasmus Saunders 
of Pentre, Pemb., whose issue was an only daughter, Susan, "sole surviving heiress," who m. 
Dr. David Davies (of Carmarthen), son of Arthur Davies of Llandovery. She was the 
gr. gr. daughter of the last Gwyn of Moel-ifor. Through this alliance the property of 
Moel-ifor, already passed to the Philips of Dolhaidd, passed ultimately to Saunders- Davies, 
of Pentre, Pemb. 



Herberts and Vaughans of Hafod Ychtryd. 

A) 

We have all heard of " Johnes of Havod," and a name with a stronger charm scarcely 
exists in Cardiganshire ; but already the name Herbert of Hafod Ychtryd is paling away 
.into the misty land amongst whose shadows antiquarians, and they alone, love to wander. 
The Herberts, as the records of this volume show, have been a wide-spread and most influential 
clan in Wales from the sixteenth century down to the present day. In Monmouthshire, 
Breconshire, Glamorganshire, Montgomeryshire, and Pembrokeshire, they held first rank and 
sustained chief offices. In Cardiganshire they were of more recent occurrence, imported by 
marriage as underneath. 

The old stock of Hafod- Ychtryd (now Havod) were the Vaughans, in those plain and 
honest days Fychans a designation invariably originating in shortness or diminutiveness of 
stature, and applied in thousands of instances to an individual during his lifetime, to dis- 
tinguish him from a relative of larger proportions, without attaching as a surname to his 
descendants. 

The Fychans of Hafod-Ychtryd were of the sept of Cadifor ap Dinawal, Lord of Cardigan 
and Castell-Howel. They were first of Pont-Streimon, Llandyssil, where Hywel Fychan, 

N 



178 CARDIGANSHIRE. 

circa A.D. 1300, was fifth from Cadifor. Some of the family at an early period settled at 
Cwmystwyth and Hafod, and a daughter of William ap Rhys Fychan ;//., as his. second 
wife, " Sir Richard Herbert of Powys, Kt., second son to Sir Richard Herbert of Colebrooke," 
near Abergavenny. Sir Richard of Colebrooke had fought at the " battle of Banbury," 
A.D. 1469 (where his brother William, Earl of Pembroke, also fought, and was afterwards 
beheaded), which gives us a near approximation to the time when the Herbert stock came 
to the hilly hafod (summer dwelling) in Cardiganshire. The last of the line was William 
Herbert (d. 1704), whose sole issue was a daughter, Jane, who m. Thomas Johnes, Esq., 
of Llanfair-clydoge, son of Thomas Johnes of Llanfair-clydoge, and grandson of Thomas 
Johnes of Dolau-Cothi. Thomas Johnes now went to live at Hafod. (See Johnes, Hafod.} 
Thus terminated the house of Herbert , which had absorbed the preceding Fychan of Hafod. 



Johnes of Hafod ( H avod ) . 

This is a recent name, and was not of long continuance ; but while it lasted it had an 
interesting history. We have already given a sketch of the terminating stage of that history 
(see p. 128), and here only add a few genealogical facts. 

Under Herberts of Hafod 'it has been shown how the name of Johnes succeeded at that 
place. Thomas Johnes, of Llanfair-clydoge, near Lampeter, was descended from the long 
line of Johnes of Dolau-Cothi, Llanbadarn-fawr, and Abermarlais, deriving from Sir Grufifydd 
ap Nicholas, of Newton (Dinefawr), who lived during the Wars of the Roses, and fell in the 
battle of Wakefield. while fighting "on the side of York." He was great-grandson of Sir 
Elidyr Ddu. Sir Thomas Johnes, Kt., the head of this line at Abermarlais, was Sheriff of 
Carmarthenshire in 1541. 

Theforenamed Thomas Johnes m. Jane, daughter and only child of William Herbert, Esq., 
of Hafod. He served as M.P. for Cardiganshire 1713 1722, and d. s. p. 1733, leaving all 
his estate to his cousin, Thomas Johnes of Penybont and Dolau-Cothi, who had m. Miss 
Powell of Cwmele, Radnorshire. His son, Thomas, of Llanfair-clydoge and Croft Castle, 
Heref., m. Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Knight of Croft Castle, and was for some time 
M.P. for Radnorshire. 

His son, Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Havod, was the last and most widely known of the 
Llanfair-clydoge branch. He was M.P. for many years for Cardiganshire, and Lord Lieu- 
tenant; Auditor and Receiver of Crown Rents for South Wales; m., ist, Maria Burgh, 
a lady of Monmouthshire, and 2nd, his cousin, Jane, daughter of John Johnes, Esq., of 
Dolau-Cothi. His sole issue was one daughter, Maria Anne, who died 1811. He died 
23rd April, 1816. The estate of Havod was sold after Mr. Johnes's decease to the Duke of 
Newcastle, and has been again twice sold. The present owner is W. Chambers, Esq., who 
also proposes to dispose of it. 

Lloyds of AbermM. 

Alermad, in the Vale of Ystwyth, at the junction of Mad with Ystwyth, was an ancient 
house, deriving, as Dwnn and the St. Marks College MS. agree, from Uchtryd, Lord of 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES. 179 

Tegeingl in the North, grandson of Ovvain, son of Howel Dda, who in. Angharad, 
daughter of Meredydd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. There are a few discrepancies between the 
above two authorities, and one occasionally omits a name supplied by the other ; but, on the 
whole, they give the result that in the twelfth generation from Howel Dda, Jeuan ap Lewis 
Llewelyn Fychan was Lord of Abermad. His son Lewis ;//. Era, daughter of Rhys ap 
Dafydd ap Llewelyn ap Gvvilym Llivyd. Jeuan, his son, was Jeuan Llwyd of Abermiid, 
and m. Elizabeth, daughter of Siankyn ap Thomas ap Howel fawr ap Rhys ap Thomas 
Sgwier of Gilvachwen (Dwnii). Jeuan Llwyd had a son, David Lloyd, living at Abermad in 
1588, who m. Mary, daughter of Watkin ap Thomas of Llvvyn lerwerth, and had a son, 
Richard Lloyd, also living at Abermad 1588, m., and having a daughter, Mary Lloyd (1613), 
with whom it is conjectured the line of Lloyds ended. 

Other Families? 

The following are a few of the other old Cardiganshire households that have disappeared. 
The Lewises of Gernos were of the race of Elystan Glodrydd, and became extinct under that 
name at the decease of David Lewis, Esq., when the estate fell to his sisters as his heirs. 
'Y\\Q Jenkinses of Carrog, deriving from Blegwryd ap Dinawal, had been at Carrog for six or 
seven generations ; the last was William Jenkins, who m. Bridget, daughter of James 
Lewes of Gellidywyll, and left only two daughters co-heirs. The Lloyds of Crynfryti traced 
their line from Cadifor, Lord of Cilycwm, who came from Rhodri the Great. . They were at 
Crynfryn for many ages, and ceased in the senior line (but see Lloyd, Bronwydd] with the 
sons of David Lloyd, who m., ist, Margaret, dau. of Samuel Lloyd, Esq., of Nantddu, 
Mont., without male issue ; and 2nd. Margaret, dau. of Lewis Owen, Esq., of Peniarth, 
Mer., by whom he had two sons, John and Richard, above referred to. The family 
of Fychan of Glanleri have ceased to exist for 130 years or more. They are said to 
have sprung from the line of Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, Lord of Powys, through his son 
Gwilym, Lord of Mawddwy. The name originated with Jeuan Fychan, second son 
of Rhydderch ap Rhys, Lord of Tovvyn. The last of the line was Francis Fychan, 
Esq., whose dau. and heiress tm Mr. Ingram, by whom she had a son, Francis, \\ho 
was living at Glanleri 1741. The Lewises of Glas-crug and Qwmawen were allied 
by marriage in early times to the families of Castell-Howel and Pant-Streimon. The 
last, James Lewis, m. Mary, dau. of David Lloyd of Crynfryn, " but [as the Dale 
Castle MS. says] having no issue by her, the estates of Glas-crug and Cwmawen fell to 
the two daus. of John Lewis, Esq., the ist Mary, wife to John Philips of Dolhaidd, Esq., 
and [the 2nd] Elizabeth, wife to Jeuan Gvvynn of C\vmtydu, Esq., and their heirs." 



NOTE ON REMARKABLE MEN "OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

We are told that the men of Gwent used to despise the poverty-stricken land of Ceredigion as "the 
devil's grandmother's jointure " (Camden) a description certainly more applicable to the physical than to tl.e 
mental produce of the county ; for with respect to the latter Cardiganshire may be advantageously compared 
with most of the shires of Wales. 

Rkydderch ap In>ait Llwvd, of Glyn-Acron, great-great-grandfather of the first Pry5:e (Sir Richard ap Rhys) 






i8o CARDIGANSHIRE. 

of Gogerddan, and Dafydd ap G-wilym, were amongst its fifteenth century poets ; Edward Lhwyd, the eminent 
linguist and antiquarian who, though we are accustomed to think of him as old Lhwyd, died at the early age of 
thirty-nine (1709), was b. near Geneur, Glyn. The Rev. Theophilus Evans, author of Drych y Prif Oesoedd 
(d. 1767), was born at Penywenallt, and was Vicar of Llangammarch, Brec., where he was buried ; Sir 
Carbury Pryse, of Gogerddan, is known as an enterprising promoter of lead mining, and for his successful 
litigation in the cause celebre against the unjustly asserted rights qf the Crown over mines (1693) ; John Lewis, 
of Glascrug, was a politician of mark, and Cromwellite (1646) ; Sir John Vaughan, Kt., Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, ofTrawscoed, was a jurist of eminence (d. 1674); Sir Marmaduke Lloyd, of Maesyfelin, else- 
where noticed, was a judge of high integrity ; the Rev. David Lloyd, of Alltyrodyn, contemporary with the 
imperious Sir Herbert Lloyd, of Peterwell, was a poet and liberal political writer of note. At Fairdref, Llan- 
dyssil, was b. Jenkyn Lloyd, M.A., who is said to have held the office of chaplain to Cromwell, and held office 
as an approver under the " Act for the Better Propagation of the Gospel in Wales." At Cardigan Priory lived 
Catherine Philips (wife of James Philips, Esq., M.P. 1654 6), who under the nom de plume " Orinda," wrote 
the ''''Letters to Polyarchus " (b. in London, d. 1664); the brothers Evan and Thomas Williams, publishers and 
booksellers for many years in the Strand, who sent out a large number of valuable books bearing upon Wales, 
were natives of this county (d. 1835 and 1839 respectively); Dr. John Rogers of Abermeurig, "the benevolent 
physician, " d. 1846; Thomas Johnes of Havod has already been noticed at length; the Rev. Daniel Evans, 
B.D. {Daniel Dd it), a poet of real ability, was b. at Maes-mynach (d. 1846). The Rev. Daniel Rowlands, 
of Llangeitho, has an imperishable name as a zealous promoter of pure religion (d. 1790). The Rev. Ebenezer 
Morris and the Rev. Ebenezer Richards were contemporary and eminent Christian ministers"; the former d. 
1825, the latter 1837 ; the Rev, Eliezer Williams, A.M., of Lampeter, the virtual founder of Lampeter 
College, was the son of the eminent Rev. Peter Williams of Caermarthen (d. 1820). The Rev. Isaac 
Williams, B.D., born at Cwmcynfelin, was an ^xteusive and refined theological writer, favourer of the 
Tractarian doctrines (d. 1865). The Rev. Archdeacon Williams, the most scholarly man Wales has for. a 
long time produced, for many years Rector of the Edinburgh Academy, afterwards Warden of the Llandovery 
Institution, author of Homenis, the Edinburgh Latin Grammar, Comer, Life of Julius C&sar, the Geography 
of Asia, the Life of Alexander the Great, Essays on Various Subjects, &c., was born 1792, at Ystrad Meurig, 
of which school his father was Head Master, and d. at Bushey Heath, near London, 1865. 



SECTION VI. HIGH SHERIFFS OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

A.D. 1540 1871. 



HENRY VIII. 
William Vaughan, Esq., of Cilgerran, co. 

Pembroke 1540 

Sir John Wogan, Knt., ofWiston, co. Pembr. 1541 
Richard Herbert, Esq., of Pencelly, co. Brecon 1542 
Sir Thomas Jones, Knt., of Abermarlais, co. 

Carmarthen . . . . . 1543 

Thomas John ap Rydderch, Esq., of Morva 

Bychan, co. Cardigan * . ... 1544 
William Vaughan, Esq., of Cilgerran, co. 

Pembroke ....... 1545 

Edward Herbert, Esq., of Montgomery . . 1546 

EDWARD VI. 
Sir John Philipps, Knt., of Picton Castle, co. 

Pembroke ....... 1547 

Richard Herbert, Esq., of Pencelly, co. Brecon 1548 

Francis Lloyd, Esq., of Hay, co. Montgomery 1549 

William Herbert, Esq.,ofParke, co. Montgom. 1550 
David ap Evan Llwyd Fychan, Esq. , of Llan- 

vairClydoge . . . . . .1551 

Owen Gwynne, Esq., of Moelifor . . . 1552 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

Henry Jones, Esq., of Newcastle, co. Cnnn. . 1553 
James Morris, Esq., of Cardigan Town . . 1554 



Sir John Wogan, Kt., of Wiston, co. Pembr. 
Rhys Vaughan ap Ruclderch, Esq., of St. 

Dogmael's, co. Pembr. .... 
David ap Evan Llwyd Fychan, Esq., of Llan- 

vair Clydoge ...... 

ELIZABETH. 

David Lloyd ap Robert Fychan, Esq., of 

Anglesey ....... 

Henry Jones, Esq., of New Castle, co. Carm. 
Nicholas Vaughan,' Esq., of Milton, co. Pemb. 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Whiteland, co. Carm. 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Cilgwyn, co. Card. . 
John Wogan, Esq., ofWiston, co. Pembr. . 
Jenkin Gwynn, Esq., of Moelivor, co. Card. 
James Morris, Esq., of Auston, co. Salop . 
Hugh Llewellyn Lloyd, Esq. , of Llanllyr, Card. 
Richard Vaughan, Esq., of Whiteland, co. 

Carm ........ 

John Powell, Esq., of Penyrallt, co. Card. . 
John Price, Esq., of Newtown, co. Montgomery 
David ap Evan Llwyd Fychan, Esq., of Llan- 

vair Clydoge . . . . . . 

Griffith Glyn, Esq., of Pwllheli, co. Cam. . 
James Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, co. 

Card ........ 



A.n. 

1555 



1557 



1558 
1559 
1560 
1561 
1562 
1563 
1564 
1565 
1566 

1567 
1568 
1569 

1570 
1571 

1572 



CARDIGANSHIRE SHERIFFS. 



181 



Rhys David Jenkin, Esq., of Aberpully, co. Card. 1573 

Thomas Griffith, Esq., of Maes y Felin, ditto 1574 

Morgan Llwyd, Esq., of Llanllyr, ditto . . 1575 

John Mortimer, Esq., of Coedmore, ditto . 1576 

David Lloyd Meredith, Esq., of CwmBwa, ditto 1577 

Jenkin Lloyd, Esq., of Llanvair Clydoge, ditto 1578 
Thomas ap Rhysap William, Esq., Ystradffin, 

co. Carm 1579 

John Prys, Esq., of Gogarthan, co. Cardigan 1580 

John Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida, ditto . 1581 

Thomas Revell, Esq., of Forest, co. Pembr. . 1582 
Sir George Devereux, Knt., of Llamphey 

Court, Pembr. ...... 1583 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Llanllyr, co. Card. . 1584 

Sir Richd. Pryse, Knt., of Gogarthan, ditto . 1585 

James Jones, Esq., of Llanbadarn-fawr . . 1586 
Sir George Devereux, Knt., of Llamphey 

Court, Pembr. ...... 1587 

Einon Philips, Esq., of Cardigan . . . 1588 

John Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida . . 1589 
James Lewis David Meredyth, Esq., of Aber- 

nant-bychan ...... 1590 

Jenkin Lloyd, Esq., of Llanvair, co. Card. . 1591 
David Lloyd ap Evan, Esq., of Abermad, 

ditto ........ 1592 

Thomas Revell, Esq., of Forest, co. Pembr. . 1593 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Llanllyr, co. Card. . 1594 
John Stedman, Jun., Esq., of Strata Florida, 

ditto - . . 1595 

Thomas ap Rhys ap William, Esq., of 

Ystradffin, co. Carm. .... 1596 
David Lloyd ap Hugh, Esq., of Llwyd Jack, 

Card. 1597 

John Birt, of Lwyndyrus . . . .1598 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Llanllyr, co. Card. . 1599 

David Lloyd Gwyon, Esq., of Llanfechan, ditto 1600 

Richard Herbert, Esq., of Pencelli, co. Brecon 1601 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Abermarles, co. Carm. 1602 



JAMES I. 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Llanvair Clydoge, co. 

Card. 1603 

Sir Richard Pryse, Knt., of Gogarthan, ditto 1604 
David Thomas Parry, Esq., of Noyadd Tre- 

fawr, co. Cardigan 1605 

George Philips, Esq., of Cardigan . . . 1606 
David Lloyd ap Evan, Esq., of Abermad, 

Card. . 1607 

John Stedman, Esq., of Ystradfflur, co. Carm. 1608 
Sir John Lewis, Knt., of Abernant-bychan, 

Card. ....... 1609 

Thomas Pryse, Esq.. of Lanffraed, co. Card. 1610 
George Devereux, Esq., of Ystradffin, co. 

Carm. . . . . . . 1611 

Morris Vaughan, Esq., of Glanlery, co. Card. 1612 

Evan Gwynn Jenkin, Esq., of Moelivor, ditto 1613 

Morgan Gwynn, Esq., of Mynachty, ditto . 1614 

James Lewis, Esq., of Cwm Awen, ditto . 1615 



Jenkin David Lloyd Gwyon, Esq., of Llan- 

vechan, co. Card. ..... 

James Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida, ditto, & 
David Thomas Parry, Esq., of Noyadd, ditto 
Thomas Jones, Esq. , of Llanbadarn Fawr, ditto 
Edward Vaughan, Esq., of Trawscoed, ditto 
David Lloyd ap Evan, Esq., of Abermad, 

ditto . , 

John Parry, Esq., of Blaen y Pant, co. Card., & 
David Thomas Parry, Esq., of Noyadd, ditto 
Walter Lloyd, Esq., since knighted, of Llan- 

fair Clydoge, ditto ..... 
Evan Gwyn Jenkin, Esq., of Moelivor, ditto . 
John Pryse, Esq., since created a Baronet, of 

Strata Florida, ditto ..... 
Evan Lloyd Gwyn, Esq., of Llandyssil Uwch 

Cerdin ....... 

CHARLES I. 



1616 
1617 

1618 
1619 

1620 
1621 

1622 
1623 

1624 
1625 

1626 



Thomas Price, Esq. , of Ynysgerrigog, co. Card. 
Sir Henry Jones, Knt., of Abermarles, co. 

Carm. ....... 1627 

Llewellyn Thomas Parry, Esq. , of Tyglyn, Card . 1628 

John Pugh, Esq., of Lanffraed, ditto . . 1629 
James Lewis, Esq. , of Cwm Awen, ditto, & ) 

Stephen Parry, Esq., of Cwmtydu, ditto 3 ' 

David Parry, Esq., of Noyadd, ditto . . 1630 

Rowland Pugh, Esq., of Mathavarn, co. Mont. 1631 

Rhys Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, co. Card. . 1632 

John Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, ditto 1633 

Hector Philips, Esq., ofTregibby, ditto . 1634 

James Lewis, Esq., of Cwm Awen, ditto . 1635 

Thomas Pryse, Esq., of Ynisgerrigog, ditto . 1636 

John Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida, ditto 1637 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Crynfryn, ditto . . 1638 
Richard Pryse, Esq., since created a Baronet, 

of Gogarddan, ditto ..... 1639 
Jenkin David Lloyd Gwyon, Esq., of Llan- 

vechan ....... 1640 

David Evans, Esq., of Llechwedd-dery, co. 

Card. ....... 1641 

Henry Vaughan, Esq., of Cilcennin, ditto . 1642 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Dan y Forest, ditto . 1643 

Do. continued in his office two years 1644 

James Lewis, Esq., of Cilcyffeth, co. Pembr. 1645 

James Lewis, Esq., of Cwm Awen, co. Card. 1646 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Llanllyr, ditto . 1647 

Hugh Lloyd, Esq., of Llwyd Jack, ditto . 1648 

James Philips, Esq., of Tregibby, ditto . . 1649 

COMMONWEALTH AND PROTECTORATE. 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Fairdref, co. Card. . 1650 
Richard ap Evan Lloyd, Esq., of Ystrad 

Teilo, ditto 1651 

Thomas Parry, Esq., of To wyn . . . 1652 

OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

Thomas Evans, Esq., of Peterwell, co. Card. 1653 

Henry Vaughan, Esq., of Cilcennin, ditto . 1654 



182 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Sir Richard Pryse, Bart. , of Gogar^dan, co. Card . 
Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Llanfair Clydoge, do. 
Morgan Herbert, Esq., of Havod Ychtryd 
Morgan Herbert, Esq., of Havod Ychtryd, 

Card 

Morgan Herbert, Esq., of Havod Ychtryd, do. 



A.I). 

1655 
1656 
1657 

1658 
1659 



RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

Morgan Herbert, Esq., of Hafod Ychtryd, do. 1660 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwarthen, ditto . 1661 

CHARLES II. 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Crynfryn, ditto . . 1662 

Watkin Lloyd, Esq., of Wern-newydd, ditto . 1663 

James Lewis, Jun., Esq., of Coedmore, ditto 1664 

John Jones, Esq., of Nanteos, ditto . . 1665 
John Williams, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, 

ditto 1666 

James Stedman, Esq., of Strata Florida, ditto 1667 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn, ditto. . 1668 

William Summers, Esq., of Llanllyr, ditto . 1669 

Hector Philips, Esq., of Gibbyland . . 1670 

James Jones, Esq., of Abermad, co. Card. . 1671 

John Lewis, Esq., of Gernos, ditto . . 1672 

Hugh Llayd, Esq., ofLlwyd Jack, ditto . 1673 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Llanvairclydoge, ditto 1674 

Nicholas Lewis, Esq., of Pantyrodyn, ditto . 1675 

Cornelius Le Bran, Esq., of Nanteos, ditto . 1676 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Greengrove, ditto . 1677 

John Phillipps, Esq., of Dolhaidd, co. Carm. 1678 

Edward Jones, Esq., ofLlanina, co. Card. . 1679 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, ditto . 1680 

Thomas Pryse, Esq., of Ynysgerrigog, ditto . 1681 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Ffoshelig, ditto , 1682 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Cilgwyn, ditto . . 1683 

John Herbert, Esq., of Gogerddan, ditto . 1684 

David Parry, Esq., of Noyadd Trevawr, ditto 1685 

Evan Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn, ditto . . 1686 

JAMES II. 

Hugh Powell, Esq., of Nantgwyllt, co. Radnor 1687 

Hector Philips, Esq., of The Priory, co. Card. 1688 
William Herbert, Esq., of Hafod Ychtryd, 

Card. 1689 

Charles Lloyd, Esq. (since Knt. and baronet), 

of Maes y Felin, ditto .... 1690 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

Richard Lloyd, Esq., of Mabws, ditto . . 1691 

Daniel Evans, Esq., of Peterwell, ditto . . 1692 
Richard Stedman, Esq., of The Abbey (Strata 

Florida) ....... 1693 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Crynfryn, ditto . . 1694 

Francis Vaughan, Esq., ofGlanlery, ditto . 1695 
Vaughan Pryse, Esq., since a Bart., of Cil- 

cennin, ditto ...... 1696 

Hugh Lloyd, Esq., ofLlwyd Jack, ditto . 1697 

John Knolls, Esq., of Ynyshir, ditto . . 1698 

Roderick Richards, Esq., of Aberystwyth, ditto 1699 



A.D. 

John Phillipps, Esq., of Cwm Awen, co. Card. 1700 

Richard Lewis, Esq., of Alltvadog, ditto . 1701 

Lewis Gwynne, Esq., of Mynachty, ditto . 1702 

ANNE. 

Richard Phillipps, Esq., of Moelivor, co. Card. 1703 

Morgan Howells, Esq., of Pen y Bayly, ditto . 1704 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Llanfair, ditto . . 1705 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Llangennech, co. Carm. 1706 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Cilrhiwie, co. Pembr. 1707 
Nathan Griffiths, Esq., of Mountain Hall, co. 

Carm. ....... 1708 

John Jones, Esq., of Abermad, co. Card. . 1709 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Llanfechan, ditto . 1710 

John Lewis, Esq., of Gernos, ditto . . 1711 
Rhys David -Morris, Esq., of Blaen Dyffryn, 

ditto ....... 1712 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of Abertrinant, ditto . 1713 

Hugh Lloyd, Esq., of Aberllolwyn, ditto . 1714 

GEORGE I. 

John Jones, Esq., of Rhoscellan, co. Card. . 1715 

Thomas Hughes, Esq., of Hendrefelen, ditto 1716 

Richard Morris, Esq., of Carrog, ditto . . 1717 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Llwyd Jack, ditto . 1718 

Thomas Knolles, Esq., of Wenallt, co. Pemb. 1719 

Stephen Parry, Esq. , of Rhydymendy, co. Card. 1 720 

Edward Lloyd, Esq., of Wern, ditto . . 1721 

Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Coedmore, ditto . 1722 

James Griffith, Esq., of Noyadd, Llanarth, do. 1723 
David Jones, Esq., of Penyrallt, ditto (d. hi 

office) . . . . . . .1724 

William Williams, Esq., of Dolgoch, ditto . 1725 

David Lewis, Esq., of Gernos, ditto . . 1726 

Lewis Lewis, Esq., of Dolau Clether, ditto . 1727 

GEORGE II. 

John Jones, Esq., of Tyglyn, co. Card. . 1728 

Edward Jones, Esq., ofLlanina, ditto . . 1729 

John Lewis, Esq., of Carmarthen . . . 1730 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Cilgwyn, co. Card. . 1731 

John Price, Esq., of Blaen Duffryn, ditto . 1732 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, ditto . 1733 

David Jones, Esq. of Tyglyn, ditto . . 1734 

William Brigstocke, Esq., of Blaenpant, ditto 1735 

Robert Dyer, Esq., of Aberglasney, co. Carm. 1736 

Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Abermad, co. Card. 1737 

Francis Ingram, Esq., ofGlanlery, ditto . 1738 

John Phillipps, Esq., of Cringae, co. Carm. . 1739 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Verdre Bach, co. Card. 1740 

Daniel Bowen, Esq., of Waen Ivor, ditto . 1741 

Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Lhvyny Grawis, ditto 1742 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn, ditto. . 1743 

Charles Gwynne, Esq., of Mynachty, ditto . 1744 

David Parry, Esq., of Noyadd Trevawr, ditto 1745 
Sir Lucius 'Christianus Lloyd, Bart., of Maes y 

Felin, ditto . . . . . 1746 

William Lewis, Esq., of Llanlade, ditto . . 1747 

David Jones, Esq., of Penyrallt, ditto . , 1748 

Lewis Piyse, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, ditto. 1749 



CARDIGANSHIRE SHERIFFS. 



183 



A.I). 

John Morgan, Esq., of Cardigan . . . 1750 

William Williams, Esq., of Pant Seiri, ditto . 1751 

John Lewis, Esq., of Llanllyr, co. Card. . 1752 
Lewis Rogers, Esq., of Gelli, ditto . . .1753 

John Edwards, Esq., of Abermeurig, ditto . 1754 

William Bowen, Esq., of Troedyraur, co. Card. 1755 

Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Gernos, ditto . . 1756 

John Griffiths, Esq., of Penpontpren, ditto . 1757 

Abel Griffiths, Esq., of Pant y Bettws, ditto . 1758 

George Price, Esq., of Llangrannog, ditto . 1759 

Thomas Hughes, Esq., of Hendrefelen, ditto . 1760 

Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Coedmore, ditto . . 1761 

GEORGE III. 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Brynog, co. Card. . 1762 
JohnPaynter, Esq., Tenant oi Havod Ychtryd, 

ditto i/ 6 3 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Noyadd, ditto . . 1764 

Thomas Evans, Esq., of Blaengwenog, ditto . 1765 

William Jones, Esq., of Dol y Clettwr, ditto . 1766 
Richard Morgan, Esq. (ob. Sfariff), of Llysfaen, 

ditto 1767 

Daniel Lloyd, Esq., of Laques, co. Carm. . 1768 

John Hughes, Esq., of Tymawr, co. Card. . 1769 

Roderick Richards, Esq., of Penglais, ditto . 1770 

Lewis Gwynne, Esq., of Mynachty, ditto . 1771 
Llewellyn Parry, Esq., of Gernos, Cwmeynon, 

ditto 1772 

David Jones, Esq., of Deny Ormond, ditto . 1773 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Abertrinant, ditto . 1774 

Edward Vaughan, Esq., of Greengrove, ditto 1775 

Nathaniel Williams, Esq., of Pant Seiri, ditto 1776 

David Edward Lewis, Esq., of Dolhaidd, ditto 1777 

Thomas Bowen, Esq., of Waenivor, ditto . 1778 
Thomas Price, Esq., of Cardigan . . .1779 

Henry Jones, Esq., of Tyglyn, co. Card. . 1780 
David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodin, ditto . .1781 

Herbert Evans, Esq., of Lowmead, ditto . 1782" 

John Beynon, Esq., ofTrewern, co. Pembr. . 1783 

William Williams, Esq., of Trevach, ditto . 1784 

Thomas Powell, Esq., of Nanteos, co. Card. . 1785 
Edward Price Lloyd, Esq., of Llansevin, 

co. Carm. ...... 1786 

John Martin, Esq., of Alltgoch, co. Card. . 1787 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Trewinsor, ditto . 1788 
John Jones, Esq., of Deny Ormond, ditto . 1789 
Matthew Davies, Esq., of Wilevrog, ditto . 1790 
David Hughes, Esq., of Veinog, ditto . . 1791 
William Lewis, Esq., of Llanerchaeron, ditto . 1792 
Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, ditto . 1793 
William Owen Brigstocke, Esq., of Blaen y 

Pant, ditto 1794 

Sir Thomas Bonsall, Knt., of Fronfraith, ditto 1795 
Edward Warren Jones, Esq. , of Llanina, ditto 1 796 
J. Nathan Taylor, Esq., of Stradmore, ditto . 1797 
Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Coedmore, ditto . 1798 
Pryse Loveden Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan, 

ditto .- 1799 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Cilgwyn, ditto . . 1800 
John Williams, Esq., of Castle Hill, ditto . 1801 
David Davies, Esq., of Lanroca, ditto . >. 1802 



A.D. 

1803 

1804 

1805 

1806 

1807 

1808 

1809 

1810 

1811 

1812 

1813 

1814 

1815 

1816 

18 

1818 

1819 



John Lloyd, Esq., of Mabws, co. Card. . 

John Bond, Esq., of Cefn Coed, ditto 

John Lloyd Williams, Esq., of Gwernant, ditto 

J. Baily Wallis, Esq., of Peterwell, ditto 

Thomas Smith, Esq., of Wenallt . 

Morgan Jones, Esq., of Cilwendeg. 

William Skyrme, Esq. , of Alltgoch 

William Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos 

John Brooks, Esq., of Neuadd, Llanarth 

Griffith Jones, Esq., of Cardigan . 

Roderick Eardley Richardes, Esq., of Penglais 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd 

John Nathaniel Williams, Esq., of Castle-hill . 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Coedmore 

Jenkin Davies, Esq., of Glanroca . 

John Jones, Esq., of Derry (Deri) Ormond . 

George Jeffreys, Esq., of Llandovery, Carm. . 

GEORGE IV. 

Henry Rogers, Esq., of Gelli. . . .182 

John Vaughan Lloyd, Esq., of Tyllwyd . . 1821 

Thomas Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Nantgwyllt . 1822 

George William Parry, Esq., of Llidiardau . 1823 

J. Scandrett Harford, Esq., of Blaise Castle 1824 

Edward Pryse Lloyd, Esq., of Wern-newydd . 1825 

Thomas Davies, Esq., of Cardigan . . . 1826 

Arthur Jones, Esq., of Cardigan . . . 1827 

John Griffith, Esq. , of Llwyndurus . . . 1828 

Morris Davies, Esq., of Aberystwyth . . 1829 

Benjamin Hall, Esq., of Cilgwyn . . . 1830 

WILLIAM IV. 

Col. Chichester, Esq., of Llanbadam . . 1831 

Edward Gwynne, Esq., of Rhydygors . . 1832 

W. Owen Brigstocke, Esq., of Blaenpant . 1833 

Chas. Richard Longcroft, Esq., of Llanina .^ 1834 

Thomas Davies, Esq., of Nan tgwilan . . 1835 

George B. Jordan Jordan, Esq., of Pigeonsford 1836 

John Hughes, Esq., of Alltlwyd . . . 1837 

VICTORIA. 

William Tilsley Jones, Esq., of Gwynfryn . 1838 

Hon. George Vaughan, Esq., of Cwmydion . 1839 

John Lewis, Esq., of Lanaeron . . . 1840 

David Davies, Esq., of Castle Green, Cardigan 1841 

Francis David Saunders, Esq., of Tymawr . 1842 
Capt. Gibb, of Hendrefelin . . . .1843 
John Philips Allen Lloyd Philips, Esq., of 

Mabws J 844 

John Lloyd Davies, Esq., of Blaendyffryn . 1845 

James Davies, Esq., of Ffosrhydgaled . . 1846 

Matthew H. V. Davies, Esq., of Tanybwlch . 1847 

James Bowen, Esq., of Troedyraur . . 1848 

Henry Hoghton, Esq., of Havod . . . 1849 
Ernest Augustus Vaughan, Earl of Lisburne, of 

Crosswood ....... 1850 

Thomas Davies Lloyd, Esq. , of Bronwydd . 1851 

Lewis Pugh, Esq. , of Abermad . . . 1852 
John Inglis Jones, Esq., of Derry Ormond, for 

the Lent assizes only . . . 1853 



184 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Alban Lewes Thomas Jones Gwynne, Esq., of 

Mynachty, for summer assizes . . . 1853 

Morgan Jones, Esq., of Pen-y-lan . . . 1854 

John Battersby Harford, Esq., of Falcondale . 1855 

Winwood, Esq., of Tyglyn . . . 1856 

John Propert, Esq., of Blaenpistyll . . . 1857 

John Hughes, Esq., of Neuadd-vawr . . 1858 

William Lewes, Esq., ofLlysnewydd . . 1859 

William Jones, Esq., ofGlandenys . . 1860 

Pryse Loveden, Esq., of Gogerddan . . 1861 

Herbert Vaughan, Esq., of Brynog . . . r862 



A.D. 

Price Lewis, Esq., ofGwastod . . ; 1863 

John George Parry Hughes, Esq., of Alltwyd. 1864 

John Lewes, Esq., of Llanllyr . . . 1865 
John George William Bonsall, Esq., of Fron- 

fraith . . 1866 

James Loxdale, Esq., of Castle Hill . . 1867 

Alban Thomas, Esq. , of Tyglyn . . . 1868 
Caujtfeild Tynte Lloyd Williams, Esq., of 

Gwernnant Park ..... 1869 

Herbert Davies Evans, Esq., of Highmead . 1870 

Sydney Henry Jones-Parry, Esq., of Ty-llwyd 1871 



SECTION VII. PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 

We are informed by Blackstone that the word parliament (parlemenf) was first applied to 
general assemblies of the states under Louis VII. in France, about the middle of the 
twelfth century. In England, a kind of parliament existed in Saxon times under the title 
" Witena-gemote," or meeting of wise men. In Wales, before the union with England under 
Edward I., there was no assembly of the nature of a parliament, with delegates sent by 
enfranchised citizens ; but the prince, chosen by a kind of popular vote, ruled with a latitude 
of power not unlike an Oriental despotism. How far Wales was invited to send repre- 
sentatives to the English Parliament under the feudal period between Edward I. and Henry 
VIII. it is now impossible to say; but the probability is that little of that kind of intercourse 
subsisted. Edward II., A.D. 1322, issued a writ directing that twenty-four persons from 
South Wales and the same number from North Wales, " having full and sufficient power on 
behalf of the whole community of their parts," should attend a parliamentum which he was 
about to hold at York Other such summonses were perhaps occasionally sent forth, but 
with what effect is now unknown. 

Henry VIII. brought Wales into closer intimacy with the empire, constituted Cardigan- 
shire a county, and established a regular representation. But it does not appear that amongst 
the first Writs he issued for attendance of representatives at Westminster, Cardiganshire 
was included. Brown Willis, in his Notitia Parliamentaria, gives no member for this county 
until the first year of Queen Mary (1553), when John ap Richard ap Rhys of Gogerddan 
was summoned. It is, however, stated by Meyrick, in his History of Cardiganshire, upon what 
authority is not known, that in three parliamentary sessions under Henry VIII., A.D. 1536 46, 
David ap Llwyd of Castell-Howel attended. In the Parliamentary Representation of the 
County of Cardigan, by John Hughes, Esq., of Lluest-Gwilym (1849) a judicious historical 
compilation, David Lloyd's attendance is rightly given with some reserve, and on Meyrick's 
sole authority. It is improbable that a member from this county attended before the 37th 
Henry VIII., and for this year we give David Lloyd. In the following names of members, 
and dates (with this sole exception) as far as 1849, we follow Mr. Hughes, and thence- 
forward the usual returns. 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS. 



185 



i. Members of Parliament for Cardiganshire, A.D. 15451871. 



HENRY 
Dafydd ap Llwyd, Esq., of Castell-Howel 

EDWARD VI. 

William Devereux, Esq. _. 
James Williams, Esq., Seed. Parl. . 



A.D. 
1545 



1553 
1553 



MARY. 
John ap Rhys, or Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan, 

First Parl 1553 

[One of the Council of the Court of Marches.] 
John ap Rhys, Esq., Seed. Parl. . . . 1554 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

Tohnap Rhys, Esq., First Parl. . . . 1554 
Sir Henry Johnes, Kt., of Abermarlais, Sec. 

and Third Parl 1555 

ELIZABETH. 

Sir Henry Johnes, Kt., of Abermarlais . . 1558 
John ap Rhys, Esq., of Gogerddan, Three 

Paris 1562, 1571, 1572 

Richard ap Rhys, Esq. (subsequently knighted) 1584 
Griffith Lloyd (Llwyd), LL.D. . . . 1586 

[Principal of Jesus Coll., Oxford, 1582 4. It is 
questionable whether he was a clergyman, al- 
though it was lawful then for clergymen to sit in 
Parliament. He was of the Llanllyr branch of 
the Lloyds. He d. this same year, 1586.] 
Sir Richard ap Rhys (Pryse), Kt., of Gogerddan 1588 
Sir Richard Pryse, Kt., of Gogerddan . . 1592 
Thomas Johnes, Esq. ..... 1597 

[Probably of Llanbadarn-fawr, son of Sir Henry 

Johnes, of Abermarlais.] 

Sir Richard Pryse, Kt., of Gogerddan . . 1601 
Sir John Lewis, Kt., of Abernant-bychan . 1603 

JAMES I. 

Sir Richard Pryse, Kt., of Gogerddan . . 1614 

Sir Richard Pryse, Kt., of Gogerddan . . 1620 

[D. 1622.] 

James Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan . . 1623 

CHARLES I. 

James Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, 1625, 1627, 

1640 
Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Llanfair-Clydogau, 

Long Parl. ...... 1640 

[Subsequently knighted ; disabled, 1643, for desert- 
ing the service of the House, being in the king's 
quarters, and " adhering to that party."] 

CROMWELL AND THE COMMONWEALTH. 

The "Little" or ''Barebones Parliament:" 
Seven Members summoned for all Wales, 
P.ussey Manscl, Hugh Cuurlcnay, James 



Philips (of Cardigan?), Richard Pryse (of 
Gogerddan), John Williams, John Brown . 1653 
[The Cromwellian party was strong in Cardigan- 
shire, and it is just possible that out of seven for 
all Wales two should have been invited from this 
county.] 

James Philips, Esq., of the Priory, Cardigan i 
Jenkin Lloyd, M.A 5 * 54 



1656 



1658 



1660 
1661 



[Supposed to be the Rev. Jenkin Lloyd, of Fair- 
dref, a strong supporter of Cromwell, and his 
chaplain.] 

Col. James Philips, the Priory, Cardigan 
Col. John Clarke .... 



RICHARD CROMW T ELL. 

Col. James Philips, of the Priory, Cardigan . 
[Husband of the celebrated "Orinda." (Seep. 180.) 
In the MS. of 1661, published in Cambr. Reg. I, 
166, on the character, &c., of the principal gentry 
in counties Cardigan, Pembroke, and Carmarthen, 
he is described as " one that had the fortune to 
be in with all tymes, yet thrived by none ; . . . 
hath done much good, and is ill-rewarded by those 
he deserved most of."J 



CHARLES II. 

John Vaughan, Esq. ..... 

[Probably the same as the next.] 

John Vaughan, Esq., ofCrosswood . . 
[In 1640 M.P. for Cardigan, described in above-cited 
paper as "one that will upon fits talk loud for 
monarchy, but scrupulous to wet his finger to 
advance it : . . . personally advised Cromwell to 
put the crown on his owne head ; purchased Meve- 
nith, one of his late majesty's manors within the 
co. of Cardigan ; personally assisted in taking of 
Aberystwyth, a garrison then kept for his late 
majesty ; he is of good parts, but puts too high a 
value upon them." He was a friend of Selden, who 
made him his executor, yet refused to take office 
during the Commonwealth ; but at the restora- 
tion, after twenty years' retirement, he was chosen 
to represent the co. in Parliament ; and in 1668 
" his majesty, whose goodness is ever extensive 
to worthy men," says his biographer, " did con- 
stitute him Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas."] 

Edward Vaughan, Esq ..... 1678-9-80 
LSon of the above.] 

JAMES II. 
John Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan . . 1685 

INTERREGNUM : THE REVOLUTION. 

John Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan . . 1688 



WILLIAM AND MARY. 

Sir Carbury Pryse, Bart. . 

[Died 1694, and John Vaughan, Esq., who had with- 
out effect petitioned against Sir Carbury 's elec- 
tion, by indenture returned.] 



I68Q 



1 86 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



WILLIAM III. 
John Vaughan, Esq. ..... 1695 

John Lewis, Esq. ...... 1698 

[Member for the borough in last Parliament.] 
Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Kt. . . . 1700 

[Of Swansea. A great miner. It is said he gave 
Mr. Edward Pryse, of Gogerddan, ^15,000 for 
his interest in the mines on his estates.]* 
Lewis Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan . . . 1701 

ANNE. 
Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Kt. . . . 1702 

John Pugh, Esq. ...... 1705 

[Supposed to be of Mathafarn, Mont. ; a barris:er.J 
Lewis Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan . . . 1708 
[Mr. Pryse's return was petitioned against by 
Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Llanfair-Clydogau, his 
opponent. Petition heard at the bar of the House, 
loth February. Decision "That Mr. Lewis 
Pryse is duly elected a knight of the shire."] 
Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Kt. . . . 1710 

Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Llanfair-Clydogau . 1713 
[He was the first Mr. Johnes of Hafod, having mar. 
the dau. and h. of William Herbert, Esq., of 
Hafod ; d. without issue, and bequeathed his 
estates to his cousin, THE Thomas Johnes of 
Hafod.] 

GEORGE I. 

Lewis Pryse, Esq,. of Gogerddan . . .1714 
His return, petitioned against by Thomas Johnes, 
Esq., of Llanfair-Clydogau, his opponent, August 
8th, upon a call of the House, the name of Lewis 
Pryse, Esq., being called over, and he not ap- 
pearing, ordered the said Lewis Pryse to be sent 
for in custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, but the 
said Lewis Pryse not appearing, nor apparently 
wishing to appear, nor having taken the oath, he 
was pronounced disqualified to sit. New writ 
issued, and Owen Brigstocke, Esq., returned.] 

Francis Cornwallis, Esq., of Abermarlais . 1722 

GEORGE II. 
John, Viscount Lisburne . . . .1727 



[He was grandson of Sir John Vaughan, Kt., 
Chief Justice, already mentioned ; 'was created 
Baron Fethers in Ireland, and Viscount LisBurne 
by William III., 1695. ] 

Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell, Lampeter . 
[Attorney-General for cos. Cardigan, Pembroke, 

and Carmarthen.] 

Walter Lloyd, Esq., not duly elected 
Thomas Powell, Esq. , of Nanteos . 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell 

[Son of above Walter Lloyd. ] 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell 

[Died 1755. New writ issued. The Hon. Wilmot 
Vaughan returned by indenture, 3rd Dec., 1755.] 



A.D. 

1734 

1741 
1747 
1754 



GEORGE III. 

John Pugh Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan . . 1761 
Wilmot, Viscount Lisburne, of Trawscoed . 1 768 
Wilmot, Viscount Lisburne, of Trawscoed 1 780-84-90 
Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Hafod Ychtryd . 1796 
[Lord Lieut, and Gustos Rotul. for Cardiganshire, 
and Auditor of the Land Revenue for Wales. 
See Johnes, Hafod.} 

Thomas Johnes, Esq. . . . ' . 1802-6-7-12 
[Died 23rd April, 1816. Succeeded by William Ed- 
ward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos.] 

William Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos . 1818 
[Lord Lieut, and Gustos Rotulorum for the co.] 

GEORGE IV. 

William Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos 1820-26 

WILLIAM IV. 

William Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos 1830-1-3-5 

VICTORIA. 

William Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos 1838-54 

Ernest Augustus Vaughan, Earl of Lisburne 1 854-9 

Col. W. T. R. Powell, of Nanteos . . 1859-65 

Sir Thomas David Lloyd, Bart., of Bronwydd 1865-8 

E. M. Richards, Esq., of Swansea. . 1868-71 



2. Members of Parliament for the Cardigan Boroughs, A.D. 1547 A.D. 1871. 

Willis's Notitia Parliamentaria contains no return for the Cardigan boroughs before 
Jenkyn Gwynne, Gent., in the ist of Mary, 1553 '> but Mr. Hughes, in his Parliamentary 
Representation of Cardiganshire, gives two earlier Members, as below : 



EDWARD VI. 

John Scotte, Esq., by one authority, but John 
Mottas by another (family and residence 
unknown) ...... 1547 

[A very doubtful return.] 

Edward ap Howell, Esq. (family and resi- 
dence unknown) . . . . -1553 

[A doubtful return.] 

MARY. 
John Gwyn . 1553 

[Willis, " Jenkyn Gwynne." This Jenkyn Gwynne 
was probably of Moel-Ifor, where Divnn gives 
Jenkyn ap Rys Gwynn, whose son Jevan Gwynn 
ap Siankyn lived there in iCoj.] 



John Powell, Esq. . 

[Family and residence unknown.] 



A.D. 
1554 



PHILIP AND MARY. 
John Powell, Esq. ..... 1554 

[Family and residence unknown.] 
Thomas ap Harry ...... 1555 

Thomas Thayer, Esq. . . . . 1557 

ELIZABETH. 

Thomas Thayer, Esq 1558 

John Gwynne, Esq. ..... 1562 

[Prob. Jevan Gwynn, of Moel-Ifor. See Duitn.'] 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS. 



187 



John Hanmer, Esq. (family and residence 
unknown) ...... 

Edward Davies, Esq. (family and residence 
unknown) ...... 

Francis Cheyne, Esq. ..... 

[Where lie came from is not known. Browne Willis 
remarks, "The name .of Cheyne occurs oftener 
in our Parliamentary lists than any other what- 
soever, and is remembered with esteem from the 
eminent worth of the persons in the Houses both 
of Lords and Commons."] 
Alban Stepneth de Prendergast, Pembr. . 

[He was sheriff of Pemb. 1590 and 1603 ; ancestor 
of the present Sir John Cowell Stepney, Bart., of 
Llanelly.] 
Sir Ferdinand Gorges, Kt. .... 

[No other connection between him and Wales can 
be traced. He was of the Gorges of Langford, 
and was Captain of Plymouth Castle. D. 1597. J 
Thomas Rawlins, Esq. . - 
[Otherwise unknown.] 
Double return : 

Dr. Wm. Awbrey, elected at Aberystwyth . i 
William Delabarr, elected at Cardigan . . ' 
[Dr. William Awbrey was Prof, of Civil Law at 
Oxford,- and held various public appointments. 
He was of the Awbreys of Breconshire (see 
Aivbrey), and was related by marriage to Herberts 
of Cwmystwy th, the circumstance probably which 
brought him to Cardigan. Delabarr was an ad- 
venturous barrister. An inquiry as to the double 
return was set on foot by the House, when it was 
elicited that the County Court was as well kept 
at Aberystwyth as at Cardigan, and "the sheriff 
of the shire favouring Aberystwyth, sent his war- 
rant to the bailiffs of Aberystwyth," and hence 
the double return. How the matter was decided 
does not appear, but at the next election another 
Delabarr is chosen at Aberystwyth. J 

JAMES I. 
Double return : 

Richard Delabarr, elected at Aberystwyth 
William Bradshaw, of Cardigan, elected at) 
Cardigan 

[An inquiry took place respecting this double return, 
and it seems the sheriff, being Sir Richard 
Pryse, Kt., had again favoured Aberystwyth, 
sending also the writ for election to Cardigan. 
The House decided that William Bradshaw was 
lawfully elected, but whether Delabarr was ousted 
does not appear.] 
No return ....... 

[Things appear to have come to a dead lock per- 
haps a temporary disfranchisement.] 
Walter Overbury, Esq. (family and residence 
unknown) ...... 

Rowland Pugh, Esq., of Mathafarn, Mont. 

CHARLES I. 
Rowland Pugh, Esq., of Mathafarn, Mont. 

First Parl 

Walter Overbuy, Esq. Seed. Parl. 

John Vaughan, Esq. ..... 

[Not certain whether he was of Crosswood or of 
Derllys, Carmarthen, but probably the former, 
the same as the next below, and the co. member 
for 1661.] 

John Vaughan, Esq., of Trawscoed 

[Afterwards Chief Justice of Common Pleas.] 



A.D. 
1571 

1572 
1584-6 



1592 



1597 



1601 



1603 



1614 



1620 
1623 



1625 
1625 
1627 



1640 



THE COMMONWEALTH AND CROMWELL. 

Cromwell dismisses the Long Parliament in 
great wraUh, tells them, " You are no 
Parliament ; some of you are drunkards ; 
some of you are corrupt, unjust persons, 
scandalous to the profession of the gospel. 
I will put an end to your prating ; it is 
not fit that you should sit here any longer. 
Call them in ! " referring to the guards . 1653 

In the parliament now called, "Barebones Par- 
liament," no Member is summoned for 
Cardigan boroughs, but seven members 
are called from all Wales names given 
under county ...... 1^53 

None summoned for Cardigan . . . 1654 

None summoned ...... 1656 

RICHARD CROMWELL. 
Col. Rowland Dawkins (family and residence 

unknown) ...... 1658 

CHARLES II. 

William Griffiths, Esq. (family and residence 

unknown) ...... 1660 

William Griffiths, Esq. . . . . .1661 

Hector Philips, Esq., of Tregibby (Tregybi), 

(one of the Cardigan Priory family,) 1678, 
1679, 1680, 1685 

INTERREGNUM. 

John Vaughan, Esq., of Trawscoed . . 1688 
[See 1640 ; and Member for county 1661.] 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

Hector Philips, Esq. ; d., and in his room 

John Lewis, Esq., of Coedmore . . 1689 

W T ILLIAM III. 

John Lewis, Esq., of Coedmore . . . 1695 
Sir Charles Lloyd, Kt., of Maesyfelin (after- 
wards a baronet) ..... 1698 
John Lewis, Esq. , as above . . . . 1700 

[M.P. for co. in 1698.] 
Henry Lloyd, Esq., of the Inner Temple . 1701 

ANNE. 

Henry Lloyd, Esq., of the Inner Temple . 1702 
Lewis Pryse, Esq. , of Gogerddan . . . 1 705 

[For co. next Parl.] 

Sir Simon Harcourt, Kt. .... 1708 
[Afterwards Lord Chancellor. Lewis Pryse, Esq., 
having been returned for both co. and bor., chose 
the former, giving room to Harcourt, whose elec- 
tion for Abingdon was void.] 

John Meyrick, Esq., of the Middle Temple,, 
who was made a Welsh judge ; and, by 
new writ, i 1710 

Owen Brigstock, Esq., of the Middle Temple, 
was elected . . . . . , 
Sir George Barlow, Bart., of Slebech, Pembr. 1713 



1 83 



CARDIGANSHIRE. 



1727 



GEORGE I. A.D. 

Stephen Parry, Esq., Neuadd-Trefawr ; d. \ 

1724; and > 1714 

Thomas Powell, Esq. , of Nanteos, returned . ) 

GEORGE II. 

Francis Cornwallis, Esq. . . . . \ 

[For co. in last Parl. D. ; new writ issued, and ' 

a double return made.] 

Thomas Powell, Esq., of Nanteos ; and 
Richard Lloyd, Esq., of Mabws and^Ystrad- 

Teilo 

[It was resolved, on inquiry being instituted, that 
the burgesses of Tregaron had no right to vote 
for a member for Cardigan.] 
Richard Lloyd, Esq. , as above 
Thomas Pryse, Esq. , of Gogerddan ; d. June 2, 

1745 ; and succeeded by 
John Symmonds, Esq., of Llanstinan, Pembr. 
John Symmonds, Esq. .... I747> 
Herbert Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell ; created 

baronet 1763 . . . 

Pryse Campbell, Esq., of Llanffraid and Stack- >. 
poole Court ..... 
[His mother was Mary, sister of Lewis Pryse, Esq., 
of Gogerddan. He was a Lord of the Treasury in 
1 766, and represented the co. Cromarty in Parl. ; - 1 768 
d. 1768 ; succeeded by his son John, created Earl 
Cawdor in 1796-] On issue of a new writ 
Ralph Congreve, Esq., of Aldermaston House, 
Berks, was elected ..... 
[Sir Herbert Lloyd, of Peterwell, his opponent, 
petitioned against the return, but with what result 
is not said.] 
Sir Robert Smyth, Bart., of Upton, Essex, >. 

not duly elected. 

Thomas Johnes, Jun., Esq., of Llanfair-Clydo- I 
gau, was elected ; made Steward of the I 
Manor of East Hendred, Berks. New j 
writ issued 1780, he was elected for co. 
Radnor, and succeeded by 
John Campbell, Esq., of Stackpoole Court 



[Son of late Pryse Campbell, afterwards first Earl 

of Cawdor. ] 

John Campbell, Esq., of Stackpoole Court . 1780, 

1784, 1790 
[On dissolution of this Parliament, in 1796, he was 

created Earl Cawdor.] 
The Hon. John Vaughan, of Trawscoed, Lieut. - 

Colonel ....... 1796 

The Hon. John Vaughan, of Trawscoed, Lieut. - 

Colonel . . . 1802, 1806, 1807, 1812 
[At this last election, 1812, Herbert Evans, Esq., 
of Highmead, was a candidate. A "petition" 
a thing almost of course now in this co. after a 
contest was "presented," but the decision was 
given that the Hon. John Vaughan was "duly 
elected, "&c.J 



GEORGE IV. 

Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan 
Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan 



VICTORIA. 



. 1818 
182035 



Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan . . . 1837 
Pryse Pryse, Esq., and \ 

John Scandrett Harford, Esq., of Blaize Castle. > 1845 
Double return . . . . . ) 

[The double return caused an inquiry on petition 
of Pryse Pryse, Esq., who claimed a clear "ma- 
jority of twenty votes on the entire poll." His 
claim was confirmed by the committee.] 
Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan ; a. ist Jan., 

1849 ...... 1847-9 

Pryse Loveden, Esq., of Gogerddan . 1849-55 
John Lloyd Davies, Esq., of Alltyrodyn and 

Blaendyffryn . . . . . 1855-57 

Col. Edward Lewis Pryse, of Peithyll, Lord 

Lieutenant of co. Cardigan . . 1857-68 
Sir Thomas Davies Lloyd, Bart., of Bronwydd, 

1868-71 



SECTION VIII. COUNTY MAGISTRATES OF CARDIGANSHIRE FOR 1871. 



Bonsall, John George William, Esq., of Fronfraith. 

Bonsall, Thomas, Esq. , of Glanrheidol. 

Boultbee, John, Esq., of Gwernant. 

Bowen, James, Esq. , of Troedyraur. 

Brenchley, Thomas Harman, Esq., of Glaneirw. 

Buck, William, Esq., of Stradmore Hill. 

Chambers, William, Esq., of Hafod. 

Davies, David, Esq., of Castle Green, Cardigan. 

Davies, David Griffith, Esq., of Cardigan. 

Davies, James, Esq. , of Ffosrhydgaled. 

Davies, John Maurice, Esq., of Antaron. 

Davies, John Maurice, Esq., of Penpompren. 

Davies, Matthew Lewis Vaughan, Esq., ofTanybwlch. 

Davies, Thomas, Esq. , of Cardigan. 

Evans, Herbert Davies, Esq., of Highmead. 

Evans, John, Esq. , of Lovesgrove. 

Evans, The Rev. David, of Llanina. 



Fitzwilliams, Edward Crompton Lloyd, Esq., of 

Newcastle Emlyn. 

Fryer, Henry Charles, Esq., Lodge Park. 
Griffith, John, Esq., of Llwyndyrus. 
Griffith, John, Esq., of Treforgan. 
Hall, William Hope, Esq., of Gellydywyll. 
Harford, John Battersby, Esq., of Falcondale. 
Howell, John Richard, Esq., of Blaendyffryn. 
Hughes, John George Parry, Esq., of Alltlwyd. 
Hughes, The Rev. James, of Glanrheidol. 
Jones, J. Inglis, Esq., of Derry Ormond. 
Jones, Morgan, Esq., of Fenian. 
Jones, The Rev. William Basil, of Gwynfryn. 
Jones, Thomas, Esq., of Aberystwyth. 
Jones, William, Esq., of Glandenys. 
Jones, William, Esq., of Llwyngroes. 
Jtfnes- Parry, Sidney Henry, Esq., of Tyllvvyd. 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS. 



189 



Jordan, George Bowen Jordan, Esq., of Pigeonsford. 

Lascelles, Rowley, Esq., of Pencraig. 

Lewellin, The Very Rev. Llewelyn, D.C. L. 

Lewes, Lieut. -Col. John, of Llanllyr, Talsarn. 

Lewis, Charles Basset, Esq., of Aberystwyth. 

Lisburne, The Earl of, of Crosswood. 

Lloyd, SirThomas Davies, Bart., M.P., of Bronwydd. 

Lloyd, The Rev. Rhys Jones, of Troedyraur. 

Longcroft, Charles Edward, Esq., of Llanina. 

Longcroft, Charles Richard, Esq., of Llanina. 

Loxdale, James, Esq., of Castle Hill. 

Morgan, Thomas Owen, Esq., of Aberystwyth. 

Morris, Thomas, Esq., of Blaenwern. 

North, The Ven. Archdeacon, M.A., of Llangoed- 

more. 

Parry, George Williams, Esq., of Llidiarde. 
Philipps, John Allen Lloyd, Esq., of Mabws. 



Powell, William Thomas Rowland, Esq., ofNanteos. 
Pryse, John Pugh Vaughan, Esq., of Bwlchbychan. 
Pryse, Lieut.-Col. Edward Lewis, of Peithyll, Lord 

Lieutenant.. 

Pryse, Sir Pryse, Bart., of Gogerddan. 
Pugh, Lewis Pugh, Esq., of Abermaide. 
Richardes, William Eardley, Esq., of Bryneithin. 
Rogers, John Edwardes, Esq., of Abermeurig, Talsarn, 

Lampeter. 

Spence, The Rev. Henry Donald Maurice, Lampeter. 
Tyler, (jwynnett, Esq., of Gernos. 
Vaughan, Herbert, Esq., of Brynog, Lampeter. 
Vaughan, John, Esq., of Llangoedmore Place. 
Vaughan, The Viscount, of Birchgrove. 
Wagner, Thomas Richard Price, Esq., of Manereifed. 
Williams, George Griffiths, Esq., of Rhoscellanfawr. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



ABADAM, . C. M. Maxwell Middleton, Esq., 
Tymawr, co. Cardigan. 

Is the eldest surviving son of Edward 
Abadam, Esq., of Middleton Hall, Car- 
marthenshire, J. P. for co. Carmarthen, 
High Sheriff 1855, by his wife Louisa, dau. 
of J. Taylor, Esq., of York ; b. at Clifton, 
loth March, 1845 ; m., 1870, Susanne M. 
Saunders, dau. of the late Capt. Saunders, 
of Ty-Mawr, and has issue i daughter. 

Residence: Ty-Mawr, Ciliau Aeron, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Arms : Same as Abadam of Middleton Hall 
arg., on a cross, gu., 5 mullets, or. 
Crest: A demi-lion, affronte, gu. 
Motto : Aspire, persevere, and indulge not. 
Note. For the lineage of this family see a notice 
under Abadam, Aliddleton Hall. 

BATTER-SBY-HAKFORD, John Earford, Esq., 
of Palcondale, Cardiganshire. 

J. P. for cos. of Gloucester and Cardigan ; 
D. L. for Gloucestershire ; son of A. G. 
Harford, Esq., who took name of Battersby 
in addition to his own on succeeding to an 
estate, and Elizabeth Grey, dau. of General 
and Lady Eleanor Dundas, of Carron Hall, 
Stirlingshire; b. at Clifton, 1819; ed. at 
Harrow and Oxford; grad. B.A. 1842, 
M.A. 1846; w., April, 1850, Mary Char- 
lotte, dau. of the late Baron von Bunsen, 
Prussian Minister in London ; s. to estates 
1851 ; has issue 

JOHN CHARLES ; Frederic Dundas ; Alice Mary 
Elizabeth ; Mary Edith ; Agnes Clementina ; 
Constance Emilia ; Charlotte Louisa ; Eleanor 
Dorothy. 

Heir: John Charles. 

Residence: Falcondale, Lampeter, South Wales. 
Town Ad'dress : Athenaeum Club. 
Arms: Sa., two bends, arg., on a canton, az., 
a bend, or HARKORD. Or, a saltire, paly of 
twelve, erm. and gu., in base and chief a ram 
passant, or, in fesse, two crosslets BATTERSBY. 
Crest : Rising out of flames, proper, a griffin's 
head, or, bet. two wings. 
Motto : Inter utrumque tene. 

LINEAGE. 

This family settled at Bosbury, Herefordshire, in 
the sixteenth century, and at Bristol in the seven- 
teenth century. They have long been known 
in Gloucestershire as of Stoke, of Stapleton, of 
Frenchay, and of Blaise Castle. 



Note. Mr. J. Scandrett Harford, uncle of the 
present possessor, contested the Cardigan boroughs 
on two occasions, in 1842 and 1849. 

The ancient residence of this estate was at Peterwell. 
The ruins of the mansion exist, and it stfll gives its 
name to the estate (see Lloyds of Peter-well, pp. 168-9). 
There are no means of knowing the precise date 
when the last Peterwell House was built, but the 
architecture would point to about 1750, though an 
older house existed previously on the spot the ruins 
now occupy. 

There is a camp of some importance, of oval form, 
on a farm called Llanfairfach. There is an outpost, 
apparently, on the top of a hill, on Ollwyn Farm, not 
far off. 



BONSALL, John George William, E;q., of 
Fronfraith, Cardiganshire. 

Is a J. P. for the cos. of Cardigan and Mont- 
gomery ; High Sheriff for the co. of Cardi- 
gan in 1866 ; second son of the late Rev. 
Isaac Bonsall, M.A., R.D., Rector of Llan- 
wrin, co. of Montgomery, by Catherine, dau. 
of the late Rev. John Davies, M.A., R.D., 
Rector of Cemmaes, co. of Montgomery; b. 
1818 ; ed. at Shrewsbury School ; m., May, 
1853, Frances, dau. of Joseph Davies, Esq., 
of Galltyllan, co. of Montgomery, and has 
issue 2 sons and 3 daughters. 

Heir : John Joseph Bonsall. 
Residence : Fronfraith, Cardiganshire. 
Arms: Arg., 3 crystals on a fesse, gu., a 
bordure, erm. 

Crest : A dexter hand grasping a crosslet. 
Motto : Pro patria. 

Note. Fronfraith is a plain substantial mansion 
situated in the wider part of- the beautiful Vale of 
Rheidol, about three miles from Aberystwyth. It was 
formerly the residence of Sir T. Bonsall, Kt. The 
proprietor has promoted the plantation of fir and other 
trees, an example which if followed would add greatly 
to the comeliness of the neighbourhood of Aberyst- 
wyth. The plantation of suitable spots appears to the 
stranger to be the one thing recuiired. 

BONSALL, Thomas, Esq., of Glanrheidol, Car- 
diganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Cardigan ; 
son of the late Rev. Isaac Bonsall, M.A., 
Rector of Llanwrin ; b. 1813; m. Mary, 
dau. of James Hughes, Esq., and has issue. 
The Rev. Isaac Bonsall was son of the late 
Sir Thomas Bonsall, Kt., who lived at 
Fronfraith, Cardiganshire. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



191 



Residence: Glanrheidol, Aberystwyth. 
Anns: Arg., 3 crystals on a fesse, gu., a 
bordnre, erm. 

Crest: A dexter hand grasping a crosslet. 
Motto: Pro patria. 

BOWEN, James, Esq., of Troed-yr-Aur, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the cos. of Cardi- 
gan and Pembroke, and J. P. for the co. 
of Carmarthen ; High Sheriff for Cardigan 
1848; second son of the late James 
Bo wen, Esq., of Llvvyngwair, in the co. 
of Pembroke ; b. 1 806 ; ed. at Harrow 
School; ;//., 1827, Dorothea, dau. of the 
late Rev. David Griffith, M.A., Vicar of 
Nevern, co. Pembroke; s. to the Troed- 
yr-Aur estates 1842 ; has issue 3 sons and 
i daughter. 

Heir: William Rice Bowen, J. P. for cos. 
Cardigan and Carmarthen, late Lieut. Royal 
Artillery. 

Residence : Troedyraur, N. C. Emlyn. 

Arms (same as Llwyngwair) : Quarterly : 1st 
and 4th, az., a lion rampant, or, inter 8 bezants ; 
2nd, gu., a chevron, or, inter 2 knots in chief, a 
lion rampant, or, in base ; 3rd, az., a hawk, 
proper. 

Crest : A lion rampant, or. 

Motto: Audaces fortuna juvat. 
Note. For the descent of this family see Bmven, 
Llwyn- Giuair. 

CHAMBERS, William, Esq., of Havod, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Cardigan ; is 
son of the late William Chambers, Esq., 
J. P. and D. L., of Llanelly House, in the 
co. of Carmarthen, for which co. he was a 
Sheriff in 1828 ; b. 1809 ; m., 1835, Joanna 
Trant, dau. of Capt. Payne, R.N., and has 
issue. 

Heir: His eldest son. 

Residence: Havod, Aberystwyth. 

Crest: A bear passant. 

Note. For a notice of Havod see p. 127, &c. The 
estate of Havod became the property of Mr. Cham- 
bers by purchase in 1853, his former residence having 
been Llanelly House, in the co. of Carmarthen, where 
he inherited property left to his father, the late Wil- 
liam Chambers, Esq., by will of the late Sir James 
Stepney, Bart. , but which in due course reverted to 
the Stepney family (see Stepney, Llanelly). 

DAVIES, David, Esq., of Castle Green, Cardi- 
gan. 

Is a J. P. for the cos. of Cardigan and 
Pembroke; D. L. for co. Cardigan; High 
Sheriff 1841 ; son of the late Thomas 
Davies, Esq., of Castle Green, who was 
High Sheriff of co. Cardigan 1826; d. 
1832; b. at Cardigan, 1795; m., ist, Anna 
Letitia, dau. of Rev, I). Griffith, Vicar 
of Nevern, Pembrokeshire; 2nd, Eliza- 



beth, dau. of Rev. John Holcombe, Rector 
of Cosheston and Rhoscrowther, co. Pem- 
broke, Prebendary of Brecon, and has 

issue. 

Heir: David Griffith. 
Residence : Castle Green, Cardigan. 
Note. The house of Castle Green (named from its 
situation) stands on the grounds and partly on the 
foundations of the old fortress of Cardigan elsewhere 
described. (See engraving, p. 133.) What remains 
of the castle is too small to make an effective view. 
The Castle estate became the property of the Bowen 
family, and subsequently of the Davies family. 

DAVIES, James, Esq , of Ffosrhydgaled, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of 

Cardigan ; served as High Sheriff for 
the same 1846; b. in 1804 at Cemlle- 
coedwig, in the co. of Merioneth ; m. 
Elizabeth, third dau. of Edward Evans, 
Esq., son of Pierce Evans, Esq., J. P. of 
Upton Castle, Pembrokeshire ; s. to the 
estates of his uncle, Morris Davies, Esq., 
who was High Sheriff for co. Cardigan 
1829 ; has issue i son and 5 daughters. 

Heir: Morris Davies. 

Residences : Ffosrhydgaled and Cwmedvvig, 
near Aberystwyth. 

Tmvn Address: 5, Child's Place, Temple ; Club, 
Junior Carlton. 

Arms: Or, a chevron between 3 boars' heads. 

Motto: Y cyfiawn a flodeuant, "The righteous 
shall flourish." 

Note. The mansion of Ffosrhydgaled, about three 
miles from Aberystwyth, is a substantial building, in the 
Domestic style of architecture, of recent erection, and 
standing on a slope commanding a view of the beguti- 
ful Vale of Ystwyth. Mr. Davies is erecting (1871) 
in the near neighbourhood an elegant residence in the 
Mixed Gothic style, which has command of still more 
charming scenery. 

DAVIES, Thomas, Esq., Bank House, Cardi- 
gan. 

J. P. for cos. of Pembroke and Cardi- 
gan, and for the borough of Cardigan; son 
of the late John Davies, Esq., merchant, 
Cardigan ; b. at Cardigan, 3oth November, 
1823; ed. at Cardigan Grammar School, 
and King's College School, London ; m., 
ist, March, 1853, Jane, youngest dau. of 
the late David Morgan Lloyd, Esq., of 
Glanafon, co. of Pembroke ; 2ndly, 1864, 
Mary, youngest dau. of the late Griffith 
Jenkins, Esq., Pantirion, co. of Pembroke ; 
and has issue from first mar. Thomas Lloyd, 
John Morgan Lloyd, Mary Lcetitia, Fanny 
Maria, arid Richard Lloyd; from second 
mar. Griffith Ormond and William Henry. 

Heir : Thomas Lloyd. 

Residences: Bank House, and Park y Pratt, 
Cardigan. 



192 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



DAVIES, Thomas Hughes Ford, Esq., of Aber- 
cery, Cardiganshire. 

First Lieut. Royal Glamorgan Artillery 
Militia; son of the late Thomas Davies, 
Esq., of Nantygwilan, co. Cardigan (High 
Sheriff for Cardiganshire 1835), by his 
wife Elizabeth, dau. of Col. Owen Lloyd, 
of Henllys (see Lineage); ed. at Capt. 
Steel's, Bath, and at Foccy, France ; G.C., 
Magdalen Hall, Oxon. ; s. to the Nanty- 
gwilan estate, December, 1866. 

Residence: Abercery, Newcastle F.mlyn. 

Town Addresses: Conservative Club ; Militia 
and Yeomanry Club. 

Arms : Quarterly: 1st and 4th, az., a wolf sa- 
lient, arg., arjned and langued, gu. ; 2nd, arg., a 
chevron, inter three boars' heads, couped, sa., 
tusked, or, and langued, gu. ; 3rd, sa., a spear- 
head imbnied between the two uppermost of three 
scaling-ladders, arg., in chief, gu., a castle, triple- 
towered, of the second. 

Crest: A demi-wolf, as in the arms. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent paternally from 
the Welsh family of Davies by an heiress of the 
Hugheses of Faenog, and maternally from the mar- 
riage of Col. Owen Lloyd of Henllys with Elizabeth, 
the heiress of the Lloyds of Abertrinant, whose mo- 
ther was the Hon. Elizabeth Vaughan, only sister 
to Wilmot, 4th Viscount and 1st Earl of Lisburne, 
of Crosswood, Cardiganshire, and to Major-Gene- 
ral Sir John Vaughan, C.B., Governor of Berwick, 
and Commander-in-Chief in the West Indies, who 
a. s. p. in 1793-4. 

Owen Vychan of Henllys (vide " Cartas Antiquas 
apud Bronivydd" 24 Henry VI.) m. Gwenllian, 
dau. of Jevan ab Griffith ab Madoc (Ar., a lion 
ramp, in an orle of roses, or), and had a son, Rhys 
Owen of Henllys, who by his wife Jane, dau. of 
Owen Elliott of Eareware (az., a fesse, gu., bet. 
two double cotises, wavy, arg. ), had issue William 
Owen of Henllys, Lord of Cemaes, who m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Sir George Herbert of Swansea, Kt., 
elder brother to Sir William Herbert, Earl of Pem- 
broke. His son, 

George Owen of Henllys, Lord of Cemaes, the 
well-known antiquary, m. Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. 
of William Philipps, of Picton, by his wife Jane, 
dau. of Sir Thomas Perrot of Carew Castle, and 
had a son, Alban Owen of Henllys, Lord of 
Cemaes (1591), whose wife was Jane, dau. of Wil- 
liam Bradshaw, of St. Dogmael's. His son, David 
Owen of Henllys, Lord of Cemaes, m. Anne, dau. 
of Robert Corbett of Ynys y Maen-gwyn (or, a 
raven, sa. ), and had issue William and Ann. 

William Owen of Henllys (ob.i"j2\) was m., but 
his issue became extinct in the person of his only son, 
William, who d. an infant. Ann Owen, his sister 
and co-h., m. Thomas Lloyd, second son of Jona- 
than Lloyd, Esq. (by Margaret, his wife, dau. to 
Edward Vaughan of Crosswood, ancestor of the Earl 
of Lisbume), second son of Sir Walter Lloyd of 
Llanfair Clydogau, Kt.,and had issue 

William Lloyd, Esq., of Henllys and Pomped- 
wast, co. Pembroke, only son. He m. Joan, dau. 
of Owen Ford, Esq., of Bury, co. of Pembroke (ob. 
1772), and had issue Anne Lloyd, his heiress. She 
m. Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, co. Card., 
and had issue two sons ; the elder, Col. Thomas 



Lloyd, Lord of Cemaes, was of Bronwydd, and 
grandfather of the present Sir Thomas Davies 
Lloyd of Bronwydd, Bart., and Lord of Cemaes. 

The younger son, Col. Owen Lloyd, m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. and ultimately heir of Thomas Lloyd, 
Esq., of Abertrinant, co. of Card., by his wife (b. 
1766), the Hon. Elizabeth Vaughan, only sister of 
Wilmot, fourth Viscount and first Earl of Lisburne, 
and had, with other issue, a dau. , 

Elizabeth, who m. Thomas Davies, Esq., of 
Nantygwilan. The issue of this marriage are, 

1. THOMAS HUGHES FORD DAVIES (as above). 

2. Ellen Lloyd DavieS. 

Note. The Lloyds of Henllys, the maternal ances- 
tors of Mr. T. H. Ford Davies, being a younger 
branch of the ancient family of Bronwydd, derived 
from Tudwal Gloff, fifth son of Rhodri Mawr, King 
of all Wales ; the Lord Marchers of Cemaes and 
the Lloyds of Abertrinant were the same sept or tribe 
as those of Coedmore, descended from Cadwgan ab 
Elystan Glodrydd, founder of the fourth royal tribe of 
Cambria. 

DAVIES, William John, Esq., of Ty-Slyn, 
Cardiganshire. 

Is son of Alban Thomas Davies, late 
Captain in the H. E. I. C. S. 57th Regt. 
Bengal N. I. ; b. at M'how, in Malwar, E. 
I., Dec. Qth, 1832 ; ed. at the Cheltenham 
Proprietary College ; m., 1863, Florence 
A. Gadsden ; and has issue three sons ; s. 
to the Ty-Glyn estate upon the death of his 
brother, Alban Thomas Davies, jun., in 
1870. 

Heir : Frank Gadsden Davies. 

Residence: Ty-Glyn, Ciliau Aeron, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Arms : Az. a chev. between 2 fleurs-de-lis in 
chief; in base a lion rampant. 

Motto: Conabimur. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from Cadifor ap 
Dinawal, Lord of Gilfachwen and Castell Howel, 
Its descent is traced through the families of the 
Lords of Towyn an estate now attached to 
Ty-glyn and of the " Parrys " of St. Dogmael's 
and of Noyadd Trefawr. The union of the two 
houses took place at the commencement of the 
last century. The last member of the Parry family 
was Jane, who was married to Henry Jones, Esq. 
(High Sheriff for the co. Cardigan 1780). The 
Jones family of Ty-glyn had as last representative, 
Susannah, dau. of Henry Jones ; she married the 
Rev. Alban Thomas, of Newcastle Emlyn, a pre- 
decessor of the present family. (See also Gwynne, 
Monachty. ) 
Note. The mansion of Ty-Glyn is ancient. An 

engraving of it, with description, will be found on 

p. 131. 

EVANS, Major Herbert Davies, of Eighmead, 
Cardiganshire. 

J. P. for the cos of Carmarthen and Car- 
digan ; High Sheriff for Cardiganshire 
1870; served in the Royal Navy, and as 
Lieut, in loth Prince of Wales's Royal 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



193 



Hussars ; Major of Carmarthen Volunteers ; 
is proprietor of the tithes of Llanwenog 
parish ; is son of Capt. Delme Seymour 
Davies, of Penlan, Carmarthenshire, Capt. 
in the Scotch Fusilier Guards ; and of Mary 
Anne Elizabeth, dau. of Capt. Watkin 
Evans, R.N., of Dolgadfan, Montgomery- 
shire ; b. at Highmead, Cardiganshire, iQth 
Feb., 1842; ed. privately;/?*., Sept., 1869, 
Mary Elinor Geraldine, dau. of the late 
D. Jones, Esq., M.t. for Carmarthenshire, 
by his wife Margaret Charlotte, eldest dau. 
of the late Sir George Campbell, Bart, of 
Edenwood, co. Fife, and has issue a son, 
Herbert (see Lineage); s. to estates of his 
great : uncle, Major Herbert Evans of High- 
mead, when he assumed the surname Evans 
in addition to his former name of Davies. 

Heir: His son, HERBERT EVANS, b. June 6, 
1870. 

Residence: Highmead, Llanybyther, Card. 

Town Address : Junior Carlton Club. 

Arms: i. Quarterly: 1st and 4th, arg. on a 
pile vert, a chevron or, betw. three spear-heads 
of the field ; 2nd and 3rd, paly of three, or and 
vert, three eagles displayed counterchanged 
DAVIES. 

2. Sa. a spear-head imbrued betw. three 
scaling-ladders, arg. ; on a chief, gu., a castle 
triple-towered prpr. EVANS. 

3. Quarterly : 1st and 4th, or, on a pile in 
pale, gu. betw. three fleurs de lis, az. three lions 
passant, guardant, of the field ; 2nd and 3rd, two 
wings joined in lure, or SEYMOUR. 

4. Sa. on a bend, cotised, arg. a rose inter 
two annulets, gu. CON WAY. 

Crests : A wolf rampant, arg. collared gutte, 
armed gu. EVANS. 

A lion rampant, or, ducally gorged and chained, 
semee, langued and aimed gu. DAVIES. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Evans of Highmead, which has 
intermarried with houses of noble rank, such as the 
Seymours (Marquess of Hertford), the Russells 
(5th Duke of Bedford), derive paternally from 
Davies of Penlan, Carmarthenshire ; maternally 
from the lines of Rhodri Mawr, through Cadifor ap 
Dinawal, Lord of Castell-Howel, whose arms they 
bear ; Edna-Main ap Brad-wen, founder of one of 
the fifteen noble tribes of N. Wales ; and Cadwgan, 
Lord of Talyllyn ; all which lines of descent are 
fully displayed in the following pedigree. 

The Highmead lineage is now for the first time 
made out and completed, and forms a reliable 
genealogical table. The editor is indebted to Major 
Evans for laborious search into old family deeds 
and other documents, without which it would be 
impossible to produce so authentic a pedigree. 

The arrangement is as follows : First, the pa- 
ternal descent from the DAVIES of Penlan ; second, 
the maternal descent on the paternal side from 
EVANS of Acheth ; third, the maternal descent 
through the three ancient lines of Cadifor, Ed- 
nowain, and Cadwgan, as terminating in three 
heiresses married into the Evans family. These 
last are represented under ABC respectively. 

Evan Davies, Esq., of Penlan (d. 1733), son of 



William Davies, Esq., m. Elizabeth (d. 1733), dau- 
of David Richard, Esq. , of Llanfynydd. 

William Davies, Esq., of Brynhafod, his son 
(d. 1729, at. 37), m. Elizabeth, dau. of Anthony 
Williams, Esq., of Brynhafod, co. of Carmarthen. 
Their son 

Evan Davies, Esq. (d. at Penlan, 1773, at. 49\ 
;;/. Jane, dau. of Griffith Philipps, Esq., M.P., of 
Cwmgwili, co. of Carm., and had issue William 
Griffith ; George, b. 1763, d. s.p.; Martha, d. 1763, 
an infant; John, b. 1764, d. s. p. ; Anne, b. 1766, 
m. Rev. Roberts; Jane, b. 1767; Grismond, 
d. 1778, at. 7. 

William Griffith Davies, Esq., of Penlan (d. 1814, 
cet. 52), m. Elizabeth, dau. of Lord R. Seymour 
(see Hertford), and had issue, 

1. Anne Gertrude Frances, who m. (1830) Rev. 
D. H. T. G. Williams, of Llwynhelig. 

2. Isabella Clarissa, who m. Lord Charles Rus- 
sell. 

3. Delme Seymour Davies, Esq. (d. May 8, 
1869), who m. Mary Anne Elizabeth Evans, and 
had issue, 

1. Emily, who m. Capt. William Savile, grand- 
son of the late Earl of Mexborough. 

2. HERBERT DAVIES EVANS, now of Highmead, 
assumed the surname Evans as above; m., Sept., 
1869, Mary Eleanor, dau. of the late David Jones, 
Esq., M.P., of Pantglas, co. of Carm., by his wife 
Margaret Charlotte, dau. of the late Sir George 
Campbell, Bart., of Edenwood, co. Fife, and niece 
of the late Lord Chief Justice Campbell (of the clan 
Campbell, whose head is the Duke of Argyll), and 
has issue 

Herbert, b. June 6, 1870. 

The maternal descent from Evans of Achdh is 
thus given : 

Thomas Evans, Esq., of Llanllawthog, Carm., 
;/;., 1555, Sara, eldest dau. of David Lloyd of Bryn- 
elen, co. Cardigan (see Dwnn, Her. Visit., i., 38). 
Her marriage portion was the house and land of 
Acheth-issa, Llansawel, Carm. His gr. gr. son, 
Thomas Evans, ;., 1629, Margaret Johnson, of 
Browood, Stafford, and had issue- 
Thomas Evans, of Acheth (d. 1677), who, by his 
wife Sara, had Daniel ; Catherine ; Elizabeth, 
b. 1688 ; and first son, Thomas Evans, of Browood, 
Stafford (d. 1721), whose son 

Thomas Evans, Esq., of Acheth, co. Carm. 
(High Sheriff of Carm. 1725 ; d. 1743, at. 53), 
m. Hester Williams, dau. and h. of John Wil- 
liams, Esq., of Abercothi, High Sheriff of co. 
Carm. 1681 (see High Sheriffs, co. Carm.). 

Note. Hester Williams was heiress to a large property 
in the Vale of Towy, which her husband seems to have 
spent. Her lineage is given under C, below. 

Thomas Evans had issue Jane, d. \ 770 ; James, 
M.A., Vicar of Carmarthen, d. 1752, at. 37 ; 
Folke, d. 1754, s.p.; Herbert, d. an infant; and 

JOHN EVANS, of Glantowy (d. 1757, ^.39), who 
m. Elizabeth Lloyd (d. 1765, eft. 43), dau. and h. 
of David Lloyd of Carmarthen. 

Note. Elizabeth Lloyd was the last of a younger 
branch of the Castell-Howel Lloyds, seated at Llanfechan. 
They seem to have sold much of their property ; and her 
father, David Lloyd, left Llanfechan, and settled at Car- 
digan. Eli7abeth, however, possessed several farms, on 
one of which the mansion of Highmead is built. For her 
lineage see A, below. 

John Evans, Esq., of Glantowy, had issue Thomas 
Lloyd Evans, who d. s. p. , and 

HERBERT EVANS, Esq., late of Highmead (d. 
1787,^. 43), High Sheriff of Cardiganshire 1782; 
built the mansion of Highmead, 1777, on his mo- 



194 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



ther's estate ; m. Anne Lewis, dau. of Watkin 
Lewis, M.A., of Penybenglog, and eventually sole 
representative of her family and h. of her brothers ; 
d. 1807, cet. 69. 

Note. Through Anne "Lewis there came to her husband, 
Herbert Evans, Esq., a property of some ^6,000 a year, 
in Glamorganshire, which she inherited after her brothers ; 
but it was so heavily encumbered that he sold it at once. 

HERBERT EVANS, Esq., of Highmead, had by 
his wife Anne a large family. Thomas, James, 
John, Mary Anne, all d. in infancy. 

John, a lieut. in the army, d. 1799, cet. 22, at 
St. Helena, on passage home from India. 

Herbert, an officer in the army, and major of 
Carmarthen militia, m. Elizabeth (d. 1848, cet. 73), 
widow of W. G. Davies, Esq., of Penlan, and dau. 
of Lord R. Seymour. No issue. 

Thomas, d. 1787, at. 12. Griffith. 

Jane m. John Vaughan, Esq., of Tylhvyd, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Elizabeth m. David Lloyd, Esq., of Alltyrodyn, 
Cardiganshire. 

Anne Margaretta (d. at. 42) m. Sir G. G. 
Williams, Bart., of Llwynywormwood, co. Car- 
marthen. 

Mary Anne m. Walter Rice, Esq., of Llwyn-y- 
brain, co. Carmarthen. 

WATKIN, Capt. R.N. (d. 1816), m. Elizabeth, 
h. of Dogadfan, Mont., and had issue Mary Anne 
Elizabeth, mother of the present MAJOR HERBERT 
DAVIES EVANS, of Highmead. 

The following is the descent of the forementioned 
heiresses, Elizabeth Lloyd, Anne Lewis, and Hester 
Williams : 

A. Rhodri Mawr, King of Wales. 

Tydwal Gloff, fourth son, 878. Arms : "Az., a wolf ramp., 
arg., armed and langued, gules." [Too early for such arms. 
ED.] M. Ellen, dau. of Aleth, King of Dyfed. 

Alser or Alan, Prince in Dyfed, nt. Gwladys, dau. of Rhun 
ap Ednowen, Prince of Tegeingl. "Arg., a chev. inter 3 
boars' heads, couped, sa." | Too early for such arms. ED.] 

Awlaff had a son, Eunydd, or Gwyn, Lord of Haverford- 
west, whose son, Dinawal ap Eunydd, was father of 

CADIVOR AP DINAWAL. Lord of Gilfach, Pantstrimon, and 
Castle Howel, given him by his father-in-law as his wife's 
portion ; he m. Catherine, dau. of the Lord Rhys ap Tewdwr. 

Rhydderch, eldest son, m. Jennet, dau. of Sir Aaron ab 
Rhys ab Bledri, Knight of the Sepulchre. 

Rhys ab Rhydderch >. Gwenllian, dau. of Llewellyn ab 
Owen, Lord of Iscoed Cerdin, and had three sons, Rhys 
Foel, David Foel, and Griffith Goch, of Bodrychan, who ?., 
i, Dyddgu, dau. of Thos. Llewelyn ap Rhys ab David of 
Caio, by whom he had Lleici ; and 2, Catherine, dau. of Sir 
Elidyr Ddu.'by whom he had Gwilim ab Griffith Goch (as 
to his marriage MSS. differ), whose son, 

Gwilim Llwyd, of Castle Howel, built the first mansion 
near that place ; m., i, Eva, dau. of Griffith Gethin ab 
Meredith Griffith Rhys Llewellyn, of Edwinsford ; 2, a dau. 
of Llewellyn ab Griffith y Gwyddel ab David ab Griffith 
Foel ; 3, a dau. of Gwrwared ab Gwilim, of Cemaes ; by first 
wife he had 

Lewelyn ab Gwilim Llwyd, who m., i, Llywelydd, dau. 
of Evan Trahaiarn ab Gwilym Llewelyn, of Caio ; 2, Lleici, 
dau. of Jeuan Llwyd ab Jeuan ab Griffith Hir, by whom he 
had, i, Evan Lloyd, who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Evan Griffith 
ab Einon ab David ab Griffith ab Rhys, of Blaencych ; and 2, 
David, who m. Lleici, dau. of Jeuan ab Jenkin Llwyd, of 
Llwyn Davydd, and had issue, besides 3 other sons, Jeuan, 
who m. Catherine, dau. of Jenkin ab Rhys ab David ; and 
Llewelyn Lloyd, of Castle Howel, who m., i, Lleici, dau. of 
Thomas ab Watkin, of Llanarth, and had issue, i, David 
Lloyd, "first M.P. for Cardiganshire," temp. Henry VIII., 
who m. Gwenllian, dau. of Howel John Tew, of Llansawel ; 
i, Hugh of Llanllyr, 1586, who m. Joan, dau. of Griffith ab 
Henry ab Evan Philip ab Rhydderch ; 3, John of Gwern- 
maccwy, who >. Gwenllian, dau. of Rhydderch Thomas 
Vychan of Cryngae ; and 4, 

Gwion Lloyd, of Llanfechan, living 1566, m. Gwenllian, 
dau. of Howel Jenkin Rees David Thomas, of " Blaentren," 
now part of Highmead estate. Gwion Lloyd had issue, with 
7 other sons and 4 daughters, 

David Lloyd, sheriff of co. Cardigan 1600, who m. Ellen, 
dau. of Lewis ab Sir James Williams, Kt., and besides several 
illegitimate children had z sons -Thomas, who d. s.p., and 

Jenkin Lloyd, of Llanfechan, sheriff of co. Cardigan 1616 



and 1640, who m. Maud, an illegitimate dau. of Evan 
Lloyd of Llandyssil, and had issue 

David Lloyd of Llanfechan (will dated 1666), who m. an 
illegitimate dau. of George Owen, Lord of Cemmes, and had 
issue, besides his eldest son, Jenkin Lloyd of Llanfechan 
(his name is inscribed on a bell at Llanwenog, dated 1667), 
who m. Catherine, dau. of Oliver Lloyd of Ffoesybleiddiau, 
and his third son, Griffith Lloyd of Pantypaldau, a second 
son, 

Edmond Lloyd of Rhydybont (which is now in the High- 
mead estate), who had 2 sons and I dau. : the eldest, Thomas, 
and the dau. Catherine, d. s. p. ; and the second son, David 
(ft. I3th March, 1752, (ft. 64), m. Margaret (d. 22nd Feb., 1776, 
at. 82), dau. of John Herbert of Court Henry, by whom he 
had a dau. 

ELIZABETH (d. 26th Nov., 1765, at. 43), the wife of JOHN- 
EVANS, of Acheth, aforesaid. 

B. Ednowen ap Bradwen ap Jenerch ap David Esgid 
Aur ap Owen ap Llewelyn aur-dorchog (one of the fifteen 
peers) m. a daughter of Cynan, son of Owain Gwynedd. 

Tydyr m. Elinor, dau. ofGronoap Eynon of Mathavarn 
(line of Gwyddno) ; Llewelyn ap Tydyr in. Jane, dau. of 

T* U r 1 1 T1 I . Tl 1 Tr -w. 



Syssilt, Lord of Aberayron. 

David Llwyd m. Jane, dau. of Jenkin ap Rhyderch, of 
Park (line of Gwaethvoed) ; Meredith ap Dd. Llwyd m. Jane, 
dau. of William ap Howel ap Llewelin ap Rhys (sable, a lion 
rampant, argent). 

David Llwyd m. Jenet, dau. of lorwerth ap Rhydderch 
ap Rhys Chwith ; Meredith m. Elhwy, dau. of Rhys Mere- 
dith ap Rhys, of Glyn Aeron (line of Tewdwr). 

David ap Meredith m. Eva, dau. of Rhys ap Hull Fawr ap 
Rhys ap David ap Howell Vychan ap Rhysfoel ap Cadivor, 
&c. 

Lewis David Meredith, of Abernant-Bychan, m. Joan, 
dau. of Rhys ap John ap Howel, to Elistan; David Lewis 
(3rd son of aforesaid), of Gernos, in Gwynionyth-is-Cerdin, 
m. Gwenllian, dau. of Thomas Parry (line of Gwyddno). 

John Lewis (3rd son of aforesaid), of Llysnewydd in Emlyn 
Uwch-Kych, m. Jenet, dau. of William Llwyd, of Glan- 
dewely ; Thomas Lewes (6th son of aforesaid), of Foesypom- 
pren, Pembroke, m. Lettice, dau. of John Parry, of Tredefaid. 

Thomas Lewis, of Tredefaid, in. Elinor, dau. of James 
Vaughan, of Gellygathog (? Gelligadrog) ; John Lewis m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Watkin Llwyd, of Wern, Llanarth. 

Watkin Lewis, M. A., of Penybenglog, m. Anne Williams, 
of Amblestone, Pembrokeshire, and had issue five children, 
of whom the eldest was 

ANNE, eventually sole heiress of her brothers (d. 1807, 
eft 69), who m. Herbert Evans, Esq., of Highmead. 

The others were i, John, who m. Miss Keene, and had a 
dau., Jane, who d. tmm.; 2, Sir Watkin, Kt., alderman of 
the city of London, who m. Rebecca Elinor Popkin, of 
Fforest, Glam , and had issue a dau., Justina Anne, who 
d.unm.; 3, Martha, who m., but d. s. p.; 4, Jane, who in. 
Sir G. Glyn, Bart., and had issue Richard, who d. s. p. 

C Cadwgan, Lord of Talyllyn, m. Margaret, dau. of the 
Lord Rhys, Prince of South Wales, who d. 1197 ; Rhydderch 
Ddu, Lord of Talyllyn, in. Lleucu, a dau. of Cadwgan ap 
Mordafrych, Lord of Kilycwm. 

Owen m. a dau. of Sir Owen ap Bledri ; Arod ap 
Owen, second son, m. Maud, dau. of Meredith ap Rhyd- 
derch ap Bledri ; Rhys ap Arod in. Joan, dau. of Gwilym 
ap Gwgan ; Griffith ap Rhys in. Margaret, dau. of Llewelyn 
Vaughan, of Sanghenydd ; Llewelyn ddu ap Griffith in. 
Jenett, dau. of David ap Meurig Goch. 

Gwilym ap Llywelyn, of Cayo, m. Gwladys, dau. of Philip 
ap Elidr ; David ap Gwilym m. Margaret, dau of Rhydderch 
ap Jenkin Llwyd ; Evan ap David in. Joan, dau. of William 
Llewelyn ddu. 

William ap Evan, of Cayo, m. Jenett, dau. of David ap 
Gwilym ; Evan ap William m. Jane, dau. of Rhys ap David, 
of Coedtren ; Llewelyn ap Evan in. a dau. of Howel ap 
Rhys ap Morgan ; William ap Llewelyn, of Llansawel, m. 
a dau. of Wm. Morris ap Einon, of Rhydodyn. 

John Williams, D.D., Dean of Bangor and Principal of 
Jesus Coll., Oxon., m. Joan, dau. of Sir Walter Price, Kt. 
of Newton ; James Williams m. Jane, dau. and heiress 
of George Jones, of Abercothy, High Sheriff of Carmarthen- 
shire 1664. 

John Williams, High Sheriff of Carmarthenshire 1681, 
in. Joyce, dau. of Richard Herbert, of Kerry, Montgomery- 
shire. His heiress, 

HESTER WILLIAMS, m., 1712 (d. 1749, aged 74), Thomas 
Evans, Esq., of Acheth, as already shown. John, no issue ; 
George m. Anne, dau. of Walter Jones, their dau. d. with- 
out issue ; James d. without issue ; Herbert d. at siege of 
Namur ; Jonathan d. 1764, no issue ; Jane, no issue ; Joyce, 
no issue. 

Note. The mansion of Highmead was built in the 
year 1777 by Herbert Evans, Esq., near the house of 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



195 



Lowmead (used by his father, John Evans, as a hunt- 
ing-lodge), on part of the Llanfechan" estate, which 
belonged to his mother ; the remainder of that pro- 
perty having been sold, was rebought thirty years 
since by the present owner's father, and is now part of 
the Highmead estate. 

There are three ancient encampments on this pro- 
perty, and in the grounds of Llanfechan a monu- 
mental stone with Latin inscription, also distinctly 
marked with Ogham characters (see pp. 137, 155). 

The family of Evans, as above observed, were for- 
merly possessed of large estates in the Vale of Towy, 
of which at present but one farm, Ty'n-y-ffordd, remains 
in their hands. Forming part of the Highmead estates 
are the following places, once occupied by families of 
respectability in Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire : 
Dolwlph, family of Jenkins, from Lloyd of Castell- 
Howel ; Bwlchmawr, family of Lloyd, a branch of the 
Fair-dref house; Gellyfraith, Lloyds, afterwards Philips, 
Tylwyth Saer y Cwm. 

EVANS, John, Esq., of Lovesgrove, Cardigan- 
shire. 

J. P. for the co. of Cardiganshire ; son of 
Griffith Evans, Esq., Tymawr, Merioneth- 
shire, and of Mary, dau. of John Jones, 
Esq., of Tavolwern, Montgomeryshire ; b. 
1803 ; ed. at Shrewsbury School ; m., 1830, 
Eliza, dau. of Lewis Pugh, Esq., of Aber- 
ystwyth, and has issue four sons and two 
daus. 

Heir: Rev. John Pugh Evans, Rector of Ef- 
enechtyd, Ruthin. 

Residence: Lovesgrove, Aberystwyth. 

Arms: On three snakes, nowed vert and or, 
a raven proper, collared or. 

Crest; A raven as in arms. 

Motto: Duwgeidw'r brain, " God provides for 
the ravens." 

LINEAGE. 

From Meurig, prince of Dyfed, was descended 
Lewis Owen, Esq., called "the Baron," Sheriff of 
Merionethshire 1546 and 1555, in which last year 
he was killed. He was the son of Owen ap Hywel, 
by Gwenhwyfar, dau. of Meyrick ap Ifan, tracing 
descent from Ednowen ap Brad-wen, founder of one 
of the fifteen tribes. He m. Margaret Puleston, 
who was of the ancient and honourable family of the 
Pulestons of Emral, amongst whom Sir Roger 
Puleston and Sir Richard Puleston, lieutenant to 
Edward I. in Wales, are names well known. Her 
father was Robert Puleston, M.A.. Rector of Gres- 
ford. 

John Lewis Owen, his son, Sheriff of Mer. 1566, 
I 573> I 59> m- Ursula, dau. of Richard Mytton, 
Lord of Mawddwy. In direct descent in the third 
generation was Lewis Owen, Esq., of Erwgoed, 
who, by his wife Jane Vaughan, had a dau., Ca- 
therine Owen, who m. Evan Jenkin, "the Bard," 
of Tymawr. His son, 

Griffith Evan, Esq., of Tymawr, m. Ann, dau. 
of Robert Jones, Esq., of Aber-llefeni, or Aberllif- 
feini, in Mer. ; and his son, 

Griffith Evans, Esq., also of Tymawr, m. Mary, 
dau. of John Jones, Esq., of Tafolwern, and had 
issue 

JOHN EVANS, now of Lovesgrove, as above, who 
by his wife Eliza had issue as under : 

I. John Pugh Evans, Clerk, Rector of Efenech- 
tvd. .- -, . . 



2. Lewis Pugh Pugh, Esq., J. P., &c. (see 
Pugh of Abermaide). 

3. Griffith Humphrey Pugh. 

4. David Pugh Jones. 

5. Elizabeth, m. to Rev. H. P. Edwards, of 
Caerleon, Mon. 

6. Mary Margaret. 

GWYNtfE, Alban Thomas Jones, Esq., of Mon- 
achty, Cai diganshire. 

Is the eldest and only surviving son of the 
late Alban Lewis Thomas Jones Gvvynne, 
capt. in the 62nd Regiment, of Monachty, 
by his wife Jane Crawshay, dau. of Craw- 
shay Bailey, Esq., of Llanfoist House, 
Abergavenny, formerly M.P. for the Mon- 
mouthshire boroughs ; b. at Monachty, 4th 
February, 1852; ed. at Harrow School; 
has sisters living, 

Gertrude Jane Gwynne, 

Agnes Gwynne, 

Edith Gwynne ; 
s. on the death of his father, 1865. 

Residence: Monachty, Ciliau Aeron, Card. 
Arms: Az., three stags' heads, proper, on a 
fesse a mullet. 

Motto : Conabimur. 

LINEAGE. 

The ancient family of Gwyn, of Monachty, traced 
their descent from Gronw G6ch, Lord of Llanga- 
then (Dale Castle MS., ed. Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
Bart.). Gruffydd in the seventh descent was of Cil- 
gwyn. His son Lewis had a grandson of the same 
name, and he a son, 

Morgan Gwyn of Monachty (Sheriff of the co. 
of Cardigan 1613), who m. a dau. of Rhys Gwyn, 
of Monachty, and came thither to live. His grand- 
son, 

Lewis Gwyn of Monachty, living 1704, Sheriff 
of the co. of Cardigan 1702, in. Mary, dau. of 
John Prys of Rhanclir. The youngest of five sons, 
Charles, alone surviving (Sheriff of co. of Cardigan 
1744), m. Bridget, dau. of John Jones, Esq., of 
Tyglyn (Sheriff for the co. of Cardigan 1728), by 
whom he had several children, sons and daughters, 
who all d. s. p. , and the estate was devised by will 
of his last surviving son (d. 1805) to the mother's 
family of Tyglyn for the term of the natural life of 
the then representative, 

' The Rev. Alban Thomas, of Newcastle Emlyn, 
who assumed the name Jones on marrying his 
cousin Susannah Maria Jones, h. of Tyglyn. On 
their death the estates passed by will to her hus- 
band's son by a former wife, 

ALBAN THOMAS JONES, who added to his own 
the name GWYNNE, thus restoring the name Gwynne 
to Monachty, and founding the second and present 
family of Gwynnes. By his wife, Anne Vevers, a 
lady of Herefordshire, he had several sons and 
daus., the eldest son and heir being the late 

ALBAN LEWIS THOMAS JONES GWYNNE, Esq., 
J. P. and D. L. of Monachty, as above. Other 
sons were Edward Henry, in holy orders, of Ft. 
John's Coll., Cambr., B.A. 1839 ; and William 
Cust, M.D., both surviving. 

Note. For a notice of Monachty, with illustration, 
see p. 132. 



196 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



HEYWAKD, John Eeyward, Esq., of Cil- 
bronnau, Cardiganshire, and Crosswood, 
Mont. 

Is a Barrister at-law ; M.A. ; Major in the 
Royal Montgomeryshire Militia ; J. P. and 
D. L. of the said co. ; High Sheriff of 
Montgomeryshire in 1861 ; in the Com- 
mission of the Peace for the co. of Cardigan. 
He assumed the surname of Heyward in 
lieu of Jenkins in 1854; b. 4th March, 
1824; the only son of the late Rev. John - 
Jenkins, M.A., Vicar of Kerry, Mont- 
gomeryshire, Prebendary of York and 
Brecon, and J. P. for the co. of Mont- 
gomery, by Elizabeth his wife, third dau. 
of the Rev. Edward Jones, Vicar of Berriew, 
Montgomeryshire, and niece of the late 
Edward Heyward, Esq., of Crosswood, 
aforesaid. 

He inherited Cilbronnau after the death 
of his said father, and #2., June i4th, 1860, 

Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late John 
Jones, Esq., of Deuthyr, Montgomeryshire, 
by Martha, dau. and co-h. of Rice Pryce, 
Esq., of Rhosbrynbwa. 

Residences: Cilbronnau, Cardigan ; Crosswood, 
Mont. 

Arms: Quarterly: ist and 4th, argent, on a 
cross sa., 5 crescents or; in the dexter canton a 
spear's head erect, gules for Sir Griffith ap 
Elydur Goch : 2nd and 3rd quarterly, 1st and 
4th argent, 3 boars' heads, cabossed, sa. for 
Cadwgan : 2nd and 3rd gu., a lion rampant, re- 
gardant, or, for Elystan Glodrydd - for JENKINS. 

Crest: A dexter arm, embowed, holding a 
club, all proper. 

Motto: Da yw ffon amddiffyniad. 

LINEAGE. 

The ancestors of this family in the female line 
have for several centuries owned Cilbronnau. In 
1583 Rhydderch ap Meredydd of Cilbronnau, the 
grandson of Daydd Ddu ap Dafydd ap Jeuan of 
Llwyndafydd, Cardiganshire, descended in direct 
male line from Tudwal Gloff, Lord of Uchel 
Gwenydd, son of Rhodri mawr, King of Wales, who 
purchased several farms in the vicinity. His grand- 
son, Griffith ap Dafydd ap Rhydderch, m. Mar- 
garetta, dau. of Jenkyn ap Thomas of Pantyrlis. 
His granddau., Ellen, and heiress of her father, 
Jenkyn ap Griffith, m., in 1700, Griffith Jenkins of 
Duffryn, Aberporth. 

Elystan Glodrydd, A.D. 933, the son of Cyhylyn, 
Lord of Builth and Melinydd, deduced from Cad- 
waladr Wenwynwyn, A.D. 676 to 703. His mother 
was the Lady Rhiengar, dau. and heiress of Gromvy, 
eldest son of Tudor Trerdr, Earl of Whittington, 
Chirk, Oswestry, &c., founder of the tribe of 
the Marches, lineally descended from Cadell Deyrn- 
llwg, King of Powys, A.D. 447. Elystan was 
". about A.D. 933, and was named, it is said, after 
King Athelstan, his godfather ; the appellation of 
' Glodrydd illustrious he acquired by his personal 
achievements. He m. Gwenllian, dau. of Einon 
ap Howel Dda, King of Wales. He was slain in 
a broil about 1010 at Cefnddugoll, Montgomery- 



shire. Elystan was the founder of the fourth royal 
tribe. 

Cadwgan, eldest son of Elystan, 1035, was Lord 
of Melienydd. He m. Joan, dau. of Brochwel ap 
Aeddan ap Blegored. 

Idnerth ap Cadwgan, second son, 1080, m. 
Gwenllian, dau. and h. of lorwerth (slain A.D. 1109) 
ap Bleddyn, King of Powys from A.D. 1068 1073. 

Gwrgeneu ap Idnerth, 1120, m., and had issue. 

Gwrgeneu Vychan m. Ellen, dau. and co-h. of 
Rhys ap Aaron, Lord of Llangathan. 

Elydur Goch, Lord of Llangathan, 1200, m. a 
dau. of Trahaiarn of Rhyd-odwen, descended from 
Idio Wyllt, Lord of Llywel and Earl of Desmond, 
d. 1090, son of Sutrick, King of Dublin (A.D. 1036), 
by Nest, dau. of Tudor Mawr. 

Sir Griffith ap Elydur, 1240, m. Gwenllian, the 
dau. of Rhys Vychan ap Rhys Grug ap the Lord 
Rhys, Prince of South Wales. 

Owen ap Sir Griffith, 1270, was Esquire of the 
body to King Henry III. He ;;/. Joan, dau. of 
Evan ap Rhys ap Llawdden, third in descent from 
Edwyn, Lord of Tegeingl. 

Llewelyn Ddu ap Owen, 1320, m. Elinor, dau. 
of Gwilym ap Gwrwared ap Gwilym of Cemaes, by 
Gwenllian, dau. of David Moethe ap Griffith Voel, 
from Gwaithvoed, Lord of Ceredigion. 

Llewelyn Voethus, Lord of Llangathen 1360, 
m. Margaret, dau. of Evan of Kilsant ap Madoc. 

Griffith ap Llewelyn Voethus, 1400, m. Gwen- 
llian, dau. of Rhydderch of Gogerthan, son of 
Jeuan Llwyd of Glyriaeron, from Griffith Voel. 

Rhys ap Griffith, 1440, m. Elizabeth, dau. of 
the second Sir William Clement of Caron, Card. 

Rhudderch ap Rhys, 1475, m - Lleiky, dau. of 
Walter ap Jeuan ap Llewelyn of Penllwyn-du. 

Jeuan, second son of Rhudderch, 1510, called 
Jeuan Gwyn, m. Elen, dau. and heiress of Morgan 
ap Gwilym of Gelli-cwm, Carm., descended from 
Rhodri Mawr. 

David, second son of Jeuan, 1535, m. Catherine, 
dau. of Rhys ap David Lloyd of Neuadd Trevawr. 

John ap David, 1560, m. Maud, dau. of William 
ap David ap Rhys of Llanvynydd. 

Griffith apjohn, 1585, m. Jane, dau. of Griffith, 
brother of David Rosser of Allt-y-Bwla. 

Thomas ap Griffith, 1608, m. Crisley, dau. and 
heiress of Jenkin Lloyd of Rhos-y-Gilwen ap 
Thomas Lloyd ap Jenkin Lloyd of Clynfiew, ap 
Owen of Pencelly in Cenarth, grandson of Jenkin 
Lloyd of Cemaes, who m. Eva, dau. and h. of 
Meredydd ap Thomas of Trefgarn, ap Llewelyn, 
called "the last Lord of South Wales" (from the 
Lord Rhys), who m. the Lady Eleanor, granddau. 
of Edward I. Thomas settled at Pantyrlys in the 
parish of Llandigwydd, Card., which he purchased 
from the elder branch of the family. 

Jenkyn ap Thomas of Pantyrlys, 1624, m. a dau. 
and co.-h. of John ap Rhudderch of Penwenallt. 

Griffith, second son of Jenkin, 1649, settled at 
Dyffryn, Blaenporth, Card., which he purchased, 
as also, A.D. 1649, Penrallt, Aberporth, Card. 

Jenkin ap Griffith of Dyffryn, 1675, m. Maud, 
dau. of John ap David of Pant ir. 

Griffith Jenkins, eldest son, /., A.D. 1700, Ellen, 
dau. and h. of Jenkin ap Griffith ap David ap 
Rhudderch of Cilbronnau, ap Meredydd, descended 
from Tudwal Gloff, through David Ddu of Llwyn 
Davydd, Card. 

Jonathan, eldest son of Griffith Jenkins (d. 17/0), 
m., in 1/38, Elizabeth, dau. of John Lewes, Esq., of 
Tredefed, Pemb. 

Griffith, only son of Jonathan (d. 1781), m. 
Mary s dau. of John Morris of Bach-hendre, in the 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



197 



parish of Llanvihangel Penbedw, Pemb. (see Tre- 
vijiri], and had issue five sons : 

1. John, M.A., Vicar of Kerry, Montg., ;. Elizabeth, 
dau. of the Rev. Edward Jones of Berriew, Mont, (see 
Crosswood). 

2. Jonathan, m. Adeliza, dau. of Major Gower, and had 
issue. 

3. Thomas, a Commander in the Hon. E. I. Co.'s Maritime 
Service, of Penrallt, Aberporth, co. Cardigan, tit. Jane, dau. 
of Thomas Morris, Esq., of Bach-hendre and Trevigin, 
Monnington, Pemb., and had issue (see Penrallt). 

4. Jeremiah, M.D., Surgeon in the Royal Navy, in. Eliza, 
dau. of Yonge, Esq., of Caynton Hall, and had issue. 

5. Griffith, m. Ann, dau. and co-heiress of Richard Jones, 
Esq., of Pantirion, St. Dogmael's, Pemb., and had issue (see 
Pantirion). 

JENKINS, Lieut-Col. Alexander, of Peu'rallt, 
Cardiganshire. 

Is Lieut.-Col. in the Madras Staff Corps ; 
son of the late Capt. Thomas Jenkins of 
Penrallt (of whom see below); s. by devise 
on the death of his father in 1853 ; m. 
Mary, dau. of General Pinson, of the 
Madras Army, and has issue 

Thomas Griffith Morris. 

William Morris. 

Agnes. 

Malcolm. 

John Elington, 

Alexander Cadwgan. 

Residence: Pen'rallt, Cardigan. 
Arms: (For Arms and Crest, see Trevigin, 
Pemb). 

I.TNEAGE. 

For general Lineage, see Cilbronnau, Pembroke- 
shire. 

The portion of the genealogy pertaining to Pen- 
*rallt is as follows : 

CAPTAIN THOMAS JENKINS was the third son 
of GRIFFITH JENKINS, Esq., of CMrottnau, by 
Mary his wife, dau. of John Morris, Esq., of Bach- 
hendre, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Penbedw, 
Pemb. He entered the Maritime Service of the 
H. E. I. C. at an early age, and served with 
considerable distinction during the war. He m., in 
1806, Jane, only dau. of Thomas Morris, Esq., of 
Bach-hendre and Trevigin, and had issue 5 sons 
and 5 daughters : 

1. THOMAS ASKWITH, a Major, late of the 
Madras Army. (See Trevigin, Pemb.) 

2. GRIFFITH, a Captain in the late Indian 
Navy, and a Companion of the Bath ; he m. Jane, 
youngest dau. of John Jones, Esq., of Deythur, 
Montgomeryshire. 

3. JOHN JAMES, a Major-General, H.M. Indian 
Army. 

4. ALEXANDER, as above. 

5. JAMES, in Holy Orders, Vicar of Blakesley, 
dio. Peterborough, Northamptonshire. He m. 
Ellen Kathleen, dau. of C. J. Woods, Esq., of 
Godmanchester, and has issue 

Griffith Wight, and 

Constance Kathleen. 

The daus. : i. Jane, m. to J. Reid, Esq. 2. Hannah 
Mary. 3. Ellen, d. s. p. 4. Anne, m. to the Rev. John 
Williams, and had issue. 5. Elizabeth, d. s. p. 

Note. The house was built in 1814 -by the late 
Captain Thomas Jenkins ; it commands an extensive 
view of the coast of Cardigan Bay, and mountains 
of North Wales. The property, however, was purchased, 
as the family records show, in 1649, by an ancestor, 
Griffith Jenkins, of Dyffryn Blaenporth, co. Card., 
second son of Jenkin ap Thomas, of Pantyrlis, in the 
parish of Llandigwydd, co. Card. 



JONES, John Inglis, Esq., of Derry Ormond, 

Cardiganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for co. of Cardigan; served 
in the Royal Dragoons and Royal Horse 
Guards ; is now in the Gloucestershire 
Hussars ; son of J. I. Jones, Esq., and 
Charlotte Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Jes- 
son, Esq., of Hill Park, in the co. of Kent ; 
b. 1 5th July, 1829, at 44, Portland Place, 
London ; ed. at Rugby and Christ Church, 
Oxford; m., i6th Aug., 1860, Lady Eliza- 
beth Mallet Vaughan, eldest dau. of the 
Earl of Lisburne ; s. 1835 ; has issue two 
sons and one dau. (See further, Lineage, 
below.) 

Heir: Herbert Inglis. 
Residence: Derry Ormond, Cardiganshire. 
Town Address : 7, Wimpole Street, Cavendish 
Square. 

Arms: Arg., a chevron between three boars' 
heads, couped, sa, 

Atolto : Mur fydd cydwybod Ian, "A pure 
conscience a wall of defence. " 

LINEAGE. 

Ednowain Bendew, Lord of Tegeingl, founder of 
one of the fifteen noble tribes of North Wales, bore, 
arg., a chevron between three boars' heads, couped, 
sa. He lived A.D. 1079. From him are descended 
" the Bethels and the Hanmers," and many other 
chief families, and in direct line the Joneses of 
Sandford. Of these last, 

Thomas Jones, son of Richard, m. Margaret 
Lloyd, and in 1672, leaving the county of Denbigh, 
settled in Cardiganshire. He had one son, who m. 
Anne Morgan, and by her had a dau., Anne, who 
d., and Richard Jones, who m. Elizabeth Lloyd ; 
they had one son, 

John Jones, who m., 1761, Hannah Smith, dau. and 
h. of Andrew Smith, Esq., of Gustove House, Herts, 
and by her had John and Richard, who died when 
at Cambridge ; Hannah, who m. Rhys Powell of 
Craigynos Castle, in the co. of Brecon ; Elizabeth, 
who m. Rev. Richard Board, of Pax Hill, Sussex ; 
Catherine, who m. Sir Astley Paston Cooper, Bart. ; 
Henrietta, who m. James Paterson, Esq., of Stir- 
ling. His third son and heir, 

JOHN JONES, m. Charlotte Elizabeth Jesson, by 
whom he had one son and three daus., 

JOHN INGLIS (as above). 

Isabella Catherine m. Robert Emilius Wilson, 
Esq., ofKnowle, Warwick; d. 1857. 

Charlotte Seymour m. Edmund Probyn, Esq., of 
Longhope, Gloucester, and has issue. 

Eugenia Elizabeth m. William Hawker, Esq., of 
Ashford, Hants, and has issue. 

J. INGLIS JONES, now of Derry Ormond, Esq., 
has issue 

1. HERBERT INGLIS, b. 1865. 

2. Wilmot Inglis. 

3. Mary Gwendolen Inglis. 

Note. The name of this mansion is doubtless de- 
rived from deri, "oaks," and means Ormond 's 
Oaks. The house (see engraving, p. 135) was 
rebuilt in 1822 by Cockerell ; architecture, Grecian. 
St. David's Tower, at Derry Ormond, is 200 feet in 
height. On the estates are Fort Farm ; ancient Roman 
camp in the parish of Llanfair ; Godregarth, site of 
one of the earliest monastic houses before the time of 
St. David ; Brynmarn Draidical remains. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



JONES, Thomas, Esq., of Aberystwyth, Car- 
diganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Cardi- 
gan ; has been several times Mayor of 
Aberystwyth ; an alderman ; a Commis- 
sioner of the town of Aberystwyth ; was for 
many years shipowner and merchant ; son 
of the late Thomas Jones, Esq., of Aberyst- 
wyth ; b. 1803; ed. at Aberystwyth and 
Liverpool Schools; ;//., 1827, Anne, dau. 
of David Jenkins, Esq., and has surviving 
issue 2 sons and 6 daus. 

Residence: I, Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth. 

JONES, William, Esq., of Glandenys, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Is a J. P. for cos. Carmarthen and Car- 
digan, and D. L. for the latter county, 
of which he served the office of High 
Sheriff in 1860; is Lord of the Hanoi of 
Cellan, and joint patron with the Hon. G. 
Vaughan of the livings of Llanfair Clydo- 
gau, and Llangibby (Llan-Gybi); son of the 
late John Jones, Esq., of Blaenos, Car- 
marthenshire, by Mary, his wife, dau. of 
William Jones, Esq., of Ystradwalter, in 
the same co. ; b. at Llwynyberllan, near 
Llandovery, the ancient residence of the 
Williamses, his maternal ancestors ; ed. at 
Shrewsbury School, and Wadham College, 
Oxford ; is unm. 

Heir presumptive: J. Jones, Esq., M.P., 
Blaenos. his brother. 

Residences : Glandenys, and Plas Llanfair, near 
Lampeter. 

Arms : Gu. a chevron arg., thereon a falcon, 
ppr., between 3 stags' heads, erased, of the 
second. 

Crest : A bull's head bezante. 

Motto : Da ei ffydd, " Of good faith." 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives from the same origin as the 
family of Pantglas and Blaenos, in the county of 
Carmarthen. David Jones, Esq., of the former 
place, was M.P. for the co. of Carmarthen for the 
space of nearly twenty years, and resigned his seat 
in 1868. John Jones, Esq., of the latter place, was 
chosen to succeed him, and is the present represen- 
tative (1872). (See Jones, Blaenos.) 

At Llwynyberllan, the home of Mr. Jones's 

maternal ancestors, and where he himself was b., 

nine representatives of the name of John lived in 

succession, the last of whom d. s. p. ; the property 

vas inherited by his brother. Col. Williams of 

Henllys. A cadet of this family was the founder 

of the Williamses of Castle Hill, co. of Cardigan. 

Note. Among distinguished members of this family 

in past time was the above-named Col. Williams, of 

Henllys, near Llandovery, who distinguished himself 

in India during the governorship of Warren Hastings, 

who was his personal friend ; and he assisted in paying 

the law costs when Hastings was prosecuted by Mr. 

Burke and other members of the House of Commons. 

Ruins of Ancient Cromlechs, &. The Gaer 



is on the farm of Gellydewi-ucha, in the parish of 
Pencarreg, Carmarthenshire ; and in this manor of 
Cellan on the mountains are to be seen vestiges of 
the Roman road from Llanio, or Loventium, lead- 
ing through Cayo to Llanfair-ar-y-Bryn, near 
Llandovery ; on a circular tumulus is the immense 
stone called Llech Cynon ; there are cistvaens, crom- 
lechs, an entrenchment called Gaer Marys, and 
an encampment called Lluest Cadwgan. There is 
likewise upon the estate of Llanfair, in the adjoin- 
ing parish, a valuable mine consisting of silver and 
lead ore, supposed to be one of the richest in the 
county, which in the year 1806 was worked by Mr. 
Jones's uncle, Mr. Williams, of Llwynyberllan. 

JONES, William, Esq., of Llwyn-y-Groe?, Car- 
diganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for Cardiganshire ; Com- 
missioner of Income Tax ; Chairman of the 
Board of Guardians, Lampeter, for fourteen 
years up to 1870; son of William Jones, Esq., 
of Hafodau, Llanbadarnfawr, Cardiganshire; 
b. at Hafodau, 1828 ; ed. at the Liverpool 
College; m., June, 1854, Margaret Jones 
Hughes, dau. of Thomas Hughes, Esq., 
D. L , of Neuadd-fawr, Lampeter ; s. 1840; 
has issue 7 sons and 2 daus. 

Heir : William Hughes Jones. 

Residence: Llwyn-y-Groes, Lampeter. 
Note. This family has been resident at Hafodau 
since early in the sixteenth century. 

JONES, Archd. William Basil, of Gwynfryn, 
Cardiganshire. 

Archdeacon and Prebendary of York ; 
Vicar and Rural Dean of Bishopthorpe, 
co. York ; Examining Chaplain to the 
Archbishop of York ; J. P. of co. Cardigan ; 
formerly Fellow and Tutor of University 
College, Oxford; Proctor, Examiner in 
Theology, Classical Moderator, and Select 
Preacher in that university ; and sometime 
Prebendary of St. David's. Author of 
"Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd" 
(1851), "The History and Antiquities of 
St. David's " (jointly with E. A. Freeman, 
Esq.), (1856,) "Notes on the GEdipus Ty- 
rannus of Sophocles" (1862), The New 
Testament, illustrated, with a Plain Ex- 
planatory Commentary for Private Read- 
ing (jointly with Archdeacon Churton), 
(1865,) "The Peace of God," "Sermons 
on the Reconciliation of God and Man " 
(1869), various Pamphlets, Papers, Ser- 
mons, and Charges. Son of the late 
William Tilsley Jones, Esq., J. P. and D. 
L. co. Cardigan, and High Sheriff of that 
county 1838, by his first wife, Jane, dau. 
of the late Henry Tickell, Esq., of Leyton- 
stone, co. Essex; b. at Cheltenham, 1822 ; 
ed. at Shrewsbury School, and Trinity 
College, Oxford ; giad. B.A. 1844, M.A. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



159 



1847 j m -> T 856, Frances Charlotte, dau. 
of the late Rev. Samuel Holworthy, M.A., 
Vicar of Croxall, co. Derby ; s. to estates 
on decease of his father, 1861. Patr. of 
living of Mexbrough, near Rotherham, 
Yorkshire. 

Heir : His half-brother, Everard Whiting 
Jones. 

Residence: Gwynfryn, near Aberystwyth. 

Arms: Argent, a cross-fiery sable, between 4 
Cornish choughs, proper. 

Crest : A demi-lion rampant, proper. 

Motto : Mors mihi lucrum. 

LINEAGE. 

The descent of the family since the latter part of 
the seventeenth century will be found in Burke's 
Diet, of the Landed Gentry, ed. 5 (1871), vol. i., 
p. 711. 

William Jones (gr. gr. grandfather of the present 
proprietor) m., circa 1720, a dau. of Thomas 
Griffith, Esq., of Penpompren, co. Cardigan, 
of an ancient family which was settled at that place 
for many generations. The family is now repre- 
sented by Boscawen Trevor Griffith, Esq., of 
Trevalyn Hall, co. Denbigh. His son, 

William Jones, m., 1749, Jane, younger dau. and 
co-h. of Evan Watkin, Gent., of Kynnillmawr, co. 
Cardigan. Her elder sister and co-h. .;., and 
carried the estate of Kynnillmawr to Hughes, of 
Castell-du, in the same county, and is now repre- 
sented by T. Hughes, Esq., of Noyadd and Castell- 
du. His son (the grandfather of the present pro- 
prietor), 

William Jones, ;#., 1780, Mary, dau. of the Rev. 
William Tilsley, of Llwydcoed, co. Montgomery, 
Vicar of Llandinam and Rector of Penstrowed in 
that county (of a family settled for some generations 
at Llwydcoed, but claiming descent from the dis- 
tinguished Royalist Sir Thomas Tyldesley, of 
Tyldesley, co. Lancaster), by his wife, a dau. of D. 
Parry, of Caerfallwch, co. Flint, of an ancient 
family which became extinct on the death of her 
brother, Captain Parry. 

A part of the estate, now reclaimed from the tide, 
was included in 'the Traeth Maelgwn, the scene of 
the legendary election of Maelgwn Gwynedd to the 
chief sovereignty of Wales in the middle of the 
sixth century. The parish church of Llangynfelyn, 
which stands almost within the grounds of Gwyn- 
fryn, was founded in the same century by Cynfelyn 
(of the race of Cunedda Wledig), who is said to 
have lived as a hermit on Ynys Cynfelyn, on which 
the mansion stands, and which is chiefly included in 
the estate. There is also the site (with foundations) of 
an ancient chapel long disused on a farm belonging 
to the estate, in the parish of Llanbadarnfawr. 

The present mansion-house of Gwynfryn was 
built by the late Captain Jones in 1814. It occu- 
pies the summit of a low, isolated hill, called Ynys 
Cynfelyn (in the parish of Llangynfelyn, co. Car- 
digan), rising out of the great plain of Cors Fochno. 
The house commands a magnificent view over the 
vale of the Dyfi, and the mountains of Merioneth- 
shire and Cardiganshire. 



JONES-PAKBY, Capt. Sidney 
Tyllwyd, Cardiganshire. 



of 



Henry, 
Late Captain in the 84th Regiment ; J. P. 



for Cardiganshire; High Sheriff 1871 ; 
served in the Burmese war in 1852, in 
the Crimean war, and during the Indian 
mutiny, including the two reliefs and cap- 
ture of Lucknow ; is son of Capt. Jones- 
Parry, R.N., and J. P. and D. L. for co. 
of Denbigh, of Llwyn Onn, Denbighshire, 
and Aberdunant, Carnarvonshire, by his 
wife Margaret, only child of Vice-Admiral 
Lloyd of Tregaian, Anglesey ; b. at Car- 
narvon, 28th April, 1830; ed. at Royal 
Naval School, New Cross; m., loth 
August, 1857, Dorothea Anna, only child 
of Charles Arthur Prichard, Esq., of 
Tyllwyd, and gr. dau. of the late Col. 
Vaughan of Brynog, co. Cardigan. By 
this marriage two distant branches of one 
ancient family were reunited. Has issue 
i son and 3 daughters. 

Heir: Charles Arthur Jones-Parry (his son). 
Residences: Tyllwyd, Newcastle Emlyn. 
Town Address:. Junior United Service Club. 
Arms : Vide Madryn and Llwyn- Onn. 
Crest : Demi-lion rampant, or, on cap of main- 
tenance, a horse's head, sa. 

Motto : Gofal dyn Duw a'i gwerid. 

LINEAGE. 

This family is amongst the most ancient in 
Wales, and traces its honourable descent with as 
much certainty as any of the Derbys or Percys. 
The full pedigree will be found under "Jones-Parry, 
Madryn. 

Mrs. Jones-Parry of Tyllwyd represents the 
Prichards of the Craig, Monmouthshire, and John 
and Griffith Jones of Cardigan, after whom she 
inherits estates in the cos. of Carmarthen and 
Cardigan. Tyllwyd was bought from the Vaughans 
of Greengrove and Brynog. 

Note. Capt. Jones-Parry is not a sound believer in 
"Welsh pedigrees ;" but he admits his descent from 
"our common ancestor, Adam" an origin far too 
recent to satisfy some of our modern men of science. 
Whether the Welsh have come from Adam is a ques- 
tion settled in the shortest way by the " bards," who 
have learned from the Awen that Adam spoke the 
pure Cymraeg. On the whole, we rather trust to the 
matter-of-fact, though prosaic way of proving descent 
step by step, by means of carefully compiled pedigrees ; 
and our confidence in the general fidelity of the chief 
genealogical documents of Wales has of late, through 
careful examination, been confirmed. ED. 

LASCELLES, Rowley, Esq., of Pencraig, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Studied for the law, and was called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple; was employed 
on the Public Instruction Commission, 
Ireland ; is son of Francis Lascelles, 
Esq., late of the 3rd Dragoons (King's 
Own) ; son of General Lascelles, who 
was brother to the ist Earl of Harewood ; 
b. at Eccles, Dumfriesshire, 4th February, 
1807; cd, at a private school; ;//., 3rd 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



December, 1835, Mary Albinia, only dau. 
of T. Hastings, Esq., late of 4th Dragoons, 
and has issue 3 daus. and 4 sons. 

Heir: Rev. Rowley Lascelles, Vicar of Elson, 
Hampshire. 

Residence: Pencraig, Cardigan. 
Town Address : Inner Temple. 
Arms: Sa., a cross flory, within a bordtire, or. 
Crest: A bear's head, couped, erm., muzzled, 

gu- 

Motto : In solo Deo salus, 

LEES, Colonel John, of Llanllyr, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Lieut-Col., retired from the army, served 
in the Crimea, West Indies, and Central 
America ; holds the Crimean, Turkish (2), 
and Legion of Honour Medals ; com- 
mands the Carmarthenshire Volunteers ; 
is a J. P. for cos, Cardigan and Car- 
marthen, and D. L. for Cardiganshire; 
served the office of High Sheriff in 1865 ; 
son of John Lewes, Esq., of Llanllyr, third 
son of the late William Lewes, Esq., of 
Llysnewydd and Llanllyr, and formerly a 
captain in the army (Waterloo medal) ; m. 
Mary Jane, dau. of the Rev. C. Griffith, and 
has issue. (See further Lineage below.) 

Residence : Llanllyr. 
Arms: Gu., 3 snakes nowed, arg. 
Crest: An eagle displayed, a snake bent round 
the body, proper. 
Motto: Sine dolo. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Lewes is of long standing in the 
cos. of Carmarthen and Cardigan, tracing back with 
unbroken continuation to EDNOWAIN AP BRAD- 
WEN, founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of 
North Wales, lord of parts of Merioneth, circa 
A.D. 846. The rains of his house, Llys-Bradwen, 
in the township of Cregenan, Mer., were visible 
some years ago. Ednowain ap Bradwen is as his- 
torical a name as Owain Gwynedd or Anlaf the 
Dane. 

In direct descent from Ednowain was Lewis ap 
Dafydd ap Meredydd of Abernant-bychan (i543)> 
whose third son, David ap Lewis, was of Gernos 
(1590), and his third son, John Lewes, is the first 
called of Llysnewydd ( 1 620) , which has continued 
the seat of the family down to this day (see Lewes, 
Llysnewydd). He m. Janet, dau. and co-h. of 
William Lloyd of Glandewely, and had a second 
s.on, John, also of Llysnewydd, who, by his wife 
Anne, dau. of Stephen Parry, Esq., of St. Dog- 
mael's and Cwmty-du, had a third son, David 
Lewes, who m. Magdalen, dau. of Thomas Lloyd, 
Esq., of Bronwydd. His gr. grandson, 

WILLIAM LEWES, Esq., of Llysnewydd and 
Llanllyr, m. Joan, dau. of Thomas Lloyd, Esq., 
of Bronwydd, and had issue four sons, 

1. William (see Llysnetvydd). 

2. Thomas Lewes, Clerk, Rector of Great Bar- 
rington and Taynton, Oxfordshire. 

3. JOHN LEWES, a captain in the army, of 
Llanllyr. 

4. Price Lewes, Esq., of Gwastod, barrister-at- 
law. 



Captain John Lewes, of Llanllyr, third son, m. 
Mary Anne, dau. of J. V. Lloyd, Esq., of Brynog 
and Green Grove, and had issue, 

1. JOHN LEWES, Lieut.-Col., now of Llanllyr 
(as above), who has m. Mary Jane, dau. of the 
Rev. C. Griffith, and has issue John Lewes (1871). 

2. Thomas. 

3. Price, Lieut., R.N. 

4. Mary Anne, m. to Robert Lewis Lloyd, 
Esq. , of Nantgwillt. 

5. I ,ouisa Jane, m. to Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart., of 
Gogerddan. 

Note. Llanllyr, situated in the pleasant and beau- 
tiful Vale of Ayron, was originally a Cistercian nun- 
nery, and by Leland (in his attempt to imitate the 
Welsh sounds) named Llan Clere. The nunnery was 
a cell to Strata Florida Abbey. No remains or even 
ruins are now in existence, although the burial-place 
is well known, where human bones are found at little 
depth. A large monumental stone was here found 
some years ago, with a Latin inscription, now through 
age illegible ; and little now remains to mark a holy 
spot of ancient times. Llanllyr originally belonged 
to the family of Lloyds of Fosybleddiaid (through 
that of Castell Howel), and passed into the hands of 
the present owner through an ancestor, who purchased 
Llanllyr from his cousin, John Lloyd. 

LEWIS, Mrs., of Llanayron, Cardiganshire. 

Mrs. Lewis is the widow of the late John 
William Lewis, Esq., of Llanayron, J.P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Cardigan, and dau. of 
the Rev. George Mettam, of Barwell, in the 
co. of Leicester; was m. to the late John 
William Lewis, Esq., in the year 1841, and 
on his death s. to the estate of Llanayron. 
No children. 

Residence : Llanayron, near Aberayron. 

LINEAGE. 

This family is ancient, having resided on the same 
spot for several hundred years. The first settled 
surname, when Wales adopted the system of sur- 
names, was Parry, beginning with Thomas, the 
son of Harry, called in Welsh ap Harry, or Parry. 
The place also in the olden time was Uwch-aeron, 
and jointly with the church close to the grounds was 
often called Llan-uwch-aeron, and corrupted into 
Llanerchaeron. Now the approved form is Llan- 
ayron. It is a venerable spot, and as beautiful as 
venerable. (See engraving, p. 133.) 

THOMAS PARRY of Uwch-aeron (Llanayron), of 
the same descent with theParrysof Neuadd, Card., 
and St. Dogmael's, Pemb., traced to Rhys Ch-witk 
(in the ninth generation), who is said to have been 
Esquire of the Body to King Edward L, and through 
him to Peredur Beiswen, Lord of Ceredigion, and 
on to ' ' Gwyddno Garanhir, Lord of Cantref y 
Gwaelod." 

John Parry, second son of Thomas, had by his 
wife, Gwenllian, a son named Thomas Parry of 
Pentref (Dale Castle 'MS., ed. by Sir Thomas Phil- 

lipps, Bart.), who m. " Elen, dau. of Gruffis, 

Parson of Llanbedr Welffre," Pemb. His gr. . 
grandson, Stephen Parry, living, according to the 
same authority, in 1704, m. Anne, dau. of Morgan 
Lloyd, Esq., of Ffoeshelig (Sheriff of Card. 1681). 
The Lloyds of Ffoeshelig were a branch of the 
fjords of Castell- Howel. Stephen Parry had a 
dau. and co-h., Mary, who m, Lewis Parry, Rector 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



201 



of Llanarth, her cousin. John Parry, their heir, 
m. Ann, dau. of Walter Lloyd, Esq., of Peterwell 
(see Lloyd, Peterwell),m& d. s.p. He devised his 
estate to his uncle, 

JOHN LEWIS, Esq. (the first of that name at 

Llanayron), who m. a dau. of Griffiths of 

Erryd, and had issue a son, John, who by his wife 
Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Johnes, Esq., of Dolau- 
cothi, left a son, William Lewis. He ;//. Corbetta 
Williama, dau. of Dr. Powell of Nanteos. The 
issue of this mar. was John William Lewis, Esq., 
of Llanayron, as above. 

LISBURNE, Ernest Augustus Vaughan, Earl 
of, Trawscoed, Cardiganshire. 

Creation: Earl of Lisburne 1776; Vis- 
count Lisburne, Lord Vaughan, and Baron 
of Fathers, 1695. Is a J. P. and D. L. for 
the co. of Cardigan; High Sheriff 1851; 
b. October 3oth, 1800 ; s. as 4th Earl of 
Lisburne i8th May, 1831 ; m., ist, 27th 
August, 1835, his cousin Mary, 2nd dau. 
of the late" Sir Lawrence Palk, Bart., d. 
23rd July, 1851 ; 2nd, 5th April, 1853, the 
Hon. Elizabeth Augusta Harriet (formerly 
Maid of Honour to Queen Adelaide), dau. 
of the late Col. Mitchell and his wife Lady 
Harriet, dau. of 5th Duke of Beaufort ; 
has had issue, 

ist marriage : 

1. ERNEST AUGUSTUS MALET, Lord Vaughan, 
b. 26th June, 1826 ; m., June 24th, 1858, Gertrude 
Laura, third dau. of Edwyn Burnaby, Esq., of 
Bagrave, Leicestershire, and by her, who d. 2gth 
March, 1865, has had Arthur Henry George, b. 3oth 
July, 1862 ; Ida Constance ; Enid Maud Rose ; 
Lucy. 

2. Hon. Wilmot Shafto, b. 1839, d. 1853. 

3. Lady Elizabeth Malet, m., 1860, to Inglis 
Jones, Esq., of Derry Ormond, Cardiganshire. 

4. Hon. Edward Courtenay, b. 23rd October, 
1841. 

2nd marriage : 

5. Lady Gertrude Dorothy Harriet Adelaide, b. 
1855, d. 1869. 

Residence : Trawscoed, Cardiganshire. 

Arms: Sa. a chevron, between 3 fleurs de lis, 
arg. , the ensigns of Collwyn ap Tangno, Lord of 
Eifionydd. 

Crest : An armed arm, embowed, ppr., holding 
a fleur de lis, arg. 

Supporters : Dexter, a dragon, regardant, 
wings endorsed, vert, gorged with a collar, sa., 
edged, arg., and charged with 3 fleurs de lis, of 
the last, thereto a chain, or ; sinister a unicorn, 
regardant, arg., armed, maned, tufted, and 
unguled, or, collared and chained as the dexter. 

Motto : Non revertar inultus. 

LINEAGE. 

This noble family stands in the first rank of 
ancient Cymric houses, and is almost without a 
parallel for prolonged undisturbed possession of the 
original seat and estate. The manor and mansion 
of Trawscoed came into the Vaughan family by the 
marriage of Adda Vychan with Tudo, dau. and h. 
of levan Goch, of Trawscoed, A.D. 1200, and have 
never since been alienated, nor, it is believed, 



ceased to be occupied by the possessors. The 
pedigree is deduced by well-ascertained steps of 
descent from Collwyn ap Tangno, founder of the 
fifth noble tribe of North Wales, Lord of Eifionydd, 
Ardudwy, and part of Lleyn, and said to have had 
his residence at one time in a stronghold (part of 
which still remains) on the site of Harlech Castle. 

Sir Howel y Fwyall (Sir Howel of the axe), the 
hero of the battle of Poictiers, under the Black 
Prince, A.D. 1356; the Wynnes of Gwydir, the 
Wynns of Glynllifon, and many other noted 
houses, were descendants of Collwyn ap Tangno. 

About the wife of Collwyn there is a difference 
of record in the MSS., some saying she was a dau. 
of Cynan ap Gwaithfoed, Lord of Tegeingl ; others 
that she was Rhianwen, dau. of Einion, Lord of 
Mochnant in Powys. 

Cadifor was son of Collwyn, and Einion his 
grandson (but the South Wales heralds held that 
Einion was son of Collwyn, and omitted Cadifor 
from their genealogies see Dale Castle MS., ed. 
by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., p. 18), who, in the 
time of the Norman Conquest, or soon after, had a 
lordship given him in the county of Glamorgan 
( Gwlad-Morgan) by Robert Fitzhamon, the Norman 
Lord Marcher who conquered that part. (See 
Fitzhamon. ) Einion had a son, Gruffydd, and he a 
son Llewelyn, called Fychan (the short in stature), 
and he a son, 

ADDA AP LLEWELYN FYCHAN (circa A.D. 
1200), the first to settle at Trawscoed. All autho- 
rities agree that Adda m. the dau. and h. of levan 
Goch (the red-haired), of Trawscoed, but they vary 
in the spelling of her name, some making it Tttdo, 
and others Dido. His son 

Meredydd, by his wife Eva, had a son Adda, of 
Trawscoed, who m. Gwerfyl, dau. and h. of 
Llewelyn Goch, and had issue 

Llewelyn ap Adda, of Trawscoed, who m. 
Margaret, dau. of Thomas Fychan ap Thomas 
David Gruffydd, of Llangathen, deriving from 
Tewdwr Mawr, Prince of South Wales (d. A.D. 
993)- 

leuan ap Llewelyn, of Trawscoed, m. Gwenllian, 
dau. of Gruffydd ap leuan Meredydd, &c., of 
Geneu'r-glyn. 

MORUS FYCHAN AP IEUAN, of Trawscoed now 
the name Fychan (Vaughan) became an established 
surname m. Angharad (Dale Cast. MS.}, dau. of 
David ap Llewelyn ap levan Blaen (Evan the 
Plain) some MSS. say it was Tanglwyst, dau. 
of the same person. 

Richard Fychan, of Trawscoed, son of Morus, m . 
Maud, dau. and h. of Rhys ap David ap Llewelyn ap 
Gwilym Lloyd, of Ffoeshelig (of the Castell-Howel 
Lloyds), and had a son, 

Morus Fychan, of Trawscoed, who m. Ellin, 
dau. and h. of leuan ap Jenkyn ap leuan ap Rhys 
Goch, and was s. by his son, 

leuan, or Evan, Fychan, of Trawscoed, who m. 
Margaret, dau. of David Lloyd (Llwyd) of Berth- 
Iwyd, Mont. 

Edward Vaughan, of Trawscoed, his son, by his 
wife Lettice, dau. of John Stedman, Esq., of 
Strata Florida Abbey, was s. by his eminent son, 

SIR JOHN VAUGHAN, Kt, who by Charles II. 
was made Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas, A.D. 1668. He represented both the bor. 
and co. of Cardigan in Parl. (see Members of Par I. 
for Card. ). His wife was Jane, dau. and co-h. of 
John Stedman, Esq., of Cilcennin, by Anne. dau. 
of Sir Thomas Johnes, of Abermarlais, by whom 
he had a son, his successor, 

EDWARD VAUGHAN, Esq., of Trawscoed (see 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Memb. of Parl. for Card.), who m. Letitia, dau. of 
Sir William Hooker, of London. He, dying 
several years before his father, was followed by 
his son, 

JOHN VAUGHAN, Esq. (cr., 1695, Lord Viscount 
Vaughan, Baron of Fathers, &c. ), who m. the Lady 
Malet, dau. of John, Lord Wilmot, Earl of 
Rochester. He d. 1720, and was s. by his eldest 
son, 

JOHN, 2nd Viscount Vaughan, who m., 1st, a 
dau. of Sir Thomas Bennett, Bart. ; 2nd, a dau. of 
Capt. Hill ; but dying without issue male, the title 
and estates devolved upon his 2nd brother, 

WILMOT, 3rd Viscount Vaughan (A.D. 1741). 
He had m. Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Watson, 
Esq., by whom he had 2 sons and a daughter. 

1. WILMOT, 4th Viscount (s. A.D. 1766). 

2. John, a Major-General in the army. 

3. Elizabeth, who m. Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of 
Abertrinant. 

WILMOT, 4th Viscount Vaughan, was created 
Earl of Lisburne i8th July, 1776; m., 1st, Eliza- 
beth, only dau. of Gascoyne Nightingale, Esq., of 
Mamhead, Devon, and had issue a son, WILMOT ; 
2nd, Dorothy, eldest dau. of John Shafto, Esq., of 
Whitworth, Durham, and had issue by her, JOHN, 
b. 1 769, who entered the army ; Dorothy Elizabeth, 
who /#., 1792, Sir Lawrence Palk Palk, Bart.; and 
Malet. Lord Lisburne d. A.D. 1800, and was s. by 
his eldest son, 

WILMOT, as 2nd Earl. His lordship d. A.D. 
1820, unni., and his brother John became the third 
Earl. 

JOHN, 3rd Earl of Lisburne, m., 1798, Lady 
Lucy, dau. of William, 2nd Viscount Courtenay, 
and had issue, 

1. ERNEST AUGUSTUS, present Earl of Lisburne. 

2. Hon. George Lawrence, b. 1802 ; entered the army ; m., 
and has issue Edmund, Malet, &c. 

3. Hon. John Shafto, b. 1803. 

4. Hon. William Malet, b. 1807, d. 1867. 

5. Lady Lucy Harriet, b. 1809, d. 1867. 

His lordship d. i8th May, 1831. 



LJJ01 D, Sir Thomas Davies, Bart,, of Bronwydd, 
Cardiganshire. 

Baronetcy cr. 1863. By ancient descent 
and tenure Lord of Kemeys (Cemmaes); 
J. P. and D. L. for the cos. of Pembroke, 
Cardigan, and Carmarthen ; High Sheriff 
for Cardigan 1851; was in the army; 
eldest son of Thomas Lloyd, Esq. (d. 
1845), of Bronwydd and Kilrhue, by Anne 
Davies, dau. of John Thomas, Esq., of 
Llwyd-coed, co. Carm. (see Lineage}; b. 
1820; s. 1845 ; m., 1846, Henrietta Mary 
(d. 1871), 4th dau. of Geo. Reid, Esq., of 
Bunker's Hill and Friendship estates, 
Jamaica, and Watlington Hall, Norfolk, by 
Louisa, dau. of Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., 
and has issue (see Lineage); ed. at Harrow | 
School, and Christ Church, Oxford; elected 
M.P. for co. Cardigan 1865, and on retiring 
in 1868 from the co. representation was 
elected for the Cardigan boroughs, which 
he continues to represent. 

' Heir : Marteine Owen Mowbray, b. 1851. 



Residence: Bronwydd, near Cardigan. Postal 
address, Bronwydd, Carmarthen. 

Town Address : Junior United Service Club. 
A rms : Az. , a wolf salient, arg. 
Crest: A boar chained to a holly tree, ppr. 
Motto: I Dduw bo'r diolch, "To God be 
thanks." 

LINEAGE. 

The descent of the ancient house of Bronwydd 
is paternally Cymric and maternally Norman, 
tracing in the latter line without interruption 
from Martin de Tours, the Norman conqueror of 
Cemmaes, in virtue of which descent and the 
tenure of the barony, the representative of the 
Bronwydd House is inheritor of the title Lord or 
Baron of Cemmaes, the last Lord Marcher title now 
subsisting. The following genealogical table gives, 
first, the maternal lineage from Martin de Tours 
through the Owens of Henllys to Anne, the last of 
that line, who m. Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bron- 
wydd, the gr. grandfather of the present Sir 
Thomas Davies Lloyd, Bart., by which marriage 
the purely Cymric line of Lloyd was joined to the 
Normano-Cymric line of Henllys. Of the "Barony 
of Kemeys" account will be given under Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Martin de Tours (as we learn from the Bai-onia 
de Kemeys, printed from the MS. of George Owen 
of Henllys in the archives of Bronwydd), came 
over at the time of the Conquest from France, 
it is supposed from his name that he came from 
Tours, conquered the Cantref of Cemmaes (Pemb. ), 
and settling down at Newport built there a castle, 
after the manner of the Lords Marchers. Whom he 
m. is not known, but he had a son, Robert, his suc- 
cessor, who m. Maud Peverel, and his son, William 
Martin, m. Angharad, dau. of the Lord Rhys, 
Prince of South Wales (as the conclusion of much 
bloody conflict), and had by her a son, William, 
Lord of Cemmaes, who was s. by a son, 

NICHOLAS, Lord of Cemmaes, who m. a Norman 
lady, Maud, dau. of Guy de Brien. His dau. 
Nesta m. Richard de Hoda, grandson of Lucas de 
Hoda, of Cemmaes [probably one of Martin de 
Tours' companions in arms]. His son, Philip ap 
Richard de Hoda, m., like his ancestor William, a 
lady of the Welsh princely House of Tewdwr, 
Nesta, dau. of Llewelyn ap Rhydderch of Henllys. 
This was the introduction of the Norman stock to 
Henllys as a residence. The son of Philip and 
Nesta was 

Philip Fychan ("the little," being of smaller 
stature perhaps than his father) of Henllys, whose 
son 

Philip Ysgolhaig ("the learned" vide Cartas 
Antiquas de Henllys apnd Bronwydd, 1858) m. 
Lleyky (Lucy), dau. of Gwrgeneu ap Rhys Chwith, 
Esq. of the Body to Edward I. 

Jevan ap Philip of Henllys m. Dyddgu, dau. of 
Gwilym Jordan, of Berllan. 

Gwilym Ddu ap Jevan, of Henllys, m. Lleyky, 
dau. of Rhys ap Rhydderch, of Penybenglog. 

Owen ap Gwilym, of Henllys, m. Lleyky, dau. 
of Perkin de Hoda. 

Jevan ap Owen, of Henllys, m. Alice, dau. of 
Meredydd ap Jevan, of Iscoed, descended from 
Cadifor ap Dinawal, and bearing his arms. 

Owen Fychan, his son, of Henllys, m. Gwenllian, 
dau. of Jevan ap Gruffydd ap Madog. 

Rhys ap Owen, of Henllys, m. Jane, dau. of 
Owen Elliott, of Earewere. 

William Owen, of Henllys, Lord of Cemmaes 
(the surname Owen now becomes fixed), m. Eliza. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



203 



beth, dau. of Sir George Herbert, of Swansea 
[descended from the great House of Herberts, of 
Colebrook, Pembroke, Powis, &c.], and had a 
son, 

George Owen, Esq., of Henllys, Lord of 
Cemmaes [the well-known antiquary], who rn. 
Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. of William Phillipps, 
Esq., of Picton, grandson of Sir Thomas ap Philip, 
who was son of Philip ap Meredydd, of Cilsant 
[this is the origin of the old family of Philips, now 
Phillipps, and Philipps], of the line of Cadifor Fawr, 
thus, 

CADIFOR FAWR, Lord of Blaencych and Cilsant 
(d. A.D. 1084), had a son, Bledri ap Cadifor, who 
m. Clydwen, gr. gr. dau. of Gwaethfoed, Lord of 
Cardigan, and had issue Rhys, Lord of Cilsant, 
from whom, in the fifth generation, came the above- 
named Philip, Lord of Cilsant. The above 

George Owen, Esq., was s. by his son, Alban 
Owen, Esq., of Henllys, and Lord of Cemmaes 
(A.D. 1591), whose wife was Joan, dau. of William 
Bradshaw, Esq., of St. Dogmael's, by whom he had 
a son, 

David Owen, Esq., of Henllys, Lord of 
Cemmaes, who by his wife Anne, dau. of Robert 
Corbet, Esq., of Ynys-y-Maengwyn, Mer., left a 
son, William Owen, of Henllys (d. 1721), whose 
issue terminated in a son, William, who d. s. p., 
and a daughter, 

Anne Owen, who m. Thomas Lloyd, Esq., who, 
in her right as h. of Henllys, &c. , became Lord of 
Cemmaes, and was s. by his son, William of 
Henllys and Pempedwast, co. Pembroke ; and he 
by his dau. and h., Anne, who bestowed her hand 
and the lordship of Cemmaes upon 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., of Bronwydd. 

By this mar. the Cymric line of Bronwydd and 
the Normano-Cymric line of Henllys are united. 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., of Bronwydd, traced his 
lineage from a very ancient stock, whose chief seat 
in early time was Crynfryn, and still earlier 
Cilycwm, Carm., whose Lord, Cadifor of Cilycwm, 
was son of Selyf, Prince of Dyfed, and through 
him from Rhodri Mawr, King of all Wales in the 
ninth century. Cadifor, Lord of Cilycwm, 
flourished about the time of the Norman Conquest, 
and his descendants for five or six generations 
sustained the same position (see Dale Castle MS. t 
ed. by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., under Crynfivn 
and Bronwydd}. 

David ap Rhys, of Crynfryn, was twelfth in 
descent from Cadifor, Lord of Cilcywm, and lived 
about the end of the sixteenth century. He was 
" under-sheriff to David Lloyd ap Jevan, of Llan- 
fair-clydogau. " His eldest son, David Lloyd, the 
first called Lloyd, had a son, John Lloyd of Cryn- 
fryn, who was Sheriff of Cardiganshire 1638; and 
the 2nd son (of David ap Rhys) was Thomas Lloyd, 
clerk, " Parson of Llangunllo, " who by his wife, a 
dau. of George Bruine, or Brwyn, of Pant-dafydd, 
had a son, 

RHYS LLOYD, Esq., of Bronwydd, who m. a 
dau. of John Parry, of Blaen-y-Pant. His son 
Thomas m. Magdalen, dau. of Col. John Robin- 
son ; and his son Thomas m. Bridget, dau. of 
James Johnes, Esq., of Dalaucothi. The next h. 
of Bronwydd was 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq. (Sheriff of Card. 1707), 
who m. Anne, dau. and h. of Lewis Wogan, Esq., 
of Wiston, Pemb. , and had a son, 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., of Bronwydd, named 
above, who became Lord of Cemmaes, &c., by 
marrying Anne, dau. and sole h. of William 
Lloyd of Henllys and Pempedwast. 



The issue of this mar. was as follows : 

i. THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., the heir. 

a. Owen, colonel in the army, who m. Mary, dau. and h. 
of Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Abertrinant, by Elizabeth, 
sister of the first Earl of Lisburne, and had issue Elizabeth, 
who m. Thomas Davies, Esq., of Nantgwylan. 

3. Mary, who m. William Lewes, Esq., of Llysnewydd. 

4. Beatrice. 5. Louisa. 6, Bridget, who d. nnm. 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., of Bronwydd, the second 
of that place who was Lord of Cemmaes, a colonel 
in the army, m. Mary, dau. and co-h. of John 
Jones, Esq., M.D., of Haverfordwest, and by her, 
who d. 1830, had issue (besides James and Sarah 
Maiy, who d. s. p. ) 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq. (d. 1845), f Bronwydd, 
and third Lord of Cemmaes of that name; m., 23rd 
July, 1819, Anne Davies, dau. of John Thomas, 
Esq., of Llwydcoed, Llanon, co. Carm., and had 
issue, 

1. THOMAS DAVIES LLOYD, now a baronet, of Bronwydd, 
fourth Baron of Cemmaes of that name, but twenty-third 
baron in continuous succession, who m. as above, and has 
issue Marteine Given Mowbray, b. 1851. 

2. James John ; entered the army ; m., and has issue. 

3. Rhys-Jones (the Rev.), Rector of Troed-yr-aur, Car- 
diganshire ; m. Anna, dau. of the late Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of 
Nantgwyllt, Radnor, and has issue. 

4. Owen William. 5. George Martin. 

LLOYD, Charles, Esq., of "Waunifor, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Now (1871) a student of Oriel Coll., Ox- 
ford ; son of the late Rev. Charles Lloyd 
and his wife Frances, eldest dau. of the 
late Rev. W. G. Green, of Court Henry, 
co. Carm. ; b. at Bettws Bledrws Rectory, 
May 2oth, 1850; ed. at Marlborough Col- 
lege, Wiltshire, and Oriel College, Oxford ; 
s. to estates on the death of his father, 
1867. 

Residence: Waunifor, Maesycrygiau, S.Wales. 

Arms: Sable, a spear- head, imbrued, between 
three scaling-ladders arg. ; on a chief, gu., a 
castle triple towered, of the second. 

Motto : Sic itur ad astra. 



LINEAGE. 

This family, which, like that of Gilfachwen t of 
which it is a branch, having come down through a 
long line of Cardiganshire ancestors, and inter- 
married with the Breretons of Norfolk, the Bowens 
of Waunifor, Cornwallis of Abermarlais, &c., traces 
its pedigree to Cadifor ap Dinawal, Lord of Castell- 
Howel and Gilfachwen. 

For the descent from Cadifor (A.D. U55)> through 
the Castell-Hcwel and Llanfechan line to John 
Lloyd, Esq., the common ancestor of the two fami- 
lies, see the pedigree under Lloyd, Gilfachwen. 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Gilfachwen, had two sons, 
both clergymen, the Rev. Thomas Lloyd, the elder, 
of Gilfachwen, and the Rev. Charles Lloyd, the 
younger, of Waunifor, their mother being Jane, 
dau. of Thomas Bowen, Esq., of the latter place. 

The Rev. Charles Lloyd m. as above stated, and 
had, with other issue, 

CHARLES LLOYD, Esq., now of Waunifor. 



LLOYD, John, Esq., of Gilfachwen, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Is in practice as a solicitor ; eldest son of 



204 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



the late Rev. Thomas Lloyd, M.A., of 
Gilfachwen, J. P. for the co. of Cardigan, 
by his wife Maria Alicia, youngest dau. of 
Richard Llewelin, Esq., of Tremains, Gla- 
morganshire ; b. i2th November, 1835; 
ed. at Cowbridge Grammar School, Gla- 
morganshire ; is unmarried ; s. to the Gil- 
fachwen estate on death of his father, 25th 
July, 1868. 

Residence: Gilfachwen, Llandysil, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Arms: Sa., a spear-head, imbrued, between 
three scaling-ladders, 2 and I, arg. ; on a chief, 
gu. , a castle triple towered, of the second. 

Crest : A lion rampant. 

Motto : Sic itur ad astra. 

LINEAGE. 

Along with several others of the old families of 
Cardiganshire, the Lloyds of Gilfachwen trace 
their descent from Cadifor ap Dinawal, Lord of 
Castell-Howel and Gilfachwen. 

Rodri Mawr, or Roderick the Great, Prince of 
Wales, who began his government of Wales in the 
year 843, d. 876, falling in a battle against the 
Danes. One of his sons, Tudwal Gloff, m. Helen, 
dau. of Aleth, ruler of Dyfed, and from them in the 
sixth generation came 

Cadifor ap Dinawal, or Dyfnwal. He, as well 
as Rodri Mawr, can be taken as an historical per- 
sonage, having left in the annals of his country a 
mark which cannot be obliterated. Cadifor lived 
when the Normans were harassing Wales, and won 
renown and a coat of arms by taking, by escalade, 
the Castle of Cardigan from the Earl of Clare and 
the Flemings (A.D. 1155) His arms, given him for 
this achievement by " Lord Rhys" ap Gruffydd ap 
Rhys ap Tewdwr, were sable, a spear-head, im- 
brued, between three scaling-ladders, argent ; on a 
chief, gules, a castle triple towered, of the second. 
He ;. the Lord Rhys's dau., Catherine, and was 
Lord of Castle Howel, Gilfachwen, and Pantstry- 
mon. 

From Cadifor, in the fifth descent, came the 
Lloyds of Castle Hoivel and Gilfachwen. Gwilym 
Llwyd, the first bearing the name, m., as his third 
wife, Eva, dau. of Griffith Gethin ap Meredith ap 
Llewelyn ap Hoedlew, of Rhydodyn, or Rhyd 
Edwyn, or, as others say, of Iskerdin Gwenwy- 
nydd. 

Then came Llewelyn ap Gwilym Llwyd, of Cas- 
tell Howel and Llanfechan, and his son David ap 
Llewelyn Llwyd, of Castell-Howel, and Llewelyn 
ap David Llwyd. 

Llywelyn ap David Llwyd, of Castell Howel, 
had four sons, David (who remained at Castell 
Howel) ; Hugh, who founded the Llanllyr family 
(see Lloyd of Castell-Howel, and Do. of Llanllyr) ; 
John, who settled at Gwern-Maccwy ; and 

GWION, second son, who founded the family of 
Llanfechan. From Gwion, and not from John, as 
stated by Meyrick (Hist. Card.), are descended the 
Lloyds of Gilfachwen, of whom we now treat. 

Gwion Lloyd (Llwyd), living 1566, left, with 
other issue, an eldest son, David, Sheriff of co. 
Cardigan 1600, who m. Ellen, dau. of Sir James 
Williams, Kt. His son, Jenkin Lloyd, of Llanfe- 
chan, Sheriff for co. Card. 1616 and 1640, had a 
son David, of Llanfechan (will dated 1606), whose 
eldest son, 

Jenkin Lloyd, Esq., of Llanfechan (the second 



son being Edmund, of Rhydybont, grandfather of 
Elizabeth, wife of John Evans, Esq., gr. gr. grand- 
father of the present Major Evans, of Highmead, who 
from this relationship now possesses Rhydybont, 
and to whose search among old family records we 
are indebted for much of this information), whose 
name is on a bell at Llanwenog Church, dated 
1667, m. Catherine, dau. of Olive Lloyd, Esq., of 
Ffoesybleiddiaid. He had two sons, David, the 
eldest, and John. David d.s.p. 1714, "leaving his 
estate to his nephew and in tail to his cousins, child- 
ren of his uncles Edmund and Griffith." 

John, the second son, was of Castell-Howel, and 
m. Mary (widow of William, second son of John 
Lewis of Gemos), dau. of Sir Francis CornwallLs, 
of Abermarlais. He had a son, Charles Lloyd, 
Esq., of Llanfechan, who m. Margaret, dau. of 
David Lloyd, Esq. , of Ffoesybleiddiaid. The next 
representative, David Lloyd, who m. Mary, dau. 
of William Brereton, Esq., of Norfolk, sold Llan- 
fechan, and settled at Cardigan. His son, 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Gilfachwen, m. Jane (or 
Mary), dau. of Thomas Bowen, Esq., of Waunjfor, 
and had a son, 

Thomas Lloyd, clerk, late of Gilfachwen, whose 
son, 

JOHN LLOYD, Esq., of Gilfachwen, is now (1872) 
living (see above). 

LLOYD, Thomas Edward, Esq., of Coedmore, 
Cardiganshire. 

Is a Barrister of the Middle Temple, and 
has chambers at New Square, Lincoln's 
Inn, his practice being mainly at the 
Chancery bar; is a J. P. for the co.. of 
Cardigan ; son of the late Thomas Lloyd, 
Esq., of Coedmore (who was Lord Lieut, 
of the co., and High Sheriff 1816), by 
Charlotte, dau. of the late Captain Long- 
croft, R.N. (d. 1859) ; m., 1850, Clemena 
Frances, dau. of the late Rev. David 
Daniel, and Clemena, dau. of the late 
Major Lyons, and has issue. 

Residence: Coedmore, Cardigan. 

Town Address : 3, Victoria Street, West- 
minster. 

Crest : A lion rampant, arg. 

Motto : Fide et fortitudine. 

Note. The Lloyds of Coedmore (Coed-mawr) are 
one of the ancient families of Cardiganshire. They 
trace to Elystan Glodrydd, but settled at Coedmawr in 
the seventeenth century by marriage of Thomas Lloyd, 
Esq., with an h. of the family of Lewis, who had for 
many ages possessed the place, and are known as the 
Lewises of Abernant-bychan. This family came to 
Coedmawr by exchanging for it with Rowland Morti- 
mer the domains of Castell-llwyd, near Laugharne. 
(See p. 169, Mortimers of Coedmor. ) 



LOXDALE, James, Esq., of Castle Hill, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Is J. P. for the cos. of Stafford, Salop, and 
Cardigan ; High Sheriff for the co. of Car- 
digan 1867 ; son of the late Joseph Lox- 
dale, Esq., of Shrewsbury, by Anna Maria 
Wood, dau. of William Wood, Esq., of 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



205 



Bayston, Salop (see Lineage below) ; b. 
at Kingsland, in the parish of Brace Meole, 
in the co. of Salop, Oct. 7, 1797; ed. at 
Shrewsbury School ; grad. at St. John's 
Coll., Cambridge, B.A. 1820, M.A. 1823 ; 
s. to the Castle Hill estate on the death of 
his sister, Sarah Elizabeth Williams, widow 
of John Nathaniel Williams, Esq., of Castle 
Hill, Oct. 14, 1862. 

Heir presumptive : His brother, John Loxdale. 

Residences : Castle Hill, -near Aberystwith ; 
Kingsland, near Shrewsbury. 

Town Address : United University Club. 

Arms : Ermine, on a chief, sa., three lions ram- 
pant. 

Crest : An ox's head, couped, proper. 

Motto : ^Equitatem colas. 

LINEAGE. 

Robert Loxdale lived at Mere Town, parish of 
Forton, co. Stafford, on his own estate by inherit- 
ance, sufficient in extent to be made the subject of 
settlement on his marriage, and resided on by him- 
self and his descendants for three centuries. He 
m. Joan Undyrwood. His son, 

Michael, of Mere Town (bur. April 6, 1594), *., 
1559, Alice Gretbache (bur. i8th July, 1604). 
With one other son and 3 daus., he had 

Robert, of Mere Town (bapt. 27th Dec., 1564), 
who m. Winifred (bur. 26th Sept., 1624), and be- 
sides 3 daus., had a son, 

Thomas, of Mere Town (bapt. igth Sept., 1599), 
whose wife was Sarah Worthington (bur. July 22, 
1655). He had issue, with 2 other sons and 7 
daus., 

John, of Mere Town, b. 1643 ; d. Feb. 15, 
1710 ; m. (Christian name of wife does not appear 
in any of the family papers, but in his will, dated 
Aug. 3, 1710, John makes a bequest to his wife). 
His children were (with 2 other sons and 2 daus.) 

Thomas, of Trin. Coll., Camb., M.A., b. Oct. 3, 1675, Vicar 
of Seighford and Rector of Forton, which he resigned in 



of Staffordshire," and other local histories in MSS., cited and 
referred to in Shaw's "Staffordshire," Harwood's ed. of 
"Erdswicke's Survey of Staffordshire," &c. M. Elizabeth 
Eld, dau. of Francis Eld, of Seighford, Esq., but ob. s. p. 

Richard, b. Oct. 7, 1680. He was the first of the family 
who settled in Shrewsbury, where he practised as a solicitor. 
He was an ensign in " the artillery regiment raised volunta- 
rily by the inhabitants, in the year 1715, in opposition to the 
rebels," under the Lord Viscount Newport. D. Jan. 7, 
1732, s. p. 

Joseph, b. 8th Jan., 1682. Lived at Stafford ; was alderman, 
and in 1745 (the year of the Rebellion) Mayor of Stafford 
(d. May 6, 1756). M. Mary Thorley (b. 1695; d. Jan. i, 
1768). She was of kin to William of Wykeham, the founder 
of New Coll., Oxon. He had issue (besides a younger son, 
Joseph, d. s. p., and a dau., Ann, who m. R. Watson, of 
Stafford) a son, 

Thomas, b. 29th July, 1 720 ; Mayor of Shrewsbury 
1774 (d. April 29, 1793) ; m. Hannah Skitt (bapt. 
Feb. 11, 1728 ; d. May 16, 1805), and had issue- 
Mary (b. igth May, 1754 ; d. Nov. 26, 1785), m. Rev. Thos. 
Eden, M. A., Rector of Alvescott, Oxon., and Illmington, 
Warwick, and had issue William Henry Lonsdale, who nt. 
Harriet Letitia Payne, and d. s. p. Dec., 1868. 

Ann (b. Sept. 6, 1755 ; d. Dec. 5, 1813, s. p.\ m. Rev. 
Thomas Coke, of Jesus Coll., Oxon., D.C.L., author of a 
commentary on the Bible, and personal friend of the Rev. 
John Wesley, and an active and influential member of the 
Wesleyan Conference and Association. 

Thomas(A. 3rd April, 1757 ; d. 25thjan., 1842), a magistrate 

and deputy lieut. for the co. of Salop ; m. Deborah Warren, 

his cousin, who (d. Feb. 20, 1850) had issue Anne(. ist Jan., 

1799 ; d. July 10, 1848, s. p.} ; m. John Loxdale,-her cousin. 

Sarah (b. ijthDec., 1760;^. 2nd Dec.,i847),;. Rev. Thomas 



Hill, of Alcaston Manor, parish of Acton Scott, co. Salop, 
Curate of Crosby, and Domestic Chaplain to Clodius, Lord 
Bishop of Sodor and Man. 

Richard (b. March 5, 1769 ; d. April, 1847), m. Jane 
Jeffreys, sister of George Jeffreys, of Gland yfi, co. Card., 
High Sheriff 1819, and had issue 4 sons. 

JOSEPH, the second son (6. Aug. 12, 1759 ; d. April 2, 1846), 
Mayor of Shrewsbury 1797, and for many years High 
Steward and Deputy Recorder of the borough of Shrews- 
bury, m. Anna Maria Wood, dau. of William Wood, of Bay- 
ston, co. of Salop, yeoman, and had issue 

Thomas Wood, b. March 9, 1791 ; d. s. p. $th Jan., 1837. 

Anna Maria (b. April 7, 1792 ; d. June, 1863), m. Rev. 
Frederick Holmes, of St. John's Coll., Camb., M.A., Pro- 
fessor in Bishop's Coll., Calcutta, and had issue 3 sons and i 
daughter. 

Joseph, b. igth Aug., 1793 ; Mayor of Shrewsbury 1830 ; 
d. March 12, 1838, s. p. 

Sarah Elizabeth (. Dec. 23, 1795 ; d. Oct. 14, 1862, s. p.), 
m. John Nathaniel Williams, Esq., of Castle Hill, co. Card., 
High Sheriff for Cardiganshire 1815 ; d. Jan. 25, 1832. 

John, b. Aug. 29, 1799 ; Mayor of Shrewsbury 1^40, and 
again in 1859 ; m., ist, his first cousin, Anne Loxdale, who 
d. without issue, July 10, 1848 ; 2nd, Anna Rice Watson, 
dau. of John Watson, D.D., Vicar of Ringstead-cum-Den- 
fordand Great Dodington, co. Northampton ;d, Jan. 21, 1860, 
and had issue John Watson, Mary Jane, Geoffrey Warter 
Peele, Reginald James Rice; 3rd, Jane Phillips Bradley, 
widow of Benjamin Bradley, of Lombard Street, London. 

Henrietta Sophia, b. April 3, 1802 ; ob. s.p. March 21, 1842. 

George Henry, b. March 12, 1804, m. Sarah Bagot, dau. 
of his Honour George Bagot, High Sheriff of British Guiana, 
and had issue John Nathaniel, and 2 other sons and 5 daus. 

Charlotte Emilia, b. Jan. 22, 1806 ; ob. s. p. Dec. 20, 183 r. 
Richard Skitt, d. an infant. Emma Louisa, b. Feb. i, 1809 ; 
d. s.p. April 7, 1869. Louisa Matilda, b. 22nd April, 1811 ; ob. 
s. p. Oct. n, 1829. 

JAMES, third son, now of Castle Hill, b. Oct. 7, 1797, a 
magistrate and deputy lieut. for the counties of Stafford, 
Salop, and Cardigan ; High Sheriff for Cardiganshire 1867 ; 
succeeded to Castle Hill by devise, on decease of his sister, 
Sarah Elizabeth, Oct. 14, 1862. 

MOMAN, Thomas Owen, Esq., Aberystwyth, 

Cardiganshire. 

Is a barrister, called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn; J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Car- 
digan ; author of a Guide to Aberystwith, 
the Guide to Aberdovey; joint Secretary and 
Editor of the Powys-Land Club, and con- 
tributor to various journals of articles on 
the topography and antiquities of Wales ; 
eldest son of the late Thomas Morgan, 
Esq., of Aberystwyth, banker and solicitor, 
and Catherine, his wife ; b. at Aberystwyth, 
1800 ; ed. at a prviate school and at Har- 
row; ent. at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
but did not grad.; m., 1861, Jane, youngest 
dau. of Lewis Morris, Esq., of Machyn- 
lleth ; s. to estates 1830. 
Residence: Aberystwyth. 

MOEBIS, Thomas, Esq., of Blaenywern, Car- 
diganshire. 

Is J. P. for the county of Cardigan ; son of 
the late Rev. Ebenezer Morris, of the 
same place (b. 1769, d. 1825), an eminent 
minister in the Calvinistic Methodist con- 
nection, who took a leading part in the 
secession of that body from the Established 

Church in 1811, and whose father, Dafydd 
Morris, was also a prominent preacher in 
the same connection. Both are buried at 
Troedyraur. Mr. Morris is unm. 

Residence: Blaenywern, Newcastle Emlyii, 
Cardiganshire. 



206 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



Note. Dafydd Morris, above named, known through- 
out the Principality as Dafydd Morris, Lledrod, was 
almost as popular as an evangelizing preacher as his 
more powerful son. Notwithstanding the aspect of 
hostility to the Established Church which the labours 
of these men and their coadjutors in the religious move- 
ment of that age had, it is well known and at present 
universally acknowledged that they were impelled by 
religious rather than party motives, and the might of 
their moral influence has operated in a reflex manner 
most beneficially upon the higher life of the Establish- 
ment itself. 

PHILLIPS, The Rev. Evan Owen, M.A., 
Aherystwyth, Cardiganshire. 

Vicar of Llanbadarn-Fawr 1861 ; Vicar of 
Aberystwyth 1861; Rural Dean; Surrogate; 
Proctor in Convocation ; formerly Fellow 
of Corp. Chr. Coll., Cambridge ; Warden of 
the Welsh Coll. Institution, Llandovery, 
^54 1861 ; youngest son of William 
Phillips, Esq., of Trecwn, co. of Pem- 
broke, by Margaret, his wife ; b. at Trecwn, 
near Cardigan, April 27, 1826 ; ed. at the 
Cardigan Grammar School and by private 
tuition, and at Corp. Chr. Coll., Cambridge; 
grad. Wrangler 1849, B.A., M.A., 1854; 
m., April 30, 1866, Margaret Eleanor, only 
child of Thomas and Elizabeth Hayward, 
Esq., of Maenol, Llanidloes, and has issue 
i son and i dau., 

Charles Hayward, b. May 7, 1867. 

Ellen Margaret Phillips, b. Sept. 23, 1869. 

Heir: Charles Hayward Phillips. 
Residence : The Vicarage, Aberystwyth. 
Town Address ; United Hotel, Charles Street. 
Arms: Lion rampant, chained. 
Motto: Bydd gyfiawn ac nag ofna, "Be just 
and fear not." 

PHILIPPS, John Allen Lloyd, Esq., of Mabws, 

Cardiganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for cos. Cardigan and Pem- 
broke ; Major in the Royal Cardiganshire 
Militia ; formerly Captain in the 44th and 
82 nd Regiments; son of John Philipps Allen 
Lloyd Philipps, Esq., J. P. and D. L. of Dale 
Castle, co. of Pembroke ; b. at Aberystwyth, 
24th Sept., 1824 ; ed. at Salisbury School ; 
m., 1845, Elizabeth, only dau. of the late 
Richard Jones, Esq., Surgeon in the Royal 
Navy; and has had issue 2 sons, both de- 
ceased, and 2 daus. living. 

Heirs: Two daughters, co-heiresses. 

Residence: Mabws, Cardiganshire. 

Arms : A lion rampant, sa. , ducally gorged and 
chained, or. 

Crest : A lion rampant. 

Mottoes : Ar Dduw y gyd ; and, Ducit amor 
patriae. 

LINEAGE. 

The head of this ancient family at present is J. P. 
- Allen Lloyd Philipps, Esq., of Dale Castle, Pem- 



broke, under whose name the pedigree of the house 

will be found. 

Note. The mansion of Mabws is one of the truly 
old dwellings of Cardiganshire. It was erected in the 
year 1600, by Richard Lloyd, Esq., of Ystrad-Teilo, 
in the parish of Llanrhystyd, at which time the family 
removed from Ystrad-Teilo, where they had resided 
for centuries. The house, which is built of greystone, 
stands high, overlooking park-like grounds with sur- 
rounding woods, and the river Wyre running through 
them. 

POWELL, Col. William Thomas Rowland, of 
Nant-Eos, Cardiganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Cardi- 
gan ; was Captain in the 37th Regiment ; 
Lieut.-Col. in the Cardigan Militia ; and 
M.P. for. the co. of Cardigan from 1859 
to 1865 ; eldest son of the late William 
Edward Powell, Esq., of Nanteos, M.P. 
for co. of Cardigan from 1816 to 1854, 
and for many years Lord Lieut., by Laura 
Edwina, dau. of James Sackville T. Phelp, 
Esq., of Coston House, Leicestershire ; b. 
at Swansea, 4th August, 1815; ed. at 
Westminster School; m., 1839, Rosa 
Edwyna, dau. of George Cherry, Esq., of 
Buckland, Herefordshire, and has sur- 
viving issue one son, GEORGE ERNEST J. 
POWELL; s. on the death of his father, 

1854- 

Heir: George Ernest John Powell, b. 1842. 

Residence: Nant-Eos, Aberystwyth. _ 

Town Address: Senior United Service Club. 

Arms: Arg., between four Cornish choughs, 
proper, armed, gu., a cross fleury, engrailed sa. 
the arms of EDWIN AP GRONW. On a canton, 
sa., a chevron, arg., between three spear-heads 
of the second. 

Crest: A talbot's head, proper, collared. 

Motto: Inter hastas et hostes. 

LINEAGE. 

It is recorded in the Dale Castle MS. (following 
the Book of Faerdref} that this ancient family is of 
the line of EDWIN AP GRONW of Tegeingl in 
North Wales, one of the founders of the fifteen 
noble tribes. His son Owain's dau., Angharad, 
was the wife of Gruftydd ap Cynan, King of North 
Wales (d. A.D. 1137). 

LLEWELYN CAPLAN, Lord of Aberaeron (end 
of thirteenth cent.) was sixth in descent from 
Edwin, through his other son, Ychtryd. 

LLEWELYN LLWYD, whom Burke makes a son, 
was a grandson of Llewelyn Caplan, and son of 
Llewelyn Goch (the red-haired); and his sister 
Gwerfyl m. Adda ap Meredydd, the third possessor 
of Trawscoed of the line of Fychan (Vaughan, now 
represented by the Earl of Lisburne, see Traws- 
coed). 

Gruffydd, the son of Llewelyn, had two sons, 
Dafydd Gwyn (the light-complexioned), ancestor 
of the old Gwyns of Monachdy, and Jeuan, whose 
son HYWEL m. Elen, dau. and h. of Rhys Dafydd 
Meredydd of Llan-y-gorwyddon ; and his grand- 
son, 

Dafydd ap Philip ap Hywel, was the first men- 
tioned as of Llechwedd-dyrus, the first seat of the 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



207 



Powels of Nanteos. With this Hytvel began the 
name, for after him was his son Philip called Ap- 
Hynuel = Powel ; and the surname became fixed 
with the next representative, 

John Powel, Esq., of Llechwedd-dyrus, who was 
father of the celebrated 

SIR THOMAS POWEL, Kt., "Serjeant-at-law" 
(1688), and one of the " Barons of the Exchequer, " 
temp. James II. He m. Elizabeth, dau. and h. of 
David Lloyd, Esq. , of Aber-brwynen, and had issue 

William Powel, Esq., who by his wife Avarina, 
dau. of Cornelius Le Brim, Esq., "a German, or 
so reputed" (Dale Castle MS.), and his wife Ann, 
dau. and co-h. of John Jones, Esq., of Nanteos (this 
is the first connection of the Powels with Nanteos), 
had with other issue a son, 

The Rev. WILLIAM POWEL, LL.D., whose 
wife was dau. and co-h. of Athelstan Owen, Esq., 
of Rhiwsaeson, Mont. Dr. Powel's dau. m. W. 
Lewis, Esq. (see Llanaeron, lineage} ; and his son 
and heir, 

Thomas Powel, Esq., m. Eleanor Corbet, of 
Ynys-y-Maengwyn, Mer. , and had with other issue 
a son, 

WILLIAM EDWARD POWEL, Esq., for many 
years Lord Lieut, of Cardiganshire, and represen- 
tative of that co. in Parliament. He m., ist, in 
1810, Laura Edwina Phelp (see above). He m. a 
second time, but had no issue. By his first wife he 
had two sons, 

1. WILLIAM THOMAS ROWLAND, now of Nan- 
teos, and 

2. Cornelius Le Brun. 

Note. The mansion of Nant-eos (see illustration, 
p. 130) was built 1739. On the estate are various 
antiquities, the most interesting being the remains of 
Strata Florida Abbey (see p. 164). It is said by Meyrick 
(note on Dwnn, i., 7) that " a pedigree of the Powell 
family of Nant-eos," written on parchment by the 
celebrated genealogist, Thomas Sion, alias Twm Shon 
Catti, " is still among the archives of that place." We 
have not seen it. 

PRISE, Col. Edward Lewis, of Peithyll, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Lord Lieutenant of Cardiganshire ; Lieut. - 
Col. Commandant of the Royal Cardi- 
ganshire Militia; was M.P. eleven years 
for Cardigan boroughs ; was formerly 
Captain in 6th Dragoon Guards ; son of the 
late Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Gogerddan, Car- 
diganshire, and Buscot Park, Berkshire, 
who was M.P. for Cardigan boroughs from 
1818 to time of his death, 1849; b. at 
Woodstock, Oxfordshire, another seat be- 
longing to his father, Pryse Pryse, Esq. 

Residence : Peithyll, Aberystwyth, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Town Address : Army and Navy Club. 
Arms, &c.: Same as Pryse of Gogerddan. 
Note. For lineage and distinguished members of 
this ancient family, see under Pryse, Gogerddan. Pei- 
thyll is a plain mansion, chiefly noticeable for its 
investiture of modern farm buildings, adapted for an 
improved system of agriculture and rearing of stock. 

PRYSE, Sir Pryse, Bart., of &ogerddan, Cardi- 
ganshire. 
A Baronet by revived creation, July 28, 



1866; former Baronetcy created gth 
August, 1641. Sir Pryse is a J. P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Cardigan ; High Sheriff 
of the same in 1861 ; Col. of the Royal 
Cardiganshire Militia ; son of the late 
Pryse Pryse (afterwards Pryse Loveden), 
Esq., of Gogerddan, J. P. and D. L. for 
Cardiganshire, and M.P. for Cardigan 
boroughs 1847 1856, by Margaret, dau. 
of the late Walter Rice, Esq., of Llwyny- 
brain in the co.of Carmarthen; b. at Goger- 
ddan, i5th January, 1838; m., 23rd Feb., 
1859, Louisa Joan, youngest dau. of Col. 
John Lewes, of Llanllyr, co. Cardigan ; s. 
to the estates on death of his father in Feb., 
1855 ; has issue 5 sons and 2 daus. : 

1. PRYSE PRYSE, b. 1859. 

2. Edward John, b. 1861. 

3. Lewis Thomas Loveden, b. 1862. 

4. Richard Humphry Edmund, b. 1867. 

5. George Rice, b. 1869. 

1. Margaret Joan, b. 1860. 

2. Florence Mary, b. 1868. 
Heir : PRYSE PRYSE. 

Residence: Gogerddan, Aberystwyth. 

Town Address: Brown's Hotel, Dover Street, W. 

Arms: Or, lion rampant regardant, sa. 
PRYSE (the ancient arms of Gwaithfoed, see 
Lineage), quartering also the arms of LOVEDEN. 

Crest : Lion rampant regardant, in paws a fleur- 
de-lis, or. 

Motto : Duw a'n Bendithio. 

LINEAGE. 

This ancient and eminent family has been settled 
at Gogerddan (more properly Gogarth-an, see Note 
at end of Lineage) for many hundred years. Its 
twofold lines of descent show each a princely 
origin the paternal purely Welsh, coming down 
from Gwaethfoed Fawr, Lord of Cardigan (eleventh 
cent. ) ; the maternal through a series of female links 
descending through Lord Berkley and the Dukes of 
Norfolk from Edward I. From the following 
pedigree it is seen that the point of junction of the 
two lines was in the marriage of John Pryse, of 
Gogerddan, with Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Thomas 
Perrot, of Haroldstone, whose wife, Mary, was gr. 
gr. grand-dau. of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Nor- 
folk, who was himself gr. gr. grandson of Edward I., 
King of England. When Leivys Dwnn in 1588 
visited^ Gogerddan, (Sir) Richard Pryse, "Lord of 
Geneu'r-Glyn a Threfgaron," was the possessor of 
Gogerthan ; a pedigree was then drawn up by the 
Deputy Herald, who " receved off RICHD. PRYSE 
IDS.," the signature, of which a fac-simile is given 
in Meyrick's ed. of Dwnn, being in the bold and 
legible hand of Sir Richard himself. Dwnn also, ac- 
cording to a useful habit he had, gave the arms of the 
Pryse family as then recognised, and as they are of 
historic interest they arehere reproduced (translated). 

The arms of Risiart Pryse, Esq. [afterwards knighted], 
are these : 

1. The coat of Gwaethfoed: that is to say, or, a lion 
rampant, regardant, sa., armed and langued, gu. 

2. Sa. a lion rampant, arg., armed and langued, gu., for 
reithivalch, Lord of Ceredigion. 

3. The coat of Ynyr for Ivor], King of Gwent [father-in- 
law of Gwaethfoed J, i.e., per pale, az. and sa. 3 neurs-de-lis,or. 

4- Or, a griffin, vert, for Elfin ap Gwyddno [the legend 
makes him the finder (6th cent.) of the child Taliesin\. 



208 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



5. Gu., a griffin, or, for Meredydd ap Llewelyn. 

6. Ermine, a saltier, gu., for Desmond. 
In pale this achievement is 

i." Sa., three nags' heads, erased, arg., for Brochwel Ysgy- 
throg, King of Powys. 

a. The coat of Robert, Lord of Cydewain, arg., a lion 
salient, crowned, or, armed and langued, gu> 

3. Einion ap Cynfelyn. 4. Elystan [Glodrydd], King of 
Ferlys [between Severn and Wye, i2th century]. 

5. The arms of Brochwel ap Aeddan. 

6. The eagle of Robert ap Owain Gwynedd. 

These are all quartered by Richeart Prys, Esq., and the 
escutcheons of Thomas ap Rhys ap Morus, Esq. [Richard 
Pryse's father-in-law], quarterly and in pale attached to the 
whole achievement, " Gwedi qwarterly ac yn in pal wrth 
yssiffment oil," not a very clear way of describing it but 
Dwnn's language had no rules. 

It will be noticed that the present Gogerddan 
escutcheon bears only the first of the above the 
coat of Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cardigan. 

This pedigree, which is originally and carefully 
drawn, and is more complete than afty Gogerddan 
pedigree ever before published, gives first the 
Welsh, or male descent, and secondly the Nor- 
man, or female descent. 

Gwydir (or Gwyrid), son of Caradog (of the sept 
of Cynedda Wledig\ "a man of worship in Wales," 
m. Morfydd, dau. and sole h. of Owain ap Tyth- 
walch, Lord of Cardigan (tenth cent.). In her right 
he was Lord of Cardigan and Gwynfai. He d. in the 
time of Athelstan, King of the Saxons. Arms 
attrib. to Morfydd : sa., a lion rampant, arg. 

GWAETHFOED, Lord of Cardigan and Gwynfai 
(d. 1057), lived in the time of Harold the Saxon ; m. 
Morfydd, dau. of Ivor (or Ynyr), King of Gwent, 
and one of his hs. [her arms were per pale'az. and 
sa. 3 fleurs-de-lis, or], and had issue by her 

Cadifor ap Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cardigan (temp. 
William the Conqueror). He d. 1099, having m. 
Joan, a dau. of Elystan Glodrydd, Prince of 
Ferlys, between Severn and Wye. 

Ifor ap Cadifor (of Iscoed), Lord of Cardigan, m. 
Lleiky ( Lucy), dau. of Cadifor ap Dinawal, Lord of 
Castell-Howel and Gilfachwen, the ancestor of the 
clan Lloyd of Cardiganshire, and had issue 

Gruffydd ap Ifor, Lord of Castell-odwyn and 
Glyn-acron, who m. Agnes (Annes. or Ann), dau. 
of Robert ap Madog, Lord of Cedewen, or Kede- 
win, and had a son, 

Jevan (or Evan) ap Gruffydd Voel (the bald) 
Esq., of Castell-odwyn and Glyn-aeron, who m. 
Elin, dau., and one of the hs. of Meredydd ap 
Cadwgan fantach ap Caradog. 

Jevan Llwyd, Esq., of Glyn-aeron, m. Angharad, 
dau. of Richard ap Einion, Esq., a man paternally 
descended from Elystan Glodrydd, Prince of Ferlys. 

RHYDDERCH AP JEVAN LLWYD, Esq., of Glyn- 
aeron (the well-known bard, called in the St. 
MarKs Coll. MS. "of Geneu'r-glyn," which may 
be taken as equivalent to Gogerddan^ m. Maud, 
dau. of Gruffydd Gryg (the hoarse), from whom he 
had issue as under. He again m. a dau. of Sir 
William Clement. 

The Clements were of Norman origin, and ex- 
changed Coedmore for Geneu'r-glyn with Roger 
Mortymcr. (See p. 169.) 

Dafydd ap Rhydderch m. Ellen, dau. of Richard 
ap Owen ap Richard, of Uwch-aeron, "a man 
paternally descended from Llawdden. " 

David Lloyd (Llwyd) of Gogarthan m. Gwenllian, 
dau. and h. of Meredydd ap Llywelyn ap Jeuan, of 
Penybery. She bore or, a lion rampant, gu. 

Rhys ap David Lloyd, of Gogarthan, m. Cathe- 
rine, dau. of Rhys ap David Lloyd, of Newton, of 
the race of Elystan Glodrydd [the Dale Castle MS. 
says that she was his second wife, and that his first 



was "Elen, dau. of Morgan ap Llewelyn, Abbot 
of Strata Florida "]. By the former he had 

SIR RICHARD ap Rhys, or PRYSE, Kt. [this is 
the beginning of the name Pryse], of Gogarthan, 
d. Feb. 7, 1662, temp. James I. [this is a mistake, 
and must refer to the death of the next Sir Richard], 
who m. Ellen, dau. and one of the hs. of William 
ap Jenkin ap lorwerth, Esq. ; she bore ermine, a 
saltier, gu. [see "Arms," above]. 

JOHN PRYSE, of Gogarthan, Esq., one of the 
council of the Marches of Wales, andM.P. [for the 
co. of Cardigan 1553-4-5, under Philip and Mary; 
see Membs. of Parlt. for Card.~\. He m., 1st, Eliza- 
beth, ASM. of Sir Thomas Perrot, Kt., of Harold- 
stone, in the co. of Pembr. ; and, Bridget, dau. of 
James Price, of Monachdy. 

Here, in the mar. of John Pryse with Elizabeth 
Perrot, is the union of the Welsh with the Anglo- 
Norman line from Edward I. This latter is brought 
down thus : 

Henry II. (Plantagenet), King of England (cr. 1154), Duke 
of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, son of the 
Empress Maud, and gr. grandson of William the Conqueror, 
m. Eleanor of Aquitaine, eldest dau. and h. of William, the 
fifth of that name, but ninth Duke of Aquitaine. 

John, their son, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke 
of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, surnamed 
sans-terre (cr. 1199; d. 1216) ; m. Isabel of Angouleme. 

Henry III., King of England, &c., surnamed "of Win- 
chester," cr. 1216 ; m. Eleanor of Prov*nce, dau. and co.-h. of 
Raymond Berengar, Count of Provence. Their son was 

EDWARD I., King of England, surnamed Longshanks, cr. 
1272 ; m, [ist, Eleanor of Castile], and 2nd, Margaret, dau. of 
Philip III., " the hardy" King of France. By his 2nd wife, 
Margaret, he had a son 

Thomas (called " of Brotherton," because born there), Earl 
of Norfolk, who m. Alice, dau. of Sir Roger Halys, of Havre. 
They had a dau., 

Margaret, whose first husband was John, Lord Segrave, 
by whom she had a dau., 

Elizabeth, who iu. John, Lord Mowbray. Their son, 

Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, m. Elizabeth Fitz- 
Alan, sister and co.-h. of Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel. 
Their 2nd dau., 

Isabella Mowbray, in. James, Lord Berkeley. 

Maurice Berkeley, their son (who d. 1507), m. Isabella, 
dau. and h. of Philip Mead, of Bristol, and had issue- 
Sir James Berkeley, Kt., Esquire of the Body to King 
Henry VII., who m. a dau. and co.-h. of Vyell. 

Mary, dau. and h. of Sir James Berkeley, m. Sir Thomas 
Perrot, Kt., of Haroldstone, in the co. of Pemb., and their 
daughter 

ELIZABETH became the first wife of John Pryse, Esq., of 
Gogerddan. 

The issue of this junction of the two lines were 

1. SIR RICHARD PBYKE, Kt., the heir of Gogarthan. of 
whom hereafter. 

2. THOMAS PRYSE, Esq., of Glanfred ; Will dated nth 
Sept., 1623. He m. Bridget, dau. of T. Griffith, Esq., 
of Glanfred, and had issue i, Edward, m. Mary, dau. of 
John of Caethle (d. s. p.) ; 2, James ; 3, Thomas, who m. and 
had issue, which became extinct circa 1742. 

4. Walter Pryse, Esq., of Tunahir, co. Mont, (second son), 
who m. Ann, only dau. and h. of John Pugh, Esq., of 
Glanmeryn, co. Mont., and had issue, 

1. Thomas Pryse, Esq., eldest son, b. 27th Feb., 1644, of 
Tunahir, who m. Mary, dau. of Evans, ofco. Mont., and 
had a son, 

John Pryse, Esq. , of Glanmeryn, who by his wife Mary, dau. 

of David Lewis, Esq., of Dolhaidd, co. Carm., had a son, 

Thomas Pryse, of whom hereafter, as heir of Gogerddan. 

2. Richard Pryse, Esq., second son of Tunahir, m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Capt. William Edward, "a great loyalist," 
temp. Charles I., and had a son, 

Walter Pryse, Esq. (living 1743), of Painswick, Glouces- 
tershire, and of St. Andrew's, Holborn, London, who tit., 
ist, Mary, dau. and co.-h. of John Sewell, Esq., of Heany, 
Essex (son of Robert Sewell, Esq., of London), d. 25th Nov., 
1717 ; 2nd, Elizabeth, gr. dau. of Sir William Lewis, Bart., 
of Borden, co. Hants, and of Llangorse, co. Brecon, son of 
John Lewis, Esq., of Abernant-bychan, co. Card. She d i7th 
May, 1 734, leaving a grandson(by her dau. by her first husband), 
George Lewis Langton, who d. at Rome, 22nd Aug., 1738, upon 
his travels, leaving all his estates to the said Walter Pryse of 
Painswick. Walter Pryse, by his first wife, had issue, 

i. Lewis Pryse, of whom again, as eventual heir of 
Gogerddan. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



209 



2 Elizabeth Pryse, b. in the parish of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, d. unm., and was buried at Gloucester. 

3 Elizabeth Pryse, b. in the parish of St. Andrew's, Hol- 
born, d. unm., and was buried at Gloucester. 

Sir Richard Pryse, Kt, aforesaid (d. 6th Feb., 
1622), m. Gwenllian, dau. and sole h. of Thomas 
Price ap Morus ap Owen ap Evan Blaen ["the 
plain;" Dwnn has "D. Blene;" Dale C. MS., 
" D. blayn"], of Aberbychan, Mont., and had, 
with other issue, a son, 

Sir John Pryse, Kt., who succeeded him at 
Gogarthan, but was called at first of Aberbychan ; 
he m. Mary, dau. of Sir Henry Bromley, Kt., of 
Shradon Castle, Salop. Sir John d. in the lifetime 
of his father, leaving with other children, amongst 
whom was Edward, a son, 

RICHARD PRYSE, his h., created a baronet gth 
Aug., 1641 ; m. Hester, dau. of Sir Hugh Middle- 
ton [of Ruthin, Denb., the celebrated projector of 
the New River, London ; she was the second of 
four daughters], and had issue, 

1. Sir Richard Pryse, 2nd Bart., d. s. p. [m. 
Dorothy, dau. of Col. John Robinson, of North 
Wales]. 

2. Sir Thomas Pryse, 3rd Bart., d. s. p. 1682. 

3. Carbury Pryse, Esq., third son, who m. 
Hester, dau. of Sir Bulstrode Whitlocke, Kt. [of 
the Council of State under Cromwell], and had a 
son, 

SIR CARBURY PRYSE, 4th Bart, [see Membs. of 
Farl. for Card.\ upon whose death without issue, 
1694, the title became extinct. Speaks of " Uncle 
Edward," who enjoyed the estates till 1699, when 
they passed to the already-named Thomas Pryse, 
Esq. 

THOMAS PRYSE, Esq., of Gogarthan, a scholar 
of Westminster School 1728, M.P. for borough of 
Cardigan 1741-45 ; d. 2nd June, 1745 [see Hughes' 
Par/. Repres., Co. Card.~\; m. Maria Charlotte, dau. 
and h. of Rowland Pugh, Esq., M.D., of Matha- 
farn, Mont., by Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. of Robert 
Salesbury, Esq., of Rhug, Mer., and had a son, 

John Pugh Pryse, Esq. (aged 5 years in 1743), 
who represented the cos. of Cardigan [1761-68] 
and Merioneth in Parl. ; d. unmarried, at Gogarthan; 
buried at Llanbadarn-fawr, 1774, when the estates 
passed to his kinsman, 

LEWIS PRYSE, Esq., aforementioned, son of 
Walter Pryse, Esq., of Painswick, and himself of 
the borough of New Woodstock, co. Oxford ; b. 
in the parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, London, 
Dec., 1716 ; m. Margaret, dau. of Edward Ryves, 
Esq'., of the borough of Woodstock ; b. at Wood- 
stock, d. 1798, bur. at Llanbadarn-fawr. Mr. 
Pryse had issue a son, Lewis Pryse, who d. un- 
married at Gogarthan, and was buried at Llanba- 
darn-fawr ; and a dau. 

MARGARET PRYSE, sole h. to her brother, b. at 
Woodstock; m. at Pershore, Wor., 1773; d. 3Oth 
Jan. , 1 784 ; bur. at Buscot. Her husband was 
Edward Loveden Townsend, of Buscot, in the co. 
of Berks, Esq. ; took the surname and arms of 
Loveden by royal licence in 1772 ; b. at Cirencester, 
1750; was M.P. for Abingdon, co. Berks. The 
issue of this mar. besides Margaret; Jane Elizabeth, 
b. at Buscot, d. 1855, and bur. at Llanbadarn-fawr; 
Edward ; Walter ; Jane, d. infants was 

PRYSE LOVEDEN, Esq., only surviving son, b. at 
Buscot, 1 774 ; became Pryse Pryse, 1 798, by 
royal licence ; M.P. for Cardigan 31 years (1818-49); 
d. at Gogerddan, bur. at Llanbadarn-fawr, 1849. 
He m., 1st, the Hon. Mrs. Agar, second dau. of 
Lord Ashbrooke, who d. s. p. 1813 ; 2ndly, Jane, 
dau. of Peter Cavallier, Esq., of Stepney, and gr. 



niece of Jean Cavallier, a leader of the Camisards, 
who d. Governor of Jersey, 1 740, and by her had 
issue, 

1. PRYSE PRYSE, Esq., his successor, of whom 
hereafter. 

2. Edward Lewis Pryse, M.P. for Cardigan 
1857-68 ; Lord Lieut, of Cardiganshire (see Prvse, 
Peithyll). 

3. John Pugh Pryse, Esq. (see Pryse, Bwlch- 
bychan). 

PRYSE PRYSE, Esq., assumed by royal licence, 
1849, the surname LOVEDEN ; was M.P. for Car- 
digan ; d. ist Feb., 1855, and was btir. at Llanba- 
darn-fawr ; he m. Margaretta Jane, dau. of Major 
Rice of Llwyn-y-brain, co. of Carmarthen, who, 
surviving her husband, m., 2ndly, Henry C. Fryer, 
Esq., of South Lytchett, Dorset. Mr. Pryse-Love- 
den had issue, 

1. PRYSE PRYSE (now "Sir") of Gogerddan ; 
took the name of Loveden May 14, 1855 ; after- 
wards Pryse Pryse, by royal licence, July 2, 1863 ; 
created a baronet, by the revival of the ancient title, 
in 1866. For mar. and issue see above. 

2. Margaret Pryse, b. at Lodge Park, June, 1842 ; 
m., Oct. 13, 1869, Thomas Holford, Esq., of 
Bitteswell, co. of Leicester. 

3. Caroline Agnes Loveden, b. at Gogerddan. 

Note. The old form of the name, Gogarthan, is 
doubtless more correct than the modem Gogerddan, 
garth being an ancient Celtic word meaning an en- 
closure (hence gardd, a garden), and garthan an 
entrenchment or encampment. Gogarth is not an 
uncommon name in N. Wales, applied to ancient 
residences and positions. The particle go sometimes 
gives an intensive meaning to the word to which it is 
prefixed, but generally expresses similitude. For an 
illustration of this mansion see p. 126. 



PRYSE, John Pugh Yaughan, Esq., of Bwlch- 
bychan, Cardiganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for co. Cardigan; third 
son of the late Pryse Pryse, Esq., of Goger- 
ddan, co. of Cardigan, many years M.P. for 
Cardigan boroughs ; b. at Gogerddan Sep- 
tember i oth, 1 8 1 8 ; ed. at home ; m., i st, No- 
vember i Qth, 1844, Mary Anne, 2nd dau. 
of J. W. Philipps, Esq., of Aberglasney, 
co. of Carmarthen (she d. 1851); 2nd, 
October i2th, 1853, Decima Dorothea, 
youngest dau. of Walter Rice, Esq., of 
Llwynybrain, co. of Carmarthen, and has 
issue, 

1st mar., a dau., Mary Anne Emily Jane. 
2nd mar., a son, b. April 5th, 1859. 
Heir: John Carbery Pugh Vaughan Pryse. 
Residence: Bwlchbychan, Lampeter, Cardigan- 
shire. 

Arms : The Arms of Gogerddan. 
Motto : Duw a'n bendithio. 

LINEAGE. 

For lineage, see Pryse, Gogerddan, where the 
full family pedigree is originally and completely 
given. 

Note. The mansion of Bwlchbychan, in the plain 
Domestic style of architecture, was built 1849-51. 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF CARDIGANSHIRE. 



PUGH, Lewis Pugh, Esq., of Abermaide, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Is J. P. and D. L. of the co. of Cardigan ; 
2nd son of John Evans, Esq., of Loves- 
grove, J. P. for co. of Cardigan, and Eliza, 
his wife, dau. of Lewis Pugh, Esq., late of 
Aberystwyth, deceased ; b. at Aberystwyth, 
August 3rd, 1837 ; ed. at .Winchester 
College and Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford; grad. B.A. 1859, M.A. 1861 ; m., 
March 28th, 1864, at the Cathedral, Cal- 
cutta, Veronica Harriet Hills, dau. of 
James Hills, Esq., of Nee Dinagepore, in 
the Presidency of Bengal ; s. to the estate 
of his maternal uncle, the late Lewis Pugh, 
Esq., of Abermaide [anciently Abermad], 
and took the surname of Pugh instead of 
that of Evans, under her Majesty's licence, 
in pursuance of the direction of his said 
uncle's will; has issue 2 sons and i 
daughter. 

Heir: Lewis Pugh Pugh, b. April i6th, 1865. 
Residence: Abermaide, Cardiganshire. 
Town Address: 14, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 
Aims: Or, a lion passant, guardant, sa., between 
five fleurs-de-lis, 3 in chief, i in base, gu. 

Crest: On a wreath of the colours, a lion ram- 
pant, arg., in dexter paw an escutcheon, or, 
charged with a fleur-de-lis, gu., dexter paw resting 
on a quatrefoil, or. 

Pugh of Abermaide quarters the arms of Evans 
of Lovesgrove. 

LINEAGE. 

For lineage, see Evans, Lovesgrove, co. Cardi- 
gan, where it is shown that both on the paternal 
and' maternal side this family is of an ancient 
Welsh descent. 

_Mtf<?. -The mansion of Abermaide is now (1872) in 
course of erection (see further ref., pp. 130 and 178), 
near the site of the very ancient house of Abermad, 
long the seat of the Lloyds. The manner in which 
this beautiful old Cymric name has been corrupted to 
suit the ear of people unlettered in the Welsh language 
is an instance of how local names of significance and 
historic associations are oftentimes tortured into strange 
and unmeaning shapes. We have Abermaed, Aber- 
maid, Abermaide, and Abermayd none of which 
have sense -applied to this place. A little stream 
called Mad (the pretty, the pleasant, the good) comes 
down at this spot from the south, and its junction 
with the Ystwyth has been called Aber-M&d for 500 
years at least, and from long possession as well as 
from its geographical significance has a right of con- 
tinuance. Where the etymology is clear, the corrup- 
tion of names of places should always be avoided, as an 
ol fence to truth. 

RICHARDES, Captain Alexander, of Penglais, 

Cardiganshire. 

Captain in the Royal Cardigan Militia 
son of the late Roderick Eardley Richardes 
Esq., of Penglais, J. P. for the county 01 
Cardigan ; formerly Ensign in 83rd Reg. of 
Foot ; b. in London ; is m., and has issue 
3 sons and 4 daus. 



Heir: Eardley John. 

Residence: Penglais, Aberystwyth. 

Crest : A lion rampant. 

RICHARDES, Capt. William Eardley of Bryn- 

eithin, Cardiganshire. 

Is J. P. for the co. of Cardigan ; entered 
the Royal Artillery, and served at Water- 
loo as lieutenant; son of William Richardes, 
Esq., of Penglais, J. P. for co. of Cardigan ; 
b. at Penglais, 1797 ; ed. at Marlow, and 
Woolwich Academy; m., 1829, Marianne 
Stephens, dau. of Hugh Stephens, Esq., of 
Cascob, Radnorshire, J. P. for co. Radnor, 
served office of High Sheriff, and was pos- 
sessed of a manor in that county; and 
has issue 4 sons and i daughter. 
Heir: Hugh Stephens Richardes. 
Residence: Bryneithin, Cardiganshire. 
Arms: "Lion rampant, 3 castles, 3 bears' 
heads, 3 fleurs-de-lis, 3 scaling-ladders." 
Motto : Semper idem. 

"The family is related to Sir Sidney Smith and 
Lord Nelson/ 

Xote. Capt. Richardes, eldest son, served with 
distinction in India during the mutiny, and received a 
letter of thanks from the Queen ; the second son also 
served in India, and had the medal for Lucknow and 
Delhi. 

ROGERS, John Edwardes, Esq., of Abermeurig, 

Cardiganshire. 

Is a J. P. for the co. of Cardigan ; only 
son of the late John Rogers, Esq., M.D., 
of Abermeurig, by Anne, his wife, dau. of 
Thomas Jones, Esq., of Llanio, near Tre- 
garon, co. of Cardigan; b. 1826; ed. at 
Wadham Coll., Oxford ; grad. B.A. 1849; 
is unm. ; s. to estates 1 846. 

Residence: Abermeurig, Talsarn, Cardiganshire. 
Note. The late Dr. Rogers of Abermeurig was 
for many years an eminent practitioner in this county, 
and will long be remembered for his marked benevo- 
lence towards the poor. As a professional man he 
was sought after from great distances. He lost his life 
in the sudden flood of a neighbouring stream, when 
returning home from visiting his patients. ED. 

YAUGHAN, Capt. Herbert, of Brynog, Cardi- 
ganshire. 

Is a J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Cardigan ; 
late Capt. 68th Light Infantry; High 
Sheriff for the co. of Cardigan in 1862 ; 
eldest son of the late Lieut.-Col. Vaughan, 
9 8th Regiment; b., 1833, at the Cape of 
Good Hope; ed. at Cheltenham College, 
and Dresden, Saxony ; s. 1855 ; *., 1862, 
Julia, dau. of the Rev. L. C. Dunes, of 
Ynyshir, Cardiganshire, and has issue 4 
sons and 2 daughters. 

Heir : John Lewis Vaughan. 
Residence: Brynog, Cardiganshire. 
Town Address: Army and Navy Club. 
Motto: Non revertar inultus. 



ANNALS, &c./ OF WALES. 



CARM ART HENS HI RE. 

(Sm GAERFYRDDIN.) 

CARMARTHEN is one of those venerable names in the Principality whose etymology and 
signification have become obscured by length of age. No man who is not a poet can tell 
us the parts out of which the whole of this name has been formed. The imaginative and 
poetic, and those copiers of old-established superstitions, who possess neither imagination 
ncr poetry, go straight to Merlin, and to his cave beyond Abergwili, for the solution of the 
point. Caer and Myrddin, they say, nothing is plainer. But the truth is that there are 
several things plainer, and few things less plain. It is not common for a place to be called 
after the name of a person before that person was born ; but Merlin, if born at all and it 
is morally certain that he was, must have been born in the course of the century after the 
Romans left Britain ; and yet the name Caer-mardm, in its chief substance, was borne by 
this good old place at least 300 years earlier than this. Ptolemy, the geographer, in the 
first half of the second century, calls it Maridounon, or Mouridounon Mapirou^oj/, Moupt^ouj <>u 
(copies vary) ; and the Itinerary of Antoninus, perhaps completed fifty years later, marks 
it as Maridunum. It is fair to argue that these early foreign appellations were based on a 
native name which had long distinguished the din, or " eminence," on which the fragments 
of the castle and the county gaol of Carmarthen now stand. 

The element Caer is plain ; so is din at the end of the word. It is the intervening 
syllable, represented in all forms by m and r, whatever the vowel which joined them may 
have been, which forms the difficulty. The syllable now last in order in the word was 
doubtless the first historic element of the name. It was called a din before it was called a 
Caer, and only called by this latter when the din was artificially strengthened for warlike pur- 
poses. In other words, it was a din by nature, but a caer by art ; and it was called m-r-^'w, 
to distinguish it as a din from some other. These letters, with their intervening vowel, 
could scarcely be mawr, for the hill, relatively to those around it, was too small to be called 
mawr. They might be mor an old as well as modern word for " sea; " for in early times 
it is more than possible that the tide filled the Vale of Towy for miles above Carmarthen, as 
it does now the space between Ferryside and Llanstephan, and the din would thus be on 
the mor. The stronghold, or caer, when built, might therefore be called Caer-mor-ddin. 

Caer-myrdd-ddyn, the fortress of a thousand men a derivation invented by the pseudo- 
Tyssilio, in his legend of Vortigern's search " for the boy that had no father," is too pal- 
pably absurd to merit consideration, and is, moreover, like the Merlin derivation, liable to 



212 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

the fatal objection that the name is known to be older than the age of Vortigern, or the 
Saxon conquest. 

Caer-mur- ddin, "the fortress of the walled eminence," is a better guess than the last- 
mentioned ; but, besides the objection that caer and mur would be tautological, we fear 
that mur is a Welsh term borrowed from the Latin murus (though this is by no means 
certain), more recent therefore than the Roman conquest, and more recent than the age of 
Ptolemy and the Itinerary. In addition to this it may be said that the Romans would 
scarcely imitate mur-din by mart-dun ; while it is highly probable that they would substitute 
mari-dun for mor-din, as identical in sense and nearly equivalent in sound. 

Caer/yrddin is a recent form, evidently imitating the name of Myrddin Emrys, the 
wizard, who was perhaps a native of these parts.* In the Mjddle Ages this form was not 
known, as is proved by the chronicles, and by Giraldus de Barri (A.D. 1188). Giraldus 
always calls it Caerwardyn, recognising, however, like a man who dearly loved the marvel- 
lous, the name of Merlin as the basis of the name. Kermerdin is- a very common form in 
ancient documents. In the Annales .Cambria it occurs frequently ; and we meet there also 
the forms Cayrmardyn, Cayrmerdyn, and even Kermerd. 

On the whole, probability seems to favour the opinion that this place, when the Romans 
arrived and named it, was simply a din, dinas, or fortified point ; that they called it Mari- 
dun-um, from its situation near the sea ; and that the Britons, having become familiar with 
this name during the 400 years of Roman occupation, received it into their vocabulary, and 
prefixed to it their own Caer, dropping the Latin termination um, and called it Caermardin, 
which afterwards, under the influence of the Merlin romance, became Caer-Myrddin and 
Caerfyrddin. So much for the name : now we turn to the county. 



SECTION I. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

This county is oblong in form, running E.N.E. and W.S.W., measuring in extreme length, 
from the Carmarthen Bay at Marroes to the boundary line between it and Breconshire, 
beyond Ystrad-ffin, some fifty-four miles ; and in extreme breadth, from Llwchwr Bridge to 
Cenarth, on the Teivi, thirty-three miles. It is the largest in superficial measurement of all 
the counties of Wales, containing 974 square miles, or 606,331 acres. Its population in the 
last five censuses was as follows : 

Total population in 1831 ... ... ... 100,740; 

Do. 1841 ... ... ... 106,326; 

Do. 1851 ... .... ... 110,632; 

dh. 

Do. 1861 ... 111,796; 

Do. 1871 ... 116,944; 

showing a sustained increase, amounting in the five decades to 16,294. 

Two conditions are essential to a perfect landscape eminences and rivers ; and in these 
two Carmarthenshire abounds. Next to Breconshire it possesses the highest hills, and in 
the Towy it possesses, without exception, the finest stream in S. Wales. These same two 
conditions determine the geographical outlines of a region. The hills form the watersheds, 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 213 

and the valleys act as channels to guide the accumulated waters : along these latter, villages 
and towns start up, and roads are made; population follows, and is nourished by the 
alluvial soil and shelter of the depressed and watered parts, and thus the vital as well as 
topographical momenta of a region are determined. 

The great surface features of Carmarthenshire are the hills of the Precelly range, which 
travel up from Pembrokeshire to the N.E., from Llanfyrnach, by Allt-y-walis, and on to the 
Tregaron Mountains, forming the watershed for the Teivi on the west, and the Towy on the 
east ; and on the other side the eminences of the Black Mountains, Talysarn, and their continu- 
ing ridges penetrating Breconshire, forming the chief watershed of the Towy and Llwchwr 
on the west, and the Tawe on the east. Between these swellings of the surface comes the 
fine depression of the Vale of Towy, which from the earliest times must have been the chief 
seat of population. Indeed, even to comparatively recent times, Ystrad Tywy was the name 
by which all these parts were generally designated. To ravage Carmarthenshire was to 
ravage'Ystrad-Tywy, &c. 

This splendid stream, with the chains of landscape wreathings which on either side deck 
it forth in glory when summer gladdens the land, begins its course high up in the Tregaron 




DlRLETON : THE SEAT OF ALAN JAMES GULSTON, ESQ. (from a photo, by Allen}. 

Mountains, in that general region, prolific beyond any other in Britain in streams, where the 
Severn and Wye, the Rheidol and Ystwyth, the Irvon and the Teivi have all their birth. It 
speedily gathers into its volume several contributories of like wild nature with itself, and 
rushes down with dancing and not noiseless pace through some of the most picturesque 
defiles in S Wales to the Valley of Cilycwm, where it first finds what may with propriety be 
called in figure a " bed." to lie upon. Here, flanked on either side by hills of moderate 
height, and accompanied everywhere by scenes of fertility and beauty to which its own 
virtue mainly contributes, it marches on by Llandovery and Llangadock, for, if possible, fairer 



214 



CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



unfoldings of grandeur beyond Llandeilo-fawr. The Vale of Towy abounds in elegant 
residences. Above Cilycwm is Neuaddfawr, the mansion of W. D. H. Campbell Davys, Esq. ; 
near Llandovery stands Henllys, recently the seat of the Jones family ; Tonn, the seat of 
William Rees, Esq. (see Rees of Tonn); Blaenos, the seat of John Jones, Esq., M.P. (see 
Jones of Blaenos}; Llwyn-y-brain ; Dolgarreg, the seat of Charles Bishop, Esq.; Glansevin, 
the seat of Captain Lloyd, and long-continued home of his ancestors (see Lloyd, Glanstviri) ; 
Cilgwyn, the seat of J. P. W. Gwynne Holford, Esq., M.P. ; Abermarlais, the residence of 
Mrs. Price, and long ago the property of the well-known family of Johnes (see Price, Aber- 
marlais) ; and Dirleton, formerly Llwynyberllan, delightfully situated near the margin of the 
Towy, in the neighbourhood of Llangadock (see Gulston of Dirleton}. 




DIRLETON, SIDE VIEW (jrom a photo, by Allen). 



The river Towy, between Llangadock and Llandeilo, is of good volume, rolling along, 
especially in winter, with majestic force, and during floods, which are not of unfrequent 
occurrence, committing serious havoc on the alluvial soil of the valley. A great reach of 
hilly country is drained by the Towy and its numerous tributaries coming from the N.W. ; 
and when the westerly winds bring their heavy charges from the Atlantic and deposit them 
on the Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire heights, all that the earth drinks not in is 
ultimately taken in charge by the Towy for conveyance to the sea; and then woe be to the 
fair meads and fertile corn-fields if the ordinary channel is too confined, or obstructions 
occur ! The proud and mighty flood, as if conscious of supernal strength, and master of a 
licence which sets all law at defiance, sweeps away bridges and embankments, effaces the 
boundaries of properties, converts the meadow into a field of pebbles, tangled brushwood, 
and gravel, and for days together extends its triumphant sway over the whole vale. Much 
of the best land is thus destroyed, the hay crop is often damaged, and the only compensation 
the mighty autocrat affords is the additional fertility which, during the periods of lawlessness, 



PHYSICAL-DESCRIPTION : ON THE TOWY. 



215 



it imparts to the soil. It often occurs to the beholder, after one of these devasting floods in 
the Vale of Towy, whether labour would not be well and profitably bestowed in maintaining 
the regularity of the channel, and strengthening the banks so as to guide the rushing current, 
and assist it in scooping out and perpetuating a deeper and smoother bed. It has been said 
that the division of property, and the difficulty of securing co-operation among owners, are 
generally the chief reasons for the delay of works of this kind. 

But the Towy, like the sea, has its times of calm and quietude, and then no banks of 
river, with overhanging shady woods and gravelly pellucid margins, are more attractive. 
You meet with long reaches of broad and deep water, where, with boat or picturesque 
coracle, those who have leisure, and know how to turn the advantages of the situation to 
account, can enjoy the cool of the summer breeze ; and dancing shallows, where with rod and 
line you can tempt the trout. The Towy is famous for its salmon and its sewin, and is 




ON THE TOWY : A PARTY IN CORACLES (from a photo, by Allen). 



enlivened with more fishermen's coracles the veritable national coracle, made of slender 
laths and wicker-work, and covered in orthodox fashion with a hide or tarred canvas than 
any river in Wales. 

The use of the coracle (W. Corawg) in Wales and Ireland is of great antiquity. It was 
probably the earliest, as it is likely to be the last kind of floating vehicle in these islands. 
Coracles, in form and portability, are now what they probably were 2,000 years ago. What 
they were 700 years ago Giraldus de Barri, himself a Welshman, born in the twelfth century, 
tells us. He crossed the Towy in A.D. 1188, when with Archbishop Baldwin he visited these 
parts preaching the Crusades, and possibly had the Towy coracle in view in the description 
he has recorded. " The boats which they " (the Welsh) " employ in fishing or in crossing the 
rivers are made of twigs, not oblong, nor pointed, but almost round, or rather triangular, 
covered both within and without with raw hides. When a salmon, thrown into one of these 



216 



CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



boats, strikes it hard with his tail, he often oversets it, and endangers both the vessel and the 
man. The fishermen, according to the custom of the country, in going to and from the 
rivers, carry these boats on their shoulders, on which occasion that famous dealer in fables, 
Bledhercus, who lived a little before our time, thus mysteriously said : ' There is amongst us 
a people who, when they go out in search of prey, carry their horses on their backs to the 
place of plunder. In order to catch their prey they leap upon their horses ; and when it is 
taken, carry their horses home again upon their shoulders ' " (Topogr. Cambr., 17). 




CRIFFITHSiWSOH m jT 

MAN WITH CORACLE, AND WOMEN (from a photo, by Allen}. 



The tributaries of the Towy, such as the Bran and the Cothi, vie successfully with their 
greater rival in scenes of picturesqueness and loveliness, and on their banks are situated 
some of the old historic houses. In the little valley of the Bran stands the ancient seat of 
the Gwynnes, Glan-bran. Having of late repeatedly changed hands, this mansion has fallen 
into partial decay ; the fine trees of its extensive park have been cut down, and an aspect of 
desolation is presented where for 300 years luxuriance and plenty prevailed. On the banks 
of the Cothi a beautiful stream which travels from the hilly parts to the west of Lampeter 
to meet the Towy are situated Dolau Cothi (see Johnes of Dolau Cothi) and Edwins/or d, 
the ancient Rhydodyn, or rather Rhyd-Edivin, the residence of Lady Drummond. 

In passing the town of Llandeilo-fawr, the Towy, after travelling nearly due south, turns 
rather abruptly towards the west, rounding the base of the historic hill of Dinefawr, on the 
top of which are still some venerable fragments of the castle which for several hundred years 
was the chief residence of the Princes of South Wales. The seat of the present Lord of 
Dinefawr now corrupted by an Anglicized orthography and accent into Dynevor still 
retains the old name, although great efforts were made, when a separate mansion from the 
ancient castle was built, to baptize it with the name Newton. In the pedigrees and title- 
deeds for generations we find " Newton," and the grand old name Rhys of Dinefawr becomes 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION : GRONGAR HILL. 



217 



the weak " Rice of Newton ; " but on the living lips of the people the stranger has no place to rest 
the historic Dinefawr alone is allowed there to play. The present residence, not many years 
ago rebuilt, is a square structure, standing in a rather depressed part of the park, decorated with 
turrets on the four corners, but out of harmony with the place. The park is of great extent, 
contains noble trees separately and in clumps, and gives the visitor who is not the victim of 
ignorance a sense of veneration as he gazes around him, for he feels that he is treading 
on ground made sacred by heroic deeds and long-continued struggles for the liberty and 
independence of Wales. To Dinefawr Castle further reference will be made in the section on 
Antiquities. 

On the left bank is Golden Grove (the place where Jeremy Taylor for some years found a 
retreat, and wrote some of his valuable works), whose name, however inaptly the epithet 
" Golden " may be applied to a " grove," well corresponds with the choice and rare 
beauty of the surrounding scenery. It came as a gift to the first Earl Cavvdor, grandfather 




GRONGAR HILL. 



of the present Earl, from a Vaughan who is said to have possessed more generosity than 
sense, but whom the freaks of fortune had made the largest landowner in Carmarthenshire. 
The Vaughans were a numerous race, and many of them had fewer acres than would well 
supply them with bread ; but their kinsman bore them not in mind when he signed away the 
fairest of his lands to the fortunate Scotchman. 

As the river marches onward through the riches of the vale below Llandeilo, it passes 
Dryslwyn Castle, noticed elsewhere, and Aberglasney, the birthplace and home of the poet 
Dyer (now the residence of Mrs. Harries), and laves the base of Grongar Hill whose name 
has been made famous by that poet's verse, as the beauty of its figure, rising boldly in the 
vale, and the grandeur of the prospect commanded from its summit, make it the admiration 



218 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

of every beholder. The seeker after the rich, soft, and varied in landscape beauty may go 
far before he encounters a finer view than is obtained from Grongar Hill. Equally manifold 
are the attractions of the scene, whether viewed from the eminence of Dinefawr, the top of 
Grongar, or the slopes of Golden Grove ; but from each separate point so multiplied are the 
features of the landscape the beholder seems to himself to be viewing a distinct and 
different region. The view from the grounds above Golden Grove is perhaps the finest, for 
thence are seen to advantage on the right the venerable height of Dinefawr, with its ivy 
mantle carefully sheltering what remains of the ancient stronghold, just in front the green 
slopes of Grongar, and at a little distance the ruin of Dryslwyn Castle ; while below is the 
broad and quietly travelling Towy, the fertile meads, and snug cottage homes, and on either 
hand the wooded glades and retreating dingles leading the eye upwards and onwards to 
other scenes, which are ever various but never of impoverished aspect. One feels, in 
enjoying this perfectly delightful prospect, that every element of an exquisite landscape is 
laid under contribution in the composition of the whole, and that each element is in the 
proportion and position most desirable; water, meadow, hill, ruin, woodland, mansion, 
cottage, they are all there, nigh at hand, distinct to the eye, yet separate and unobtrusive. 
To some such place did Dyer stray to view the hill he has so lovingly celebrated. 

" Grongar Hill invites my song : 
Draw the landscape bright and strong ! 
Grongar, in whose mossy cells 
Sweetly musing quiet dwells ; 
So oft I have, the evening still, 
At the fountain of a rill, 
Sat upon a flowery bed, 
With my hand beneath my head, 
While strayed my eyes o'er Towy's flood, 
Over mead and over wood, 
From house to house, from hill to hill, 
Till contemplation had her fill." 

One poet has at all events been born in the Vale of Towy, and what is not of common 
occurrence made the scenes to him the most familiar the theme of his warmest and 
justest praise. Dyer's eulogy of Grongar Hill, though full of images, has scarcely an ideal 
addition supplied for the sake of effect. The glory of the scene is so composite and affluent, 
that the poet seems to feel as if he could heap vision upon vision endlessly without exhaust- 
ing the store : 

" Ever changing, ever new, 
When will the landscape tire the view ? 
The fountain's fall, the river's flow, 
The woody valleys warm and low ; 
The windy summit, wild and high, 
Roughly rushing on the sky ! 
The pleasant seat, the ruined tower, 
The naked rock, the shady bower ; 
The town and village, dome and farm, 
Each gives each a double charm, 
As pearls upon an ^Jthiop's arm." 

On the high ground to the left of the Towy, as we move towards Carmarthen, are the 
noble mansion and grounds of Middlcton Hall (see Abadam, of Middleton Hall), built some 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



219 



years ago by Mr. Paxton, an Indian banker ; and the tower, called after his name, but 
erected by him in celebration of the name and achievements of Nelson. On the right stands 
the new seat of Allt-y-ferin (see Bath of Allt-y-feriji). 




ALLT-Y-FERIN : THE SEAT OF HENRY JAMES BATH, ESQ. 



Passing Pont-ar-Gothi, the ancient house of Ystradivrallt is seen resting on the left in 
the quiet vale (see Philipps, Ystradwrallf) ; and further on, Alltygog, with the romantic 
Merlin's Hill, Merlin's Cave, and Merlin's Chair, on the right ; and modestly embosomed 
in thriving plantations on the high ground is Bryn-myrddin (see Morris of Bryn-Myrddin\ 
At Abergwili is that " Palace " of the Bishops of St. David's which is now occupied by the 
learned prelate, Dr. Connop Thirlwall. 

The hill of Merlin, let it be noted, is worth travelling a good way in order to ascend it. 
Not, however, under the guidance of the legend concerning Merlin, or Myrddin, to see his 
cave, and the rock pointed out as his " chair," but for the purpose of witnessing the un- 
common loveliness of the surrounding landscape. It only wants a poet like Dyer to render 
this spot equal in celebrity with Grongar. Upwards through the vale, as far as the eye can 
reach, until fairly overpowered and dimmed by the multitudinous prospect ; downwards with 
the windings of the sportive river, until it takes a turn southwards to seek the sea, and all 
around the scene is fair and lovely, and makes the sane beholder feel the better for it. 

" Man superior walks 
Amid the glad creation, musing praise, 
And looking lively gratitude. " 

This is Aberguiili, the junction of the Gwili with the superior flood of Towy ; and the 
name of that smaller stream will always have a pleasant sound to him who has wandered 
a few miles along its banks. Close by is Castle Pigyn, and further on a mile or two the 
ancient home of the Philippses of Cwmgwili (see Philipps of Cwmgivili}^ a branch of one of 



220 



CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



those long-continuing families which in different parts of Wales form such interesting links 
between the present and the long past. Further up, as far as Cynwil, and farther still, this 
narrow vale of the Gwili, a gorge rather than a valley, presents a succession of exquisite 
pictures such as the man of taste would like to carry home and hang up on his walls. 




CASTLE PIGYN : THE SEAT OF WALTER OWEN PRICE, ESQ. (from a photo, by Allen}. 



Compared with the streams of Carmarthenshire, the Towy, the Cothi, the Gwili, and others, 
we can venture to say, 

' ' The Arno and the Tiber lang 
Hae run full clear in Roman sang ; 
But, save the reverence o' the schools, 
They're baith but lifeless, dowie pools." 

The following view in the Vale of Gwili, from the pencil of Mr. Coleman, gives a good 
specimen of its bold and romantic scenery, and is perfectly faithful to nature. This view 
records the labours of the Gwili. How long has it taken, the ever-active stream to scoop 
out this deep and rocky channel ? and whither has it carried the loosened materials ? There 
was a time when the bed of the stream was level with those higher rocks which now flank 
the channel. The stone is of the hard Silurian strata. A generation shows no perceptible 
difference in the bed of the river : at its junction with the Towy its level has probably been 
about the same for a thousand years ; and yet the work is being carried on day by day, and 
every hour sees some portion of the debris borne to the sea. Ten thousand years to come 
the bed of the Gwili will be perceptibly deepened from its present level, and every particle 
of the disintegrated rock will have contributed to the filling up of the sea depths. 

The western part of Carmarthenshire is a land of hills rather than mountains, and rills 
rather than rivers, though towards the north this region becomes wild and bold as it creeps 
up the rugged and bleak spurs of the Precelly range, about Capel Bettws and Llanglydwen. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



221 



This is literally a " broken country " cut up by deep and abrupt gullies, with scarcely a 
mile of even ground, and intersected by a multitude of streamlets, all making their way 




CWMGWII.I. 



down from the higher uplands just .mentioned, rising in Pembrokeshire, but soon entering 
Carmarthenshire, for the trout-bearing Taf, which ultimately carries the drainage of a large 




DOLWILYM : THE RESIDENCE OF MRS. SCHAW PROTHEROE (from a ihoto. by Allen}. 

district by St. dear's, near which it receives two or three tributaries, to the sea at Llacharn 
(Laugharne), after running a course of about twenty-seven miles. In the deep and narrow 



222 



CARMARTHENSHIRE. 



valley of the Taf, not far from Llanboidy, is the mansion of Dolwllym, in as sweetly sheltered 
a spot as home of peace and quiet could well be placed. And on the estate is a fine 
specimen of those mysterious monuments of antiquity called cromlechs, a faithful engraving 
of which, from a photograph by the same hand, is here given. This noble monument lies in 
so distant and unfrequented a spot that it has nearly escaped observation, and has never 
before, so far as known to the writer, been illustrated. We are indebted to Miss Schaw 
Protheroe for information concerning the cromlech, and for the photograph here engraved. 

Near the village of Llanboidy is Maesgwyn, the seat ofW. R. H. Powell, Esq.; and 
further down, on a contributory of the Taf meeting it at Whitland, is Whitland Abbey, or 




CROMLECH AT DOLWILYM. 



rather, a new residence built near the site of the celebrated abbey (of which notice will 
hereafter be given), by the Hon. W. H. Yelverton. 

On the N.W. Carmarthenshire claims the beautiful bank of the Teivi, from Lampeter to 
the Cenarth falls, below Newcastle Emlyn ; and in the latter part of this extent, for a 
distance of twelve or fourteen miles, the landscape is equal to that of the Vale of Towy, 
though on a scale somewhat more confined. Near the Cenarth falls is the well-known 
mansion of Llysnewydd, the seat of William Price Lewes, Esq. (See Lewes of Llysnewydd) 

The side of Carmarthenshire bordering on Glamorganshire is mainly distinguished for 
the bold eminences of the Mynydd Du, or Black Mountains (Y Fan the highest point 
2,596 feet above the sea), and the pretty valleys of the Gwendraeth Faivr and Gwendraeth 
Fach, the former rising in the hills near Llandebie, the latter near Penrhiw-goch. They 
enter the sea nearly together at Cy dwell a fine old name, meaning literally the junction of 
waters (Cyd-gwy-lli), which modern improvers have tortured into the meaningless " Kid- 
welly." In the uplands above Cydweli is Gellidcg, the seat of Richard Jennings, Esq , 
commanding a fine view of the Carmarthen Bay ; near Llanstephan is the Plas, once the 
residence of the Lloyds, but now of Sir James Hamilton, Bart. ; and on the other side of the 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



223 



Towy, Iscoed, the seat of J. W. Arengo Cross, Esq. ; and Upland, the seat of E. Morris 
Davies, Esq. In the neighbourhood of Llanelly are Llangennech Park; Westfa, the 
residence of Charles Nevill, Esq. ; Penyfai, the residence of James Buckley, Esq. ; 




LLYSNEWYDD : THE SEAT OF COL. WILLIAM PRICE LEWES. 

Kilymaenllwyd, the seat of John V. Rees, Esq. ; and Stradey ( Ystradau the flats), the 
abode of David Lewis, Esq., as well as many other prominent mansions of the leading 
merchants and manufacturers. 



SECTION II. GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

The geological structure of Carmarthenshire has so little variety that its description is 
easy and brief. The whole field includes but four or five species of formation, none of 
which are of wide extent, except the lower Silurian of the Llandeilo group called after that 
name by geologists from the town of Llandeilo-fawr, in the neighbourhood of which the typical 
rock prevails. Next to this comes the old red sandstone, and upon this is a thin bed of 
mountain limestone, in whose cavity is deposited that formation which transcends all the 
others in commercial value the carboniferous group, or the Coal formation. Some slender 
strips of the Ludlow and Wenlock rocks complete the series, but these are so insignificant 
in quantity (though so interesting in the range of geological structure) as almost to escape 
notice. Modest and unassuming though they be, however, among the more dominant rocks 
of these parts, they never fail of asserting their place when sought after, for they form an 
invariable fringe upon the edge of the old red sandstone, all the way from the Eppynt 
Hills in Breconshire to St. dear's in this county, passing a little to the north of Middleton 
Hall, and crossing the Towy some two miles south of Carmarthen. 



224 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

The coal beds of South Wales, which in Glamorganshire are highly bituminous, become 
less and less bituminous as they travel westward, and the greater part of the coal of 
Carmarthenshire is so far freed from bitumen, probably by the action of heat, that it approxi- 
mates pure carbon, attains a hard, brittle consistency, and burns nearly without flame or 
smoke. It goes by the name stone coal and anthracite coal, the latter word being, however, 
very arbitrarily applied, for in reality it contributes nothing towards the definition of the 
mineral, meaning simply (from avQpal-,, coal) coaly coal. Still in practice the term answers 
all purposes by distinguishing the hard or stony mineral from the more inflammable. 

This anthracite coal is the staple of the Carmarthenshire bed. As to the extent of the 
carboniferous strata included within the boundaries of this county, they may be said, in 
general terms, to cover the whole field included in the somewhat irregular triangle described 
by the lines of the rivers Llwchwr and Gwendraeth-fawr, with the sea as a base. The 
districts of Llanelly, Llandebie, and Gwendraeth Valley offer the most workable stores, the 
thickness of the superincumbent strata elsewhere presenting obstacles hard to be overcome. 
But the coal measures, whatever the quality of the mineral and character of the super- 
imposed mass, cover the whole of this extensive area, amounting in superficial measurement 
to about 120 square miles. There is, therefore, in all probability a great store of mineral 
wealth in Carmarthenshire, which hitherto has been but partially developed. 

To the N.W. of Cydweli (Kidwelly) a kind of escarpment or sharp declivity runs from the sea 
between that place and Ferryside, following the line of the Western Gwendraeth, and to the W. 
of that stream a good way inland. This marks the mountain limestone. The formation runs 
all round the South Wales coal basin through Breconshire, passing there south of the Beacons 
(as it does of the Carmarthenshire Fan), into Monmouthshire, turning round a little south of 
Abergavenny, approaching Pontypool, rejecting Newport and Llandaff, but including Llan- 
trisant, touching on the limits of Bridgend, and claiming thence the whole land to the sea, 
except a portion of Gower, until it returns to its point of departure near Ferryside. It is a 
narrow strip, often not half a mile wide, but it never falters, and is never lost except when it 
plunges into the sea. It is, in fact, nothing less than the selvedge of the great pocket which 
holds in its ample embrace the whole of the Carmarthen, Glamorgan, Monmouth, and Brecknock 
coal beds. It runs clean under the whole, and everywhere appears beyond their utmost limits. 

The strata last mentioned, the mountain limestone, separate the carboniferous series 
from the still lower and older group named the old red sandstone. This great rock, after 
monopolizing nearly the whole of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, and more than the 
half of Breconshire, makes a plunge under Glamorganshire and the southern part of 
Carmarthenshire, and shows itself in this latter county only in moderate quantity. It passes 
in a long strip, almost entirely unmixed with other rocks, and occupying on the whole the 
more elevated parts, from the Eppynt Hills and the Carmarthen Fan, of which it constitutes 
the mass, between Llandeilo and Llandebie, maintaining an average width of about four or 
five miles, its north-western limit nearly lying on the slopes of the Vale of Towy, and its 
south-eastern accompanying the line of the mountain limestone already described and the 
little Gwendraeth, and falling upon the lower Towy at about two miles below Carmarthen, 
both banks of which it then entirely monopolizes as far as Llansaint on the left side, and the 
Llanstephan headland on the right. It then passes on with narrowing dimensions to Laug- 
harne and Narberth. This is the rock that is quarried below Pibwr-wen and at Ferrysivle. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 225 

Middleton Hall and Llanddarog stand upon it. It is widest between Carmarthen and 
Cydweli, and narrowest between Llandebie and Golden Grove. The soil it forms is often 
cold and unkindly, always stiff and heavy, but the productiveness of Herefordshire and 
Breconshire and the " red-soil " part of Pembrokeshire shows how valuable iUoften proves to 
the corn-grower. 

All Carmarthenshire, from the Vale of Towy to its extremest western, northern, and north- 
eastern frontiers, is composed of the lower Silurian rocks. Not a handful of coal, not a 
bushel of lime, not a square foot of granite, is to be found in all this immense region. The 
rock is earlier and deeper than the old red sandstone, and has been brought to the 
surface from a depth of many thousand feet by some great convulsion which let dip 
the coal measures below the level of the red sandstone, and raised the primitive Silurian 
floor-rock of the earth's crust to the heights of Precelly, Penllyman (Plinlimmon), and the 
Tregaron hills. 

The terrible nature of that catastrophe, whenever it occurred, is witnessed by the con- 
torted forms and intermixed condition of the various groups of rock in many parts of the 
county. For though the great mass of the old red sandstone has kept together, and the 
Ludlow and mountain limestone, with the coal measures, maintain their relative positions, 
while at the same time giving clear indications of having been subject to a tremendous 
general disturbance, there are places in the upper parts of the Vale of Towy where the 
rocks of various formations have been tossed topsy-turvy, and now lie at right angles to the 
line of their original bed. In the barren Noeth Grug, to the north of Llandovery, the red 
sandstone is in places carried right on edge, and so are the lower Silurian schists. Near 
Llangadock and Llandeilo-fawr the same phenomena are displayed. 

The fossil remains of these rocks, once we pass the carboniferous, are comparatively few, 
and of low order. It was all but a dead world when the sea bottoms were filled with the 
mud which hardened into the Llandeilo and Caradog flags ; and life was not much developed 
when those long ages rolled by which saw the old red sandstone deposited. The upper 
Llandeilo rocks in some parts abound in graptolites ; its brachiopods are often identical with 
those of the Caradog sandstones ; the shells of orthoceratites, Pentamerus Icevis, the cephalo- 
pods, lituites, pteropods, trilobites, in abundance are found. In the lower Llandeilo group 
there is greater scantiness of signs of life, and the species discovered are distinct in character 
from those of the upper Llandeilo, showing therefore some great and perhaps abrupt change 
of climate. We find here the Lingula plumbea, the ^Eglina binodosa, the Ogygia Selwynii, &c., 
as characteristic of the group (Lyell). The old red sandstone contains many species of 
fossil fish, peculiar and characteristic. Agassiz, as long ago as 1844, had described no less 
than sixty-five British species alone, and many more have since been added by Egerton, 
Huxley, and others. According to Huxley these Devonian fish contain the earliest assem- 
blage of -vertebrate animals of which we have any certain knowledge ; for no reptiles, as Lyell 
says, have yet been found older than those of the coal, while the fish of the Silurian strata 
are confined to a few isolated specimens, affording a very scanty insight into the piscine 
fauna anterior to the old red sandstone. The fish of this group were classified by Agassiz 
into the two orders of ganoids and placoids. The number of shell-fish of the Devonian 
seas was very large. But in none of the Carmarthenshire rocks are there traces of land 
animals or air-breathing animals. Was there any dry land in existence then ? Many 

Q 



22 6 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

hundred ages have yet to elapse before a bird or a mammalian animal is brought 
into being. 

Of minerals, beyond the coal measures, this county has little to offer. The heat which 
produced the sources of the mineral waters of Llanwrtyd and Builth was felt in the northern 
parts of Carmarthenshire, as the intrusive igneous rocks which yield the lead ores of Nant y 
Mwyn and the old Roman gold mines of Ogofau, not far from Llandovery, testify. 



SECTION III. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

All that we know of the pre-Roman history of these parts is that they were occupied by 
tribes of the Cymry called by the Romans Dimetce, in imitation probably of the native name 
Dyfedwys. We have no proper history of the purely British period. The old Cymry, 
whether acquainted with the art of writing or not and it is probable that there was amongst 
them a learned Druidic class that had the knowledge of this art, attached small importance 
to the recording of their own annals, and converting the noble deeds of their ancestors into 
incentives to high achievements in the future. Strange that it should be so ; for, in after 
times at least, no people were more careful to hand down the names, personal qualities, and 
deeds of their forefathers to posterity by means of the household bards and genealogists. 
But even in later, post-Roman times, when their knowledge of writing was perfect, and the 
utility of history was accepted, their memorials of the past were not a bare and sober 
narration of facts, so much as a mixture of fact and fable, subject to the influence of an 
Oriental mythological habit of thought which ever turned great men into heroes and demi- 
gods, and their deeds into preternatural phenomena. Hence it is that history ', properly 
speaking, was not written in Wales, and that we are compelled to fall back for any reliable 
facts, and a true picture of things, however fragmentary, to the Roman writers. 

" i. Roman Times. 

Caesar having never had a chance of seeing the parts now called Wales, we are deprived 
of the advantages which the descriptions of his graphic pen would have supplied. What 
Roman general conquered the Dimetae it is hard to say. Nor are we informed of the nature 
of the so-called conquest. But it is certain that it proceeded so far as to make the native 
population tributary, and to establish among them in this very county, at Carmarthen 
(Maridutmm) , a taxing station. Maridunum was made one of the stipendiary cities (stipen- 
diarice) of the empire, of which, if the work called after Richard of Cirencester is reliable, 
there were only twelve in the whole of Britain. Their peculiarity was that the citizens were 
subject to a fixed money tribute, called stipendium, in contradistinction to the vectigales, who 
paid a certain portion of the produce of their lands. 

That the sway of the Romans over Dimetia consisted mainly in its reduction to tribute 
payment is all but certain. Its princes were not dislodged, but made subordinate. Its laws, 
language, religion, were not interfered with. The Romans during their occupation of Britain, 
like the Britons themselves, became Christian. But that the Romans made the country 
a field of gain is witnessed by the fact that they constructed their permanent roads 



HISTORICAL SKETCH : SAXON TIMES. 227 

through its length and breadth from Caerwent, near Newport, Mon., to St. David's, with a 
chief station at Carmarthen ; and from Carmarthen, inland, through the Vale of Towy to 
Brecon, or Bannium. 



2. Saxon Times. 



In less than a hundred years after the withdrawal of the Romans from Britain, the 
German freebooters overran and conquered parts of the territory of the Britons in what is 
now called England ; but many hundred years passed, and seven Saxon and Anglican king- 
doms were set up before they made their power felt in these western parts. Mercia harassed 
the north and east as far as Montgomeryshire and Breconshire, but Dyfed was left to its own 
quarrels, which probably were equally disastrous, and to the rule, such as it was, of the 
native princes, who, on the disappearance of the Romans, had resumed their independence. 

If legends were history, we should say that Carmarthen, though itself unmolested, played 
a somewhat important part during the early Saxon troubles by producing Myrddin, or 
Merlin, the sage counsellor of the distressed Vortigern. The monkish story goes that 
Vortigern (Gwrtheyrri), having been compelled to yield up his kingdom in Lloegr to the 
Saxons, retired to the mountains of Wales to seek succour amongst his kinsmen, the Cymry. 
Driven to despair, he bethought him of building a castle, and selected a site in the Snowdon 
mountains, at Dinas Emrys. But he no sooner built than some demon power demolished 
his work. His foundations were engulfed. The necromancers, called by Tyssilio's Brut 
" the twelve chief bards," from whom he sought counsel, now advised him to find a boy 
who never had a father, mix his blood with the mortar, and thus make solid the castle 
foundations. The king sent forth messengers to search for such a boy, who, as might be ex- 
pected, had to make a long and weary search, and had almost despaired of success for the 
chronicler says that they had been to every place (jvedy cerdet pob lie), when, coming to 
Carmarthen, they saw boys playing and quarrelling, when one was heard casting at the other 
these words, " Cease thy contention, for I am well-born (bonedic wyv f) of father and mother, 
but thou hast no father." Instantly the messengers seized the boy and brought him to 
Vortigern at Dinas Emrys. The mother was called. She declared herself to be a daughter 
of the King of Dyfed, and a nun at Caer Vyrdin (according to Geoffrey, at St. Peter's 
Church, Kaermerdin) when the prodigy happened. A bishop was called, who gave it as 
his opinion that such a thing was possible probably, he said, through the agency of 
" Lucifer and his angels." The boy revealed the cause of the king's difficulty. " Dig," said 
he, " and you will find a lake, and at the bottom a chest, and in the chest two dragons 
asleep ; these when they awake fight with each other, and through the commotion they 
cause the castle falls," The " twelve chief bards " failed to dry the lake, whereupon the boy 
let it out in a running stream. He was called Myrdin, because he had been found at Caer 
Vyrdin a statement somewhat contradictory to the tradition quoted by Giraldus, that Caer- 
fyrddin was called after him. The stone chest was brought out ; the dragons, one red and 
one white, were awakened, and after their bent began to fight, when the white overcame the 
red. Vortigern asked Merlin the meaning of this ; when Merlin answered and said, " Woe 
to the red dragon ! for its calamity is drawing nigh ; as to the white dragon, the caves will 



228 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

protect it. The white means the Saxons, and the red the Britons. Therefore the mountains 
shall be levelled with the valleys, and the rivers in the valleys shall be streams of blood." 

This is the story of Merlin's beginning. How he proceeded and added to his fame as 
the adviser of Ambrosius, Uthyr, and Arthur, would be too long to relate, and moreover has 
little to do with history. In the rornance of Geoffrey of Monmouth his form is nearly as 
shadowy and preternatural as in the Laureate's Idylls. In the Triad he goes to sea in a 
vessel of glass, and is no more heard of. 

The affairs of Carmarthenshire during the greater part of the space between the Roman 
period and the reign of Rhodri Mawr were generally identical with those of Ceredigion 
(Cardiganshire) already touched upon. As far as can be made out there was little continu- 
ance of fixed government. Petty lords and princes were generally bickering and fighting, 
until Rhodri, who is a genuine historical personage, witnessed to by all sides as a powerful 
prince, became King of all Wales by reducing the southern magnates to his own sway. On 
his death, by what turned out an unfortunate arrangement, he divided his kingdom between 
his three sons, Cadell taking the new kingdom of the south, with a residence at Dinefawr. 
This was in A.D. 876, the time probably when Dinefawr first became the settled seat of 
princely government. The three brothers soon began to quarrel, and Anarawd, the eldest, 
whose kingdom of Gwynedd had its head-quarters at Aberffraw, in Anglesey, in the character 
of umpire between his disputing brothers, Cadell and Merfyn, Prince of Powys, invaded S. 
Wales, and ravaged the Vale of Towy, A.D. 894. Cadell soon died (909), and was succeeded 
by his son Howel Dda (the Good), ultimately on the death of Anarawd (915) ruler of all 
Wales, chiefly known as the wise compiler of a code of laws which, in substance, continued 
to be administered till the time of the Tudors. 

It is very important to notice, in connection with this period of the history of Wales, the 
state of feudal dependence in which the Welsh princes had already been placed by the 
English, or rather Anglo-Saxon kings. The usual history of Wales says nothing of this. But 
the fact is that in the time of the sons of Rhodri and of Howel Dda, the suzerainty of the 
English monarchs was recognised: the encroachments of the powerful .Athelstan had 
brought about definitively this state of things. Mercia, the last established Saxon kingdom, 
had pressed hard upon N. Wales, and taken possession of the supreme power over the 
kingdom of Powys (Anna/. Cambr., A.D. 822) without actually dethroning the native prince 
for the time being; but Mercia was now itself paling away before the rising glory of Wessex. 
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 853, tells us that " Buhred, king of the Mercians, and his 
Witan (parliament) begged of King Ethelwulf (of Wessex) that he would assist him, so that 
he might make the N. Welsh obedient to him. This he did, and went with an army across 
Mercia among the N. Welsh, and made them all obedient to him." The reign of Rhodri 
the Great and his son Anarawd had somewhat improved the position of the Welsh princes in 
the North, and that of his grandson Howel Dda improved it in the South, but it is clear that 
this improvement did not amount to total independence of the growing power of Wessex. 
Alfred was in some sense acknowledged as king of Wales. 

There is a most interesting passage in Asserts Life of Alfred which throws light upon this 
matter as regards S. Wales. Asser was a Dyfedian, and is allowed to be an honest and 
patriotic writer. He says, " At that time [when Asser was invited from St. David's to the 
court of Alfred, circa A.D. 884], and long before, all the countries on the right-hand side of 



HISTORICAL SKETCH: HOWEL DBA. 229 

Britain [a phrase the exact equivalent of Deheu barth " Britain " always being used by Asscr 
for Wales] belonged to King Alfred, and still belong to him. For instance, King Hemeid 
[Hyfeidd, a petty prince of Dyfed], with all the inhabitants of the region of Demetia, com- 
pelled by the violence of the six sons of Rotri [Rhodri the Great], had submitted to the 
dominion of the king. Howe! also, son of Ris, king of Gleguising [Essyllwg], and Brocmail 
and Fernmail, sons of Mouric, kings of Gwent, compelled by the violence and tyranny of 
Earl Ethelred and of the Mercians, of their own accord sought King Alfred, that they 
might enjoy his government and protection against their enemies." He then speaks of 
Helised, king of Brycheiniog,, doing the same thing. 

Thus we see plainly that about the end of the ninth century the jealousies and quarrels 
of the Welsh princes among themselves, the encroachments of Mercia and Wessex, north and 
south, together with the incursions of the Danes, which now became annoying, drove the 
Welsh to seek the friendship and protection of Alfred, and that this involved their subjection 
to him as lord paramount. 

Alfred's son, Edward, A.D. 922, received from the Welsh of the North a like acknowledg- 
ment of nominal subjection (Anglo-Sax. Chron.}, and Edward's son, Athelstan, seems to have 
sealed the feudal degradation of the South Welsh by imposing upon them, after an invasion 
of the country, and the assembling of the princes of Wales at Hereford, a fixed tribute, accord- 
ing to William of Malmesbury, of " twenty pounds weight of gold, three hundred pounds 
weight of silver," cattle, hawks, dogs, &c., in great number, &c. Among other contributions 
from Carmarthenshire, according to the Welsh codes, were four tons of honey from Dinefawr, 
a ton to be eight loads of two men, carried on a pole. The Sax. Chron., under the year 
926, says of Athelstan that he " ruled all the kings that were in this island : first, Howel, 
king of the West Welsh." &c. This Howel was Howel Dda (the Good). And it will help 
us to conceive rightly of the nature of this early subordination of the Welsh princes to the 
King of England to remember that it was not of such a kind as to interfere with the power 
of the latter to govern their own subjects, to conduct their home wars, and to enact their 
own laws. 

It was at this very time that Carmarthenshire witnessed the gathering, by Howel Dda, of 
that solemn conclave of wise men which gave forth the code of laws called after his name. 
Howel, by this time ruler (as a regulus) of all Wales, was in possession of three kingly 
palaces, Aberffraw, Mathrafal, and Dinefawr ; and we may presume, though history is very 
silent on the point, that he spent much of his time at Dinefawr. But it was at Ty Gwyn ar 
Daf, now Whitland Abbey, that this great revision of the laws of Dyfnwal Maelmud took 
place. Whether there existed here a college, or place of learning, or religious house before 
this time is uncertain ; but it is known that as yet the abbey, which in after time was so 
celebrated, was not yet built. It is said that it was called Ty Gwyn, " the White House," 
from a summerhouse built of white willow twigs which the king had here ; and it is 
probable that this circumstance, together with the legislative assembly of which we are now 
speaking, first gave eclat to the spot, and led to the subsequent erection of the Cister- 
cian monastery and abbey. (See Whitland Abbey)) Next to the establishment of the 
royal residence at Dinefawr, and the earlier and subsequent seat of government and fiscal 
administration of Carmarthen, this jurisprudential conclave at Ty Gwyn ar Daf is the most 
important fact in the history of Carmarthenshire. 



230 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

The preamble to the code, as promulgated, sets forth the object and character of the 
assembly. As usual, no date is given; to ascertain this point we must look elsewhere. 
When the conclave assembled is not so easy to tell ; but the Annal. Cambr. and Brut y 
Tywysogion give reason for believing that the laws were completed A.D. 928, for it was in 
that year that Howel went to Rome, and that he went to Rome to have the code confirmed 
by the Pope the code itself declares. The introduction runs thus : 

" Howel the Good, the son of Cadell, prince of all Cymru, observing that the Cymry 
abused the laws, summoned six men from each Comot (Cymod) in the Principality [the 
words prince and principality, instead of king and kingdom, are significant as showing the 
relationship in which Howel stood to the King of England], four of them laymen, and two 
clerks, to the White House on the Taf. The reason why the clerks were summoned was 
lest the laics should set down anything contrary to Holy Scripture. The time when they 
assembled was Lent ; and this because in that holy season every one ought to be righteous, 
and refrain from wrong in the time of purity. And in concord and full agreement the wise 
men who came together deliberated upon the ancient laws ; some of them they allowed to con- 
tinue, some they amended, others they entirely annulled, and some new laws they enacted. 

"And after they had laid down the laws they judged well to establish, Howel gave them 
the sanction of his authority, and commanded that they should be strictly kept. And 
Howel and the wise men who had assisted him pronounced their malediction, and that of 
all the Cymry, upon him who should not observe these laws, upon the judge who should 
undertake the function of judgment, and upon the lord who should confer it upon him, who 
had not an understanding of the three pillars of law, the value of the tame and the wild, 
and of everything pertaining to their use amongst men." 

These laws are invaluable, if for nothing else, as giving an insight into the constitution 
of society, the manners and customs of the people, the peculiar property held in land, the 
state of commerce, and the state of morals. A fourth of this code has reference to the 
court, and the officers and management of the prince's household his " wife," his " civil 
list," servants, dogs, horses, and hawks. They indicate, on the whole, a firm spirit of justice, 
and, considering the times, a high moral tone in the enactment of law, with considerable 
degradation in the general tone of society. One of their chief virtues is their brevity ; for 
the whole code can be read through in two hours, and mastered in a couple of days a 
thing which can scarcely be said of any single act of our modern legislature. 

After the completion of the code of Howel Dda, three copies of it were ordered by the 
prince to be written ; one to be deposited at Dinefawr, one at Aberffraw, and the third to 
accompany the court in the administration of justice ; and the code itself informs us that 
" Howel the Good and the Bishop of Menevia, the Bishop of Asaph, and the Bishop of 
Tangor, together with others, making thirteen in number, some doctors and some wise 
laymen, went so far as Rome to obtain the sanction of the Pope of Rome to the laws of 
Howel. And then the laws of Howel were read in the presence of the Pope of Rome ; and 
the Pope approved of them, and gave them his authority." This account was evidently 
appended to the code at some subsequent time, for it adds, " And from that time to the 
present day the laws of Howel Dda are in force." They continued formally in force nearly 
400 years, and virtually, where the exceptional laws of the Marchers did not overlay them, 
to the time of the Tudors. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH: BATTLE OF ABERGWILI. 231 

The death of Howel Dda, " the chief and glory of the Britons," who had managed to 
maintain a measure of order and prosperity in his kingdom for a period of more than thirty 
years, was succeeded by a long continuance of strife and distraction. For a time we find 
no separate government of Dyfed, much less any connected history of Carmarthenshire. 
Howel died A.D. 948, somewhat more than a century before the Norman Conquest. The 
sons of Idwal, Howel's old rival in the north, set up against his sons Dyfnwal and Rhodri 
in those parts, and after ten years of almost incessant wars, both these princes in the mean- 
time having fallen, gained the mastery. 

Owain, one of the sons of Howel Dda, made good his footing in the South, but over 
what extent of territory, and with what changes of its borders, under the varying fortunes of 
war, we know not. He most likely had his seat at Dinefawr. 

The country during his struggles to maintain power was sorely disturbed on every hand. 
The Danes, now becoming powerful rivals of the Saxon race in England, and preparing to 
seize upon the English throne, made frequent incursions into Wales, burning and pillaging 
whole districts. But the plague of the Danes was not so damaging as native dissensions. 
Owain was nobly seconded in all his labours by his energetic son, Einion, who seems to have 
held rule over a distinct territory in Brycheiniog. Owain died A.D. 988, and Einion three 
years earlier was killed by the men of Gwent, leaving a son, Tewdwr, who for some unknown 
reason was called Mawr (the Great). He continued only five years to attempt directing the 
storm, for he was slain at the battle of Llangwm, A.D. 993. 

This was a sad and doleful time in Britain. England as well as Wales was a battle-field. 
The shedding of blood had no intermission. No throne or rule had a steadfast footing. The 
Danes in England, the Danes and the rival native princes in Wales, sowed desolation broad- 
cast over the land. 

It seems that during this interval two powerful princes from North Wales, Meredydd ap 
Owain, who had been driven from his patrimony by the Northmen of Scandinavia (seep, n), 
and Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, both for a time obtained advantages in the South, and became 
temporary masters of much territory, the former on the death of Owain and Einion, and the 
latter, his son-in-law, upon Meredydd's death. The former was engaged in terrible conflict 
with the " black pagans " (as the Danes were called), who ravaged the whole of South Wales, 
committing terrible havoc in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire ; while Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, 
during his brief occupancy of power, had to contend with a strange enemy, neither Welsh- 
man, Saxon, nor Dane, but a wily Scot, by name Reyn, who, taking advantage of the 
distracted state of the county, had set himself up as a son of Meredydd, and boldly claimed 
the princedom. Strange to say, this man was followed to the field by hosts of the men of 
South Wales. A great battle was fought at Abergwili A.D. 1022, when the pretender was 
defeated with great slaughter. The Annal. Cambr. say that this " Reyn Scotus " had 
succeeded in " obtaining " the South Britons, that he was slain at " hostio Guili," an error 
probably for ostio Gwili, the mouth or aber of the Gwili. The following year Llewelyn ap 
Sitsyllt was slain by Hywel, grandson of Einion above named, who along with his brother 
Meredydd ruled unsteadily in these parts for several years. Hywel survived his brother, 
who was slain in battle A.D. 1032, but was himself slain A.D. 1042, when his brother Owain 
assumed power, and dying in the year 1064, was succeeded by Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, who 
having already obtained the kingship of all North Wales, was now sanctioned by 



232 CARMARTHENSHIRE. RHYS AP TEWDWR. 

the paramount Edward of England, "the Confessor," in his ambition to rule also over 
the South. 

How little has been heard of late of interference from the English monarchs in the affairs 
of South Wales ! In the North they were not so quiet, but in the South they have allowed 
the native princes to commit the greatest excesses against each other, usurp territories, and 
set up petty dominions with impunity, seldom calling them to account. The reason is not 
far to search for. The Danes gave them work enough at home. In this short time the 
Danes have actually overturned the Saxon power, possessed the English throne, and have 
themselves been set aside by a greater power. The Norman invasion has already taken 
place, and a new epoch is opened in Britain. 

And now the distracted country of the Cymry is to be visited by a new scourge. The age of 
the Lords Marchers opens. Glamorgan, Brecknock, Pembroke, Cardigan, with Montgomery, 
and other parts of the North, are to become scenes of violence and rapine under sanction of 
the Norman Court, whose brutality and wrong could only be eclipsed by enormities already 
committed and still committed in England. Strange to say, no Norman Lord Marcher 
established himself permanently in the fair Vale of Towy. 

And it was just in this crisis that a brave and ancient prince of the old stock of Dinefawr 
had occasion to return from a foreign country to assert the rights of his house. 

Rhys ap Tewdwr, son of Tewdwr Mawr above named, had been absent from Wales for 
the length of a good life. Whether it was the spirit of adventure, or the distracted state of 
his country, and loss of his hereditary lordship, or all together, that had caused him to exile 
himself while as yet young to Brittany, we know not; but it is probable that when he 
reappeared in Wales he was not short of eighty years of age, and this was about the length of 
the period of distraction and anarchy which had prevailed since the death of Owain, the son of 
Howel Dda. Rhys ap Owain, gr. grandson of Einion, and a scion of the Dinefawr family, 
having murdered the excellent King, Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, and usurped the government of 
Dyfed, had now (A.D. 1076) fallen in battle (Annal. Cambr.}, an event which led Rhys ap 
Tewdwr, the long self-exiled prince of the direct and senior line, to come and claim the throne 
of Dinefawr. He was welcomed with joy by his countrymen, and no resistance was offered 
by the Normans. Instantly the grey-headed soldier (who had a reputation for being as wise 
in counsel as he was brave in arms) had to encounter a storm which burst upon him from a 
jealous prince of N. Wales, Trahaiarn ap Caradog, who had hoped to add the South to the 
already usurped dominions of the North, which he held against Gruffydd ap Cynan, the 
rightful prince. The forces of battle were marshalled, Gruffydd and Rhys ap Tewdwr on 
the one side, Trahaiarn and his allies on the other, on the field of Carno one of the most 
bloody in the annals of Wales, and the event declared in favour of the former. This 
was in the year 1079. 

3 . Norman Period. 

No sooner was the storm in one quarter apparently dispersed than in another it began to 
gather. Jestyn ap Gwrgant, of Glamorgan, a plotting, gloomy man, had looked with a 
wistful eye on Dyfed, and had been frustrated in his hopes by the arrival of the venerable 
Rhys. Besides this, the sons of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Madog, Cadvvgan, and Rhyrid, enter- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CARMARTHENSHIRE. 233 

tained hostile thoughts from the North. Both parties joined hands to crush Rhys, and the 
aged prince was compelled to retire to Ireland. Here, however, he collected a great force, 
and having received large reinforcements from his own dominions, met the allied army at 
Llechryd, A.D. 1088, and gained a complete victory. The Anna!. Cambr. make no mention 
of Jestyn, but name the three other princes, and give the battle-field under the name Pen- 
letheru, adding that Rhys, after the battle, "sold a huge number [ingentem censum] of 
captives to the Gentiles [which probably mean the Normans] and the Scots." Brut-y- 
Tywysogion calls the battle " Gwaith Llandudoch " the battle of St. Dogmael's. 

We wish to have little to do with Jestyn ap Gwrgant here, as the place to notice him 
specifically will be under Glamorganshire (see Jestyn ap Gwrgant}. But so great an 
influence had his agency upon Carmarthenshire, that, although we have lived to be taught by 
some men that Jestyn was a myth, we are obliged to treat him with a passing word as a reality. 
Rhys ap Tewdwr had a quarrel with Llewelyn and Einion, sons of Prince Cadivor ap 
Collwyn, fought and overcame them, took their territory, and offered a price for the head 
of Einion. In his extremity this young prince fled to Jestyn ap Gwrgant, prince of 
Glamorgan, and through his counsel was induced to go to the court of William Rufus to 
solicit assistance. He was successful in his mission. William authorized certain knights to 
go, not so much to assist Einion against Rhys as to seize territories for themselves, and 
settle upon them. This was the very beginning of the Lords Marchers' invasion of S. Wales. 
Fitzhamon was the chief knight, and he became conqueror of Glamorgan, Jestyn's own 
territory (see Fitzhamon). Esterling, Turberville, Grenville, St. Quentin, and many other 
adventurers came. Jestyn ap Gwrgant joined the plunderers. They invaded Rhys's 
dominions, and the noble old prince went forth undismayed to give them battle. The hosts 
came in sight of each other on the hills bordering what is now called Breconshire ; the 
invading army was led by Bernard Newmarch. A rather irregular conflict, suddenly begun 
in the broken ground near the ancient site of Brecon, called Benni, through the too im- 
petuous onslaught of the patriots, soon came to a termination by their discomfiture. The 
aged Rhys ap Tewdwr fell near a spot still called " Ffynon Pen Rhys." Newmarch liked 
the valley of the Usk, on the verge of which he had won the field, and chose Aberhonddu as 
the site of a castle. This was the second Lord Marcher settlement in the South (A.D. 1091). 

The fall of Rhys ap Tewdwr, though his reign was short, and he commenced it an old 
man, was fe}t to be a calamity of no common magnitude. His personal merits, talent, energy, 
unsullied patriotism, had won for him extraordinary respect and devotion. He was the 
founder of Whitland Abbey. He was the builder of Dinefawr Castle. His fall seemed to 
be the fall of his country. And coming at the crisis of the introduction of the Lords 
Marchers into the already enfeebled land, it gave an air of virtual truth to the strong 
statement of Florence of Worcester, who says that " from that day kings no longer reigned 
in Wales." It is more than probable that he was the last princely occupant, as he was the 
builder, of old Dinefawr Castle, although the place existed as a fortress much longer, having 
successfully stood against an attack by the English king, A.D. 1226. 

Yorke (Royal Tribes) says, " With Rhys sunk the sun of South Wales, and all its glories, 
his son Grufifydd being styled lord only of that country. 

" Queis inter agressis, occurrit Rhesus in armis ; 
Undique concurrunt acies ; pugna aspera surgit. 



234 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

Ingruit armorum rabies ; sternuntur utrinque ; 
Sternitur Haymonis pubes, sternuntur et Angli, 
Proque focis, Cambri, dum vos certatis, et aris : 
Acriter et pugnans, medio cadit agmine Rhesus, 
Cum quo totus honor cecidit, regnumque Siluram." 

Pentarchia. 

With Rhys ap Tewdwr fell also his two elder sons Gronw, who was killed at the close 
of the above battle, and Cynan, who was drowned in Lake Gremlin in his flight. Gruffydd, 
his youngest son, was a mere boy, but was destined soon to play an important part. The 
daughter, Nest, Henry I. took to be his concubine, and afterwards gave as wife to Gerald de 
Windsor, constable and builder of Pembroke Castle. (See p. 146.) Yorke says Gruffydd 
was sent for security " to Ireland, where he remained till he was twenty-five years of age. 
He then came secretly to South Wales to visit his sister Nest. She was now married to 
Gerald de Windsor, by the favour of Henry, constable of Pembroke Castle. Gruffydd 
remained in South Wales till he raised the suspicions of Henry, who engaged [Gruffydd ap] 
Cynan, Prince of North Wales, father-in-law and gr. uncle to Gruffydd, to seize and im- 
prison him. Gruffydd [having already taken shelter in Cynan's castle, hearing of this] fled 
to the church of Aberdaron, and Cynan, attempting to force the sanctuary, was resisted by 
the clergy, which gave Gruffydd time to escape and to reach the wilds of Ystrad Towy. 
Here he collected his friends, sallied forth, and destroyed the possessions of the English. 
He extended his ravages to Dyfed, attacked Carmarthen, demolished the town, and dis- 
mantled the castle ; but attempting Aberystwyth, was surprised, defeated, and again driven to 
the wilderness of Ystrad Towy [all the upper parts of Vale of Towy and surrounding 
country]. Henry once more attempted his destruction. I find him next restored to his 
favour; but on a false accusation was ejected from lands which that prince had given him." 
(Royal Tribes.) 

Giraldus tells us, referring evidently to these "lands," that Gruffydd "held under the 
king one comot or a fourth part of the cantred of Caeo," meaning Conwil Caio. But he 
was not satisfied with this narrow territory, and vassalage. The people of Ceredigion, A.D. 
1114, invested him with the dignity of prince of their country. Henry formally divested him 
of all his inheritance in Dinefawr and Dyfed, Avhereupon he went to the North to seek aid. 
But while absent on this business his wife Gwenllian, " a woman of an high spirit," thinking 
that she saw a fair opportunity, collected her men, and with her sons entered Cydweli, the 
land which the ancestors of Maurice de Londres had taken, about the time of the death 
of Rhys ap Tewdwr (circa 1091), and ravaged them. She was, however, repulsed in 
"a bloody battle," wherein she and her son Morgan were slain, and her son Maelgwn 
made prisoner. The site of this battle is still called Maes Gwenllian. 

To avenge this deed, Gruffydd, with his wife's brother, came down with powerful forces 
from the North, and dealt with great severity with the Norman castles of Aberystwyth, 
Caerwedros, and Dinerth in Ceredigion (Annal. Cambr., A.D. 1136). The same year they 
again invaded the South as far as Cardigan. The Normans now gathered all the troops 
which their Marcher castles by this time built at Newport, Cardigan, Pembroke, and all 
other places " from the river Severn to St. David's " could supply ; a pitched battle was 
fought near " Crug Mawr," on the right bank of the Teivi, with the result, after a most 
stubborn conflict, that 3,000 of the Normano-Flemish army were left dead on the field, and 



HISTORICAL SKETCH: "THE LORD RHYS." 235 

the Welsh remained complete victors. Giraldns Cambrensis passed the spot some fifty years 
after, and mentions the circumstance : " We proceeded on our journey from Cilgarran 
towards Pont-Stephan (Lampeter), leaving Cruc Mawr, i. e., the great hill, near Aberteivi, on 
our left hand. On this spot Gruffydd, son of Rhys ap Theodor, soon after the death of King 
Henry I., by a furious onset gained a signal victory against the English army, which, by the 
murder of the illustrious Richard de Clare near Abergavenny, had lost its leader and chief" 
(Jtin., iii.). Gruffydd's stormy life was closed in 1137, forty-six years after the death of the 
patriarch prince Rhys ap Tewdwr, his father. 

The next and greatest prince of Dinefawr was Rhys, the son of Gruffydd just mentioned. 
His career had even a brighter lustre than that of either Gruffydd or Rhys ap Tewdwr. He 
had the merit of even taming the Norman spirit and foiling the arts and measures of the 
Plantagenet kings. Dinefawr seems no longer to be the head-quarters of the princely family of 
that house, for we find Rhys ap Gruffydd who soon came to be styled " the Lord Rhys" which 
title he has ever since borne in history conquering from the Norman Lord Marcher the castle 
he had built at Aberteivi, totally demolishing and then rebuilding it for his own use, wherein 
for some time he maintained the style of a king of no mean pretensions. His life was a 
continued warfare against his countrymen often, against the Normans always. On the 
submission of North Wales to Henry II., and the pacification which thence ensued, Rhys ap 
Gruffydd was not included : his stubborn spirit would not bend, and it was too strong to be 
broken. He fought until he obtained terms. Henry invaded South Wales with a great army, 
but failed to do much. Rhys, however, consented to do homage at Woodstock, and matters 
were a little smoothed. His enmity to the Lords Marchers was not, however, by this subdued, 
nor did he abate his claim to rule, in fealty to Henry, over the whole of Dyfed. Owain 
Gvvynedd, in A.D. 1163, with all his sons, Cadwaladr his brother, and other men of the North, 
joined with Rhys for the expulsion of the Normans. Henry marched to Oswestry, and was 
rewarded with disaster, in revenge for which he committed the barbarous act of putting out 
the eyes of the Welsh hostages he held, among which were two sons of Rhys and two of 
Owain Gwynedd. Rhys was successful in South Wales. 

In 1169, Henry being at Pembroke on his passage to Ireland, Rhys met him and made 
him a present of eighty-six horses, of which the king accepted thirty-six and returned the 
remainder. Peace was concluded. Henry visited him at Ty Gwyn ar Z)df, restored to him 
his son Hywel, and gave him authority to rule over Cardigan, Ystrad-Towy, Arwystli (part of 
Montgomeryshire), and Elfel. On his return from Ireland, Rhys attended him at Talycarn, 
and was now appointed " Justice of South Wales," from which time he bore the style of " the 
Lord Rhys." It is observable that now the designation " Prince " is dropped by the house 
of Dinefawr, the aggression of the English king, and the snbmission of the Welsh princes 
as his vassals, having placed it in abeyance. 

On the death of Henry II., A.D. 1189, the Lord Rhys renewed hostilities. He took the 
castles of St. dear's, Llanstephan, and Abercorran (Laugharne), in which his son Maeigwyn, 
then in rebellion, was lodged. He pursued the war, and reduced all South Wales. But 
his sons turned against him, and for a time managed to. imprison their father. Maeigwyn 
was now in possession of Dinefawr, which Rhys, having obtained his release, attacked and 
demolished. This was in A.D. 1 194. In the following year he got his two sons, Meredydd and 
Rhys, into his hands, and put them in prison ; his other sons Madog and Hywel, a short 



236 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

time before had been imprisoned by their brother Anarawd, and their eyes, by his orders, put 
out. Thus was the aged Lord Rhys, in the midst of constant conflict, afflicted by the violence 
and treachery of his sons, both towards each other and towards himself. His end was now 
approaching. He died of an epidemic ("plague") which visited the country in A.D. 1197, 
and was buried amid great lamentation in the cathedral of St. David's, where a beautifu 
monument to his memory still exists. He was lamented as 

" Spes patrias, columen pads, lux urbis et orbis ; 
Gentis honos, decus armorum, fulmenque duelli ; 
Quo neque pace prior, neque fortior alter in armis." 

Pentarchia. 

This, no doubt, is rather too strong ; but the tenor of the Lord Rhys's life, the loftiness 
of his character, and the magnitude of his labours for the honour and liberty of his country, 
make him a man whose memory should be cherished in Wales with pride and gratitude. 

Gruffydd) his son, was the Lord Rhys's successor. His right was recognised by the 
English king, to whom he swore fealty. But no sooner was he vested in his chair of rule 
than his brother Maelgwyn that plague of his father and of his brethren aforetime sud- 
denly attacked him in his Castle of Aberystwyth, and succeeding in the surprise, took him 
prisoner, establishing himself as Lord of Ceredigion. Gruffydd by and by got the mastery, 
and for four years these brothers continued their strife, till Gruffydd, in 1201, died, when 
his lordship was divided between Maelgwyn and his brother Rhys Fychan, who had 
Llandovery and the Cantref-bychan as his share. 

In A.D. 1204, Rhys, the last Gruffydd's son, who took the Castle of Llangadock, and took 
Llandovery from his uncle, was in turn attacked by Maelgwyn, and deprived of them. 
Then followed retaliation and counter retaliation. Some years passed, filled up by the 
noisy and selfish contentions of these relatives. 

There was need for some mightier hand to interfere, and before long it was stretched 
forth. The northern chieftain, Llewelyn ap lorwerth, son-in-law to the English King 
John, came down with a great army, overran Ceredigion, built anew and strengthened 
Aberystwyth Castle, laid siege to and demolished Carmarthen Castle, and restored to their 
inheritance the two sons of Gruffydd, ousting the usurper Maelgwyn from his ill-gotten 
possessions in Cardiganshire. He took the Castle of Cilgerran, and many other fortresses. 
After many battles, and after being subjected to two invasions of his territories in North 
Wales by King John without damage, Llewelyn ap lorwerth with mighty vigour pushed 
on his interests in South Wales, evidently with the ambitious view of uniting the whole 
Principality under his own sway, despite the jealousy of the weak and crippled English 
monarch. In A.D. 1238 we find him at Ystradfnur, receiving the homage, as lord paramount 
in Wales, of the Welsh princes. This was duly done. Fealty was sworn to Llewelyn in the 
holy place under solemn sanctions, and homage was done to his son David as his successor : 
for the great prince was now in old age, having governed Gwynedd through a stormy 
period of forty-six years, led and fought in four successive wars against England, been 
excommunicated by the Pope, made cause with the barons against John, defied at last 
the power of Henry III., and gathered the dislocated members of the Principality into 
one body under his own acknowledged headship, and he deemed it well to prepare for unity 
after his decease by having his son recognised as his successor. In 1240, Llewelyn the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH : LLEWELYN IN THE SOUTH. 237 

Great, " the most valiant and noble," died ; and true ever since are the words of Einion 
ap Gwgan, the bard, 

" His valour is the theme of every tongue, 
In distant lands his victories are praised." 

His son David, who succeeded him, seems to have chosen the Castle of Aberystwyth as 
his residence, from which he was speedily expelled by Gilbert Marshall, Earl of Pembroke. 
David died A.D. 1 246, leaving no issue. The rule of the North now fell to Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, 
the last prince of Wales, and the influence of this brave and patriotic chieftain in the 
South was similar to_that of his grandfather, Llewelyn ap lorwerth. In South Wales 
there was now no man who had the recognised dignity of a prince. Since the time of " the 
Lord Rhys," the highest title accorded by the English kings was that of " Lord " (dominus) 
of a prescribed territory; and even this dignity was held under the surveillance of the 
princes of Gwynedd, to whom both the princely title and the right to receive a kind of 
homage from the lords of territories in the South were conceded. 

Llewelyn ap Gruffydd had soon occasion to lead his forces into the South. The 
territories of these parts were held by a number of petty lords, some Norman and many 
Welsh, and these were continually bickering and quarrelling, stealing each other's cattle, 
killing- servants, burning castles, conspiring for vengeance and assassinations, and despoiling 
the land far and wide. The Norman Lords Marchers, however, enjoying the countenance 
of the " King of London " (Brenin Llundain), profited more from the disunion of the 
Welsh lords than the latter were able to regain by occasional and fitful alliances. All over 
Wales the Marchers were trenching upon the native holdings. Llewelyn had been com- 
pelled to sacrifice part of his lawful inheritance in the North to the rapacity of Henry III. 
and his servants the Marchers. A spirit of revolt, nursed by a sense of wrong, grew all 
over the country, and formed the cement whereby North and South partially cohered, and 
encouraged Llewelyn to raise the standard of open rebellion against Henry A.D. 1256. 
Having overrun and repossessed the territories now forming Denbighshire and Flintshire, 
he made his way to the South through Meirionydd, everywhere welcomed with great 
enthusiasm. He reached and took the Castles of Llanbadarn Fawr and Cardigan, and 
returned. These, along with the Castle of Carmarthen, had been given by Henry to his 
young son Edward, afterwards Edward I. 

A.D. 1257, he turns h'is face again to the South. An event in Carmarthenshire was the 
chief occasion. The monastery and church of Ty Gwyn (Whitland) had been sacrilegiously 
violated by the Southern Lords Marchers. Nicholas, Lord of Cemmaes, Stephen Bauson, 
Patrick, Lord of Cydweli, the Lord of Carew, " with many armed men," had on the day 
after the Purification of the Blessed Mary broken open the portal of the White House 
(Alba Domus), entered the abbey, beaten the monks, spoiled both the abbey and the 
church, and in the cemetery killed one of the servitors (Annal Cambr.). Llewelyn came 
with a great army to the land of Cydweli, " Carnwallaun," and Gower, which belonged to 
the English, consumed them all, along with Abertawy, brought the Welsh of those parts 
into obedience to himself, and before Easter returned with joy to his own home (Annal. 



But "Stephen Bauson," and his friends the "French," would -not be quiet. For "on 



238 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

the Wednesday after Pentecost," he, and " many barons, with a multitude of soldiers," 
marched to Carmarthen, where they passed the night, and on the following day, with great 
pomp and in battle array, proceeded to subdue and plunder Ystrad Towy, reaching as far 
as Llanthelou Vaur (Llandeilo-fawr). The Welsh of Ceredigion and Ystrad Towy, led by 
Meredydd ap Rhys Gryg, opposed their progress, and through a whole day annoyed them 
with javelins and arrows (telis armorum et sagittarum) ; the consequence being that a certain 
Rhys ap Rhys Michil, who acted unpatriotically as "conductor" of the invaders, left them 
in their strait and great peril (in angustia et in magno periculo), and with his few friends 
withdrew secretly into " his castle of Dinovour" (Dinefawr). Who he was, and how he had 
got this castle to be "his," it is hard to say. He may have been a spy employed by 
Llewelyn, for he led the " French " and the " crowds of Saxons " into danger, and there left 
them. They now determined to force their way to Cardigan for refuge, but the hail of 
javelins and arrows from the bushes would not cease ; at " Coeth Llathen " they were com- 
pelled to abandon all their provisions, all their baggage-horses, and all their post-horses, 
" and the Welshmen on this account were joyful." Bad came to worse. About mid-day, 
at a place called " Kemereu," the Wallenses, " by the help of God," rushed upon them, 
hurled the " renowned Saxons " (inclitos Saxones) from their mailed chargers, and trampled 
them to death under foot of horses and men in bogs and trenches. So that more than 3,000 
English fell in that one day, and only a few escaped. (Annal Cambr., ann. 1257.) 

How Matthew Paris got the speech which he says Prince Llewelyn made on hearing of 
this, we do not know; but imitating the manner of Livy and Tacitus, he gives it verbatim. 
" Hitherto," said he, " the Lord God of hosts hath assisted us. It is evident to all that this 
victory is to be ascribed, not to our bravery, but to the love of God, for He can fight with the 
few as well as with the many. How could we who are timid, unwarlike, and weak [we fear 
that Matthew Paris is here adding a little of his own] defy the English and their king if 
God were not with us? ... But you must know that now and henceforth we are 
fighting for our lives : if we are taken prisoners we shall obtain no mercy : let us, then, stand 
firm together, for if we remain inseparable we are invincible. We see how the English king 
impoverishes and tyrannizes over his own subjects ; how then will he treat us who oppose and 
provoke him to vengeance ! His purpose is to blot out our name from the face of the 
earth. It is better for us to die, and depart to be with the Lord, than to live under the 
oppressions and die at last at the behest of our foes." Encouraged by these exhortations, 
the Welsh carried on the war with energy, gave themselves up to slaughter, incendiarism, 
and pillage day and night, and reduced the whole marcher country into a desert. 

In Pembrokeshire next year there was fierce fighting, the Welsh in Cemmaes obtaining 
another important victory, " the English backs (Anglica terga) being turned towards the 
Wallenses, leaving horses, arms, spoils, and many dead behind them." But Meredydd, son 
of Rhys Gryg, did homage to the English king a circumstance which raised the ire of the 
Welsh and of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd to the highest pitch. Accordingly, with a great army, 
Llewelyn, and all the South Wales men, invade his territory of Ystrad Towy and take it ; 
Cydweli is taken and burned, a great fight ensues outside of Cydweli, in which Meredydd's 
side is worsted, and is compelled to flee to Carmarthen, " Lord Meredydd at the bridge " 
receiving a serious wound. Dafydd ap Hywel, of Arwystli, fell in this battle, and was buried 
with much lamentation at Ystrad-fBur. (Annal. Cambr.} 



HISTORICAL SKETCH : LLEWELYN'S LAST VISIT. 239 

The war was pursued by Llewelyn in different parts of Wales. ' King Henry had some 
months before conducted a great army into N. Wales in search of Llewelyn, but Llewelyn 
was in the mountains of Snowdonia, and Henry, to escape the approaching winter, had 
to lead his great army back again in diminished number, " having effected nothing." In 
1275, while large transactions were being carried on elsewhere, a "gwerra" breaks out in 
" West Wales " between " the men of Ystrad Towy and the men of Cydweli," and Lord 
Herveus de Chaurs is killed. Next year Edward I., now king, leads a great army into N. 
Wales, builds a castle at Rhuddlan, and Llewelyn, tired of fighting, meets him in peace, and 
a reconciliation and armistice are arranged. This gives a season of quiet to the patriots, but 
the season will prove very brief; the heart of the country is sick, despair and desperation 
stalk through the gloom ; it is felt that with all the bravery, endurance, and new-born unity 
of the Welsh, an inexorable fate is preparing to crush their national life, and scatter to the 
winds the fragments of their rights and independence. 

Of the condition of things in this particular part, now called the county of Carmarthen, 
we may form a pretty clear conception from the few authentic details above given. The 
vassalage of the " lords " of the different territories was complete. No descendants of the 
old princes and kings of S. Wales had now a shadow of right conceded them to rule any 
district, to maintain any castles, to call forth men-at-arms. Whoever affected these things 
must enjoy them as a rebel against the "king of London." Even Dinefawr was no 
longer the home, by right of inheritance, of the line of Rhys ap Tewdwr. More than once 
its sacredness had been invaded by Norman possessors. At Cydweli, Llanstephan, 
Laugharne, and other places, the Normans had a footing. The iron band was strong, and 
daily becoming tighter. 

Once more the noble prince from the North comes down to Ystrad Towy once more, 
and never returns. In this sketch of local events we have seen but a fraction of the margin 
of this wonderful man's life, and all but superhuman exertions for the independence and 
liberties of his country. The Annales Cambria, the most reliable chronicle of Welsh 
annals existing, has a method of computation which generally places its occurrences two 
years farther back, or earlier than the time given in other records. Hence Llewelyn's last 
campaign, which in reality took place A.D. 1282, is placed by the Annals in 1280. 

The peace made with King Edward at Rhuddlan was broken by Llewelyn. The men 
of Ystrad Towy were ready for the fray, for new grievances had sprung up as if on purpose. 
Rhys Fychan, Lord of Ystrad Towy, was incensed because the church of Llangadog had 
been used as a stable, and robbed, and the priest wounded at the altar ; the church of Llan- 
dingad and other churches had also been attacked and burned. The war was already raging 
in the South. In the Vale of Towy, near Llandeilo, a great battle was fought between a 
miscellaneous Welsh host and the English and French (Normans) under the Earl of Glou- 
cester, commissioned to ravage the South, wherein both sides suffered severely. Edward's 
plan of shutting Llewelyn up in the Snowdon mountains, where he now was safely en- 
trenched, failed of execution. The prince slipped away to the South, followed by a powerful 
army, crossed Cardiganshire, and came to Ystrad Towy, to give a righteous castigation to 
Rhys ap Meredydd, the local vassal of the English king ; and from Ystrad Towy passed on 
to Builth, where, without striking a blow, he was cut down in a lonely place near Builth (see 
p. 70). With the fall of Llewelyn and the promulgation of the Statutes of Rhuddlan, which 



240 CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

soon followed, ends properly the history of Wales. The country, now finally conquered and 
united to the English crown, has henceforth one history in common with England. It was 
by the Statutes of Rhuddlan, however, which put an end to a separate government in Wales, 
that the county of Carmarthen, properly so called, was brought into existence. 



4. Sir Rhys ap Thomas and the Tudor Dynasty. 

While Anglesey was the cradle of the House of Tudor, and the castle of Brecon witnessed 
the concoction of the scheme which placed Henry VII. on the English throne, Carmarthen- 
shire claims a chief hand in bringing that scheme to pass. This was done through the 
agency of the ilkistrious Sir Rhys ap Thomas of Dinefawr. 

How the family of Rhys ap Tewdwr had dwindled away, and possession of their lands in 
Carmarthenshire had passed to the line of GrufTydd ap Nicholas, and how feudal tenure 
under Norman and Plantagenet had been converted into something like property under 
Richard III., it is scarcely relevant here to inquire, even if space permitted. Dinefawr, 
after many changes, had settled down in this family, when the time had come for a Welshman 
to be placed on the throne of England, and Sir Rhys ap Thomas was the representative of 
that house (A.D. 1484). 

This most remarkable man had contrived to attain a position of influence not much 
inferior to that of his princely predecessors of Dinefawr. He was owner of enormous tracts 
of country. His friendship was considered by the English king as of the greatest importance. 
Sir Rhys ap Thomas was also a man who valued popularity and power. He established an 
almost feudal government of his estates, but with the entire absence of force or fear. On 
his manors of Carew, Narberth, Emlyn (Newcastle), Abermarlais, &c., he adopted the plan 
of rearing horses, which he distributed as gifts among his tenants, coupling with the gift a 
kind of condition of military service. It is said in a biography of him, written temp. James I., 
that his tenants numbered " between eighteen and nineteen hundred, and all of them bound 
by their leases to be readie with a horse when he called upon them." He was "by report 
able to bring into the field 4,000 or 5,000 horse upon a verie shorte summons, which popu- 
laritie of his, had it happened in the time of a jealouse and umbragiouse prince, might 
easilie have wrought his confusion ; but Edward IV. being well assured of the loiall intentions 
of his hart, thought himself happie in the strength of so powerful a subject." Then comes a 
curious passage : " Neyther did the people surfer their desires here to rest (as if nott to goe 
forward in love were to goe backward), for as he gave them horses, soe they gave him certain 
patches of land within their estates, and that at their verie doores (as if in some doting or 
roving humour they intended to erect some newe tenure to envassall themselves unto him) ; 
and this they did nott onlie for his countenance and protection, butt to express likewise the 
interest he had in their hartes to love him, handes to fight for him, and in their fortunes to 
supplie all his occasions." So eminent was Sir Rhys ap Thomas in the estimation of his 
countrymen, that he was habitually called Rhys fawr Cymry ; and the bard, Rhys Nanmor, 
did not inaptly describe the extent of his possessions and influence when he said, 

" Y brenin bia'r ynys, 
Ond sy' o ran i Syr Rhys," 



HISTORICAL SKETCH; SIR RHYS AF THOMAS. 241 

the real purport of which, with allowable hyperbole, is 

" The island is divided in two pieces ; 
The larger the king's, the other Sir Rhys's." 

When foul weather broke on the tyrant Richard, and rumours floated about that the Earl 
of Richmond was about to land and claim the throne, he lost no time in securing from Sir 
Rhys ap Thomas a definite avowal of loyalty. Commissioners were expressly sent to Car- 
marthen, where, it seems, Sir Rhys then resided, " to take of him an oath of fidelitie," and 
further, "requiring his onlie sonne, Griffith Rice, as a gage for the true performance," &c. 
The oath Sir Rhys ap Thomas " stood not upon," though he gave, as seen below, clear 
indications of reluctance ; but he demurred about his son, who was then only about four or 
five years of age, and, as he said, " his onlie sonne." Sir Rhys wrote by the commissioners a 
long letter to the king, wherein, as well as in his oath, he promised more than he afterwards 
performed. The letter is very characteristic and little known, and is given below in full, with 
certain parts italicised. It was dated " Carmarthen Castle, 1484." 

' ' I have received letters mandatorie from your Majesty wherein I am enjoyned to use my best endeavours for 
the conservation of your royall authoritie in these partes, and to applie likewise my soundest forces for ,the safe 
guarding of Milford Haven from all forraigne invasion ; especially to impeach and stopp the passage of the 
Earle of Richmond, if soe by anie treacherouse meanes he should attempt our coastes : and withall, Sir, 
an othe of allegiance hath benn tendered me in your Majestie's name by certaine commissioners, deputed (as it 
seemes) for that purpose, requiring alsoe my onlie sonne as an hostage and pledge of my fidelitie. Touching the 
first, Sir, nowe an enemie is declared, I hold myself obliged, without further looking into the cause, faithfullie 
to observe the same by a necessarie relation my obedience hath to your Majestie's commandes, to which I deem 
it not unseasonable to annexe this voluntarie protestation : that whoever ill affected to the state shall dare to 
land in those partes of Wales where I have anie emploiments under your Majestic must resolve with himself to 
make his entrance and irruption over my bellie. As for any othe, Sir, in observance to your Majestie's will, 
which shall ever regulate mine I have (though with some hart's grief e^ 7 confess?, and reluctance of spirit], as 
was required, taken the same before your Majestie's Commissioners, and if stronger trialls than eyther faith or 
othe might be layd upon me to confirm my most loyall affection, I should make no delay to enmannacle and 
fetter myself in the strictest obligations for your Majestie's better assurance. And heare I beseech your 
Majestie give me leave without offence to disburden myself of certaine cogitations, whereby I am persuaded 
that these pressings ofvowes and othes upon subjects noeway held in suspect, hath often times wrought even in those of 
soundest affections a sensibilitie of some injurie don to their faith : a thing which hearetofore hath binn 
prejudiciall to manie greate princes, whoe, while they shewed themselves distrustfull, and feared subtile dealing, 
have redd to some of fickle minds and unstable thoughts evil lessons against themselves. I speake nott this, 
Sir, as repining at what I have donn, but to give your Majestie to witt that I have feare some ill offices have 
bin done me which might [make] you thinke yourself unsure of my service without this manner of proceeding. 
Whatever, Sir, other men reckon of me, this is my religion, that noe vowe can lay a stronger obligation upon me 
in anie matter of performance then my conscience. My cons